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RESUME PSIKOLOGI PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENGAJARAN. Resume Rediffmail. `PSIKOLOGI PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENGAJARAN` (PROF.DR.H.MOHAMAD SURYA : 2004) PSIKOLOGI DAN PSIKOLOGI PENDIDIKAN. On Effects Of Smoking. Psikologi berasal dari kata “psyche” yang berarti jiwa atau nafas hidup, dan “logos” atau ilmu. Resume Rediffmail. Psikologi adalah suatu ilmu pengetahuan yang mengkaji perilaku individu dalam interaksi dengan lingkungannya. Essay Of Smoking. Perilaku yang dimaksud adalah dalam pengertian yang luas sebagai manifestasi hayati (hidup) yang meliputi jenis motorik, kognitif, konatif, dan efektif. Pendekatan Behaviorisme, lebih mengutamakan hal-hal yang nampak dari individu. Rediffmail. Menurut pendekatan ini, perilaku adalah segala sesuatu yang dapat diamati oleh alat indra kita sebagai hasil interaksi dengan lingkungan (stimulus-response) . Essay Of Smoking. Tokoh dalam pendekatan ini ialah Watson, skinner, Pavlov, dan Thorndike. Rediffmail. Pendekatan Psikoanalisa, lebih mengutamakan hal-hal yang berada dibawah kesadaran individu (libido) . Write Romance. Pendekatan ini menganggap bahwa perilaku individu dikontrol oleh bagian yang tidak sadar. Rediffmail. Tokoh utamanya adalah Sigmund Freud. Status In India. Pendekatan Kognitif, bahwa perilaku itu sebagai proses internal (di dalam) atau suatu proses input-output yaitu penerimaan dan pengolahan informasi, untuk kemudian menghasilkan keluaran yang berupa perilaku. Resume. Tokoh dalam pendekatan ini adalah Piaget, Ausubel, dan Brunner. Of Mice And Men Essays. Pendekatan Humanistik, lebih menekankan pada martabat kemanusiaan pada individu yang berbeda dengan hewan dan makhluk lainnya.

Manusia sudah sejak awalnya mempunyai dorongan untuk mewujudkan dirinya sebagai manusia di lingkungannya. Perilaku individu terjadi karena adanya kebutuhan ang mendorong untuk mewujudkan dirinya (self-actualization) . Resume. Tokoh pendekatan ini ialah Maslow dan Carl Rogers. Status Of Sports In India Essay. Pendekatan Neurobiologi, mengaitkan perilaku individu dengan kejadian-kejadian didalam otak dan sistem syaraf. Resume. Perilaku seseorang amat tergantung pada kondisi otak dan syarafnya. Of Mice And Men Dreams. Beberapa jenis Psikologi khusus antara lain: u Psikologi Perkembangan, mengkaji perilaku individu yang berada dalam proses perkembangan sejak kehidupan dimulai (konsepsi) sampai akhir kehidupan (mati). Resume Rediffmail. u Psikologi Sosial, mengkaji perilaku individu dalam interaksi sosial. On Effects. u Psikologi Abnormal, mengkaji perilaku individu yang tergolong abnormal. u Psikologi Komparatif, mengkaji perbandingan perilaku manusia dengan prilaku binatang. Resume. u Psikologi Diferensial, mengkaji perbedaan perilaku antar individu. Typing Essays For Money. u Psikologi Kepribadian, mengkaji perilaku individu secara khusus dari aspek kepribadiannya. Resume. u Psikologi Pendidikan, mengkaji perilaku individu dalam situasi pendidikan. Essays Progressive Era. u Psikologi Industri, mengkaji perilaku individu dalam kaitan dengan dunia industri. Resume Rediffmail. u Psikologi Klinis, mengkaji perilaku individu untuk keperluan klinis/penyembuhan. Essays For Money. u Psikologi Kriminal, mengkaji perilaku individu dalam situasi kriminal. Resume. u Psikologi Militer, mengkaji perilaku individu dalam situasi kemiliteran.

Psikologi pendidikan ialah cabang psikologi yang secara khusus mengkaji berbagai perilaku individu dalam kaitan dengan situasi pendidikan. Typing Essays. Tujuan psikologi pendidikan ialah menemukan berbagai fakta, generalisasi, dan teori psikologis yang berkaitan dengan pendidikan untuk digunakan dalam upaya melaksanakan proses pendidikan yang efektif. Resume Rediffmail. E. Of Sports. Pranan Psikologi dalam Pembelajaran dan Pengajaran Memahami siswa sebagai pelajar (perkembangannya, tabiat, kemampuan, kecerdasan, motivasi, minat, fisik, pengalaman, kepribadian, dsb) Memahami prinsip-prinsip dan teori pembelajaran. Memilih metode-metode pembelajaran dan pengajaran. Rediffmail. Menetapkan tujuan pembelajaran dan pengajaran. In India Essay. Menciptakan situasi pembelajaran dan pengajaran yang kondisif. Resume Rediffmail. Memilih dan menetapkan isi pengajaran. Status In India Essay. Membantu siswa-siswa yang mendapat kesulitan pembelajaran.

Memilih alat bantu pembelajaran dan pengajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Menilai hasil pembelajaran dan pengajaran. Memahami dan mengembangkan kepribadian dan profesi guru. Essay On Effects Of Smoking. Membimbing perkembangan siswa. Resume Rediffmail. Pembelajaran ialah suatu proses yang dilakukan oleh individu untuk memperoleh suatu perubahan perilaku yang baru secara keseluruhan, sebagai hasil dari pengalaman individu itu sendiri dalam interaksi dengan lingkungannya. Resume Birth. Beberapa prinsip yang menjadi landasan pengertian tersebut diatas ialah: Pertama, pembelajaran sebagai usaha memperoleh perubahan perilaku, dengan ciri-ciri sebagai berikut: a. Rediffmail. Perubahan yang disadari. Resume Birth. b. Resume. Perubahan yang bersifat kontinu (berkesinambungan). Of Mice And Men. c. Resume Rediffmail. Perubahan yang bersifat fungsional. Resume Birth. d. Rediffmail. Perubahan yang bersifat positif. How To. e. Resume. Perubahan yang bersifat aktif. Status Of Sports In India Essay. f. Rediffmail. Perubahan yang bersifat permanen (menetap). For Money. g. Rediffmail. Perubahan yang bertujuan dan terarah. Status Essay. Kedua, hasil pembelajaran ditandai dengan perubahan perilaku secara keseluruhan. Resume. Ketiga, pembelajaran merupakan suatu proses. Resume Birth. Keempat, proses pembelajaran terjadi karena adanya sesuatu yang mendorong dan ada sesuatu tujuan yang akan dicapai. Kelima, pembelajaran merupakan bentuk pengalaman.

B. Resume Rediffmail. Pengertian Pembelajaran dan Pengertian Lain 1. Essay. Belajar dan pertumbuhan, perkembangan, kematangan , perubahan yang terjadi dalam pertumbuhan, perkembangan, dan kematangan akan terjadi dengan sendirinya karena dorongan dari dalam secara naluriah. Resume. 2. Essays. Pembelajaran dan menghafal, proses pembelajaran akan berlangsung dengan efektif apabila disertai dengan aktivitas menghafal. Rediffmail. 3. Resume Birth. Pembelajaran dan latihan, pembelajaran akan lebih berhasil apabila disertai dengan latihan-latihan yang teratur dan terarah. Resume Rediffmail. 4. For Money. Pembelajaran dan studi, aktivitas studi merupakan sebagian dari aktivitas pembelajaran secara keseluruhan. Rediffmail. 5. Resume Birth. Pembelajaran dan berfikir, terdapat keterkaitan antara proses berfikir dengan pembelajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Pembelajaran yang efektif (terutama pembelajaran pemecahan masalah) sangat memerlukan keterampilan berfikir. Typing For Money. Orang tidak mungkin berfikir tanpa belajar, dan tidak mungkin belajar tanpa berfikir. Rediffmail. PROSES DAN HASIL PEMBELAJARAN. In India. Proses pembelajaran ialah proses individu mengubah perilaku dalam upaya memenuhi kebutuhannya. Hal ini mengandung arti bahwa proses pembelajaran akan terjadi apabila individu menghadapi situasi kebutuhan yang tidak dapat dipenuhi dengan insting atau kebiasaan. Rediffmail. Proses pembelajaran akan merupakan suatu rangkaian aktivitas sebagai berikut: Pertama, individu merasakan adanya kebutuhan dan melihat tujuan yang ingin dicapai.

Kedua, kesiapan (readiness) individu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dan mencapai tujuan. Of Smoking. Ketiga, pemahaman situasi. Resume. Keempat, menafsirkan situasi, yaitu bagaimana individu melihat kaitan berbagai aspek yang terdapat dalam situasi. Typing Essays. Keenam, akibat (hasil) pembelajaran. Resume. Perubahan perilaku sebagai hasil pembelajaran adalah perubahan perilaku secara keseluruhan, bukan hanya salah satu aspek saja. Romance. Gagne membagi delapan jenis pembelajaran dari yang sederhana samapi dengan yang kompleks, yaitu: Signal Learning atau pembelajaran melalui isyarat. Rediffmail. Stimulus Response learning atau pembelajaran rangsangan tindak balas. For Money. Chaining Learning atau pembelajaran melalui perantaian. Resume. Verbal Association Learning atau pembelajaran melalui perkaitan verbal. Resume Birth. Discrimination Learning atau pembelajaran dengan membeda-bedakan.

Concept Learning atau pembelajaran konsep. Rediffmail. Rule Learning atau pembelajaran menurut hukum (aturan). How To Write. Problem Solving Learning atau pembelajaran melalui penyelesaian masalah. Rediffmail. Empat fungsi umum suatu teori menurut Patrick Supper (1974), yaitu: Teori terdiri atas prinsip-prinsip yang dapat diuji sehingga dapat dijadikan kerangka untuk melaksanakan penelitian. Teori memberikan kerangka kerja bagi informasi yang spesifik. Typing Essays For Money. Menjadikan hal-hal yang bersifat kompleks menjadi lebih sederhana. Rediffmail. Menyusun kembali dari pengalaman-pengalaman sebelumnya. Typing Essays. Fungsi teori pembelajaran dalam pendidikan adalah: Memberikan garis-garis rujukan untuk perancangan pengajaran. Menilai hasil-hasil yang telah dicapai untuk digunakan dalam ruang kelas.

Mendiagnosis masalah-masalah dalam ruang kelas. Resume. Menilai hasil penelitian yang dilaksanakan berdasarkan teori-teori tertentu. In India Essay. B. Resume Rediffmail. Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme. Resume Birth. Behaviorisme berpendapat bahwa perilaku terbentuk melalui perkaitan antara rangsangan (stimulus) dengan tindak balas (respons). Resume. Maka perubahan perilaku itu lebih banyak karena pengaruh lingkungan. Typing For Money. Teori ini dibedakan antara teori pelaziman klasik dan teori pelaziman operan, Teori Pelaziman Klasik, dipelopori oleh IP Pavlov, seorang ahli fisiologi dari Rusia mengemukakan beberapa konsep atau prinsip pembelajaran, yaitu: a. Resume. Excitation (pergetaran) b. Status Of Sports In India. Irradiation (penularan) c. Resume Rediffmail. Stimulus generalization (generalisasi rangsangan) d. In India. Extintion (penghapusan) Teori lain, JB Watson berpendapat bahwa perilaku terbentuk melalui pembentukan tindak balas (reflex) dengan memberikan rangsangan tertentu.

Tokoh berikutnya, Edwin Guthrie menyatakan bahwa suatu kombinasi rangsangan yang dipasangkan dengan suatu gerakan akan diikuti oleh gerakan yang sama apabila rangsangan itu muncul kembali. Resume. Ia juga membedakan antara pergerakan dengan tindakan. Pergerakan ialah kontraksi otot dan tindakan ialah kombinasi dari gerakan-gerakan. About Dreams. Guthrie mengemukakan ada tiga metode dalam mengubah kebiasaan (terutama kebiasaan buruk), yaitu: Metode ambang (the threshold method), secara berangsur. Rediffmail. Metode meletihkan (the fatigue method), mengulang tindak balas sampai letih.

Metode rangsangan tak serasi (the incompatible response method), menimbulkan tindak balas yang tidak di inginkan. Resume Birth. Teori Pelaziman Operan: Thorndike. Resume Rediffmail. Proses pembelajaran pada dasarnya merupakan pembinaan hubungan antara rangsangan tertentu dengan perilaku tertentu. Status Of Sports In India Essay. Ada tiga hukum pembelajaran dalam teori ini, yaitu hukum hasil (law of resume, effect), hukum latihan (law of essays dreams, exercise) dan hukum kesiapan (law of resume rediffmail, readiness). Dalam kaitannya dengan pembelajaran dalam pendidikan Thorndike menembahkan lima macam hukum lagi yang disebut hukum minor, yaitu: Pertama, hukum gerak tindak aneka (multiple response) , Kedua, hukum sikap atau keadaan awal (attitudes dispositions or state), Ketiga, hukum kemampuan memilih hal-hal penting (partial or piecemeal activity of how to write romance, a situation), Keempat, hukum tindak balas melalui analogi (assimilation of resume rediffmail, response by essay on effects analogy) Kelima, hukum perpindahan berkait (associative shifting) Perubahan perilaku itu adalah fungsi dari pada kondisi dan peristiwa lingkungan (yang tidak diketahui/tidak disadari). Pembelajaran menurut teori ini adalah perubahan suatu tindak balas yang dikehendaki. Rediffmail. Dalam mengembangkan suasana kelas yang positif, teori skinner menyarankan peringkat-peringkat sebagai berikut: (1) menganalisis keadaan lingkungan kelas; (2) mengembangkan hal-hal yang dapat menjadi peneguhan positif; (3) memilih perilaku-perilaku pembelajaran yang akan diterapkan dalam kelas; (4) menerapkan perilaku pembelajaran, dengan memberikan pengendalian untuk mencatat dan menyesuaikan kalau diperlukan. Romance. Tokoh lain dalam teori ini ialah Miller dan Dollard dengan teori pengurangan dorongan, ada empat unsur pokok dalam pembelajaran yaitu dorongan, isyarat, tindak balas, dan ganjaran. Rediffmail. Dan juga Albert Bandura dan Walters dengan teori pembelajaran melalui tiruan. Essays For Money. Objek atau peristiwa tertentu akan dipandang sebagai suatu keseluruhan yang terorganisasikan.

Organisasi (tata susunan) dasar melibatkan suatu figur (bentuk) yaitu apa yang menjadi pusat pengamatan secara keseluruhan dan bukan bagian-bagiannya. Resume Rediffmail. Pokok-pokok pandangan gestalt berangkat dari empat asumsi dasar, yaitu: Pertama, bahwa perilaku molar (perilaku dalam keterkaitan dengan lingkungan luar) hendaknya lebih banyak dipelajari dibandingkan dengan pandangan molecular (perilaku dalam bentuk kontraksi otot/kelenjar) Kedua, membedakan antara lingkungan geografis (lingkungan yang sebenarnya ada) dengan lingkungan behavioral (sesuatu yang nampak). Ketiga, bahwa organisme tidak mereaksi terhadap rangsangan lokal atau unsur-unsur atau suatu bagian peristiwa, akan tetapi mereaksi terhadap keseluruhan obyek atau peristiwa. How To Write. Keempat, pemberian makna terhadap suatu rangsangan sensori adalah merupakan suatu proses yang dinamis dan bukan sebagai suatu reaksi yang statis. Rediffmail. Menurut Koffka dan Kohler, ada enam prinsip organisasi yang terpenting, yaitu: 1) Prinsip figure ground relationship (hubungan bentuk dan latar), setiap bidang pengamatan dapat dibagi dua, yaitu figur atau bentuk dan latar belakang. On Effects Of Smoking. 2) Prinsip proximity (kedekatan), bahwa unsur-unsur yang saling berdekatan (bila waktu maupun ruang) dalam bidang pengamatan akan dipandang sebagai bentuk tertentu. Resume. 3) Pronsip similarity (kesamaan), sesuatu yang memiliki kesamaan cenderung akan dipandang sebagai sesuatu obyek yang saling memiliki. And Men Dreams. 4) Prinsip common direction (arah bersama), unsu-unsur bidang pengamatan yang berada dalam arah yang sama, cenderung akan dipersepsi sebagai suatu figur atau bentuk tertentu. Rediffmail. 5) Prinsip simplivity (kesederhanaan), orang cenderung menata bidang pengamatannya dalam bentuk yang sederhana, penampilan reguler, dan cenderung membentuk keseluruhan yang baik berdasarkan susunan simetris dan keteraturan. Typing For Money. 6) Prinsip closure (ketertutupan), orang cenderung akan mengisi kekosongan suatu pola obyek atau pengalaman yang tidak lengkap.

Dalam teori Gestalt, pembelajaran merupakan suatu fenomena kognitif yang melibatkan persepsi terhadap suatu benda, orang, atau peristiwa dalam cara-cara yang berbeda. Rediffmail. Beberapa aplikasi teori Gestalt dalam proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran, antara lain: Pengalaman Tilikan (insight), kemampuan mengenal keterkaitan unsur-unsur dalam suatu obyek atau peristiwa. Status In India Essay. Pembelajaran yang Bermakna (meaningful learning), hal-hal yang dipelajari siswa hendaknya memiliki makna yang jelas dan logis dengan proses kehidupannya. Rediffmail. Perilaku Bertujuan (purposive behavior), proses pembelajaran akan lebih efektif apabila pelajar mampu mengenal tujuan yang akan dicapainya, dan selanjutnya mampu mengarahkan perilaku belajarnya ke tujuan tersebut. Resume Birth. Prinsip Ruang Hidup (life space), adanya padanan dan kaitan antara proses pembelajaran dengan tuntutan dan kebutuhan lingkungan. Transfer dalam Pembelajaran, pemindahan pola-pola perilaku dari suatu situasi pembelajaran tertentu kepada situasi lain. Resume Rediffmail. Perkembangan kognitif merupakan suatu proses dimana tujuan individu melalui suatu rangkaian yang secara kualitatif berbeda dalam berfikir, yang terbentuk melalui interaksi yang konstan antara individu dengan lingkungan melalui dua proses yaitu Organisasi (proses penataan segala sesuatu yang ada dilingkungan) dan Adaptasi (proses terjadinya penyesuaian antara individu dengan lingkungan). Resume Birth. Implikasi dari teori ini dalam pengajaran ialah: Bahasa dan cara berfikir anak berbeda dengan orang dewasa.

Anak-anak akan belajar lebih baik apabila dapat menghadapi lingkungan dengan baik. Rediffmail. Bahan yang harus dipelajari anak hendaknya dirasakan baru tetapi tidak asing. Essay On Effects. Beri peluang agar anak belajar sesuai dengan peringkat perkembangannya. Di dalam kelas, anak-anak hendaknya banyak diberi peluang untuk saling berbicara dengan teman-temannya dan saling berdiskusi B. Resume. Teori Pemrosesan Informasi (Robert Gagne) Pembelajaran merupakan faktor yang sangat penting dalam perkembangan. Dreams. Perkembangan merupakan hasil kumulatif dari pada pembelajaran, yakni bahwa hasil pembelajaran yang dicapai individu adalah merupakan kumpulan keseluruhan hasil-hasil pembelajaran sebelumnya yang saling terkait. Rediffmail. Gagne berpendapat bahwa dalam pembelajaran terjadi proses penerimaan informasi untuk kemudian diolah sehingga menghasilkan keluaran dalam bentuk hasil pembelajaran. Of Mice And Men Essays About. Dalam pemrosesan informasi itu terjadi adanya interaksi antara kondisi-kondisi internal (keadaan didalam individu/proses kognitif yang terjadi) dan kondisi eksternal (rangsangan dari lungkungan yang mempengaruhi) individu. Menurut teori ini, hasil pembelajaran merupakan keluaran dari hasil pemrosesan informasi yang berupa kecakapan manusia (human capabilities) yang terdiri atas: Informasi verbal, informasi yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk kata/kalimat baik tertulis/lisan. Rediffmail. Kecakapan intelektual, kecakapan dalam melakukan interaksi dengan lingkungannya dengan menggunakan simbol-simbol.

3. Resume Birth. Strategi kognitif, kecakapan untuk melakukan pengendalian dalam mengelola (management) keseluruhan aktivitasnya. Resume Rediffmail. 4. Typing. Sikap, kecakapan untuk memilih tindakan yang akan dilakuakan. Resume. 5. Romance. Kecakapan motorik, kecakapan pergerakan yang dikontrol oleh otot dan fisik. Resume. Peringkat pemrosesan pembelajaran menurut teori Gagne, yaitu: 1) Fase Motivasi , dorongan untuk melakukan suatu tindakan dalam mencapai tujuan tertentu. Resume Birth. 2) Fase Pemahaman , individu menerima dan memahami rangsangan yang berupa informasi, yang diperoleh dalam pembelajaran. Rediffmail. 3) Fase Pemerolehan , individu mempersepsi atau memberilakan makna kepada segala informasi yang sampai pada dirinya. 4) Fase Penahanan , menahan hasil pembelajaran, yaitu informasi agar dapat dipakai untuk jangka panjang. Of Sports. 5) Fase Ingatan kembali , mengeluarkan (apabila ada rangsangan) kembali informasi yang telah disimpan. Resume Rediffmail. 6) Fase Generalisasi , mengeluarkan hasil pembelajaran yang telah dimiliki untuk suatu keperluan tertentu. Status Essay. 7) Fase Perlakuan , perwujudan perubahan perilaku individu sebagai hasil pembelajaran. Rediffmail. 8) Fase Umpan balik , individu memperoleh umpan balik (feed back) dari perilaku yang telah dilakukannya.

Bentuk-bentuk pembelajaran menurut Gagne, yaitu: ? Pembelajaran melalui isyarat, ? Pembelajaran melalui rangsangan, ? Pembelajaran perkaitan verbal, ? Pembelajaran menurut hukum, dan. Romance. ? Pembelajaran penyelesaian masalah. Rediffmail. Langkah-langkah pengajaran yang perlu diperhatikan oleh guru, ialah: Melakukan tindakan untuk menarik perhatian siswa. Typing For Money. Memberikan informasi kepada siswa mengenai tujuan pengajaran dan topik-topik yang akan dibahas. Resume. Merangsang siswa untuk memulai aktivitas pembelajaran. Romance. Menyampaikan isi pelajaran yang dibahas sesuai dengan topik yang telah ditetapkan. Memberikan bimbingan bagi aktivitas siswa dalam pembelajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Memberikan peneguhan kepada perilaku pembelajaran siswa. And Men Essays Dreams. Memberikan umpan balik terhadap perilaku yang ditunjukan siswa.

Melaksanakan penilaian proses dan hasil pembelajaran. Resume. Memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk mengingat dan menggunakan hasil pembelajaran. Essay. C. Resume. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial-Kognitif (Albert Bandura) Pertama, bahwa individu melakukan pembelajaran dengan meniru apa yang ada dilingkungannya, terutama perilaku-perilaku orang lain (perilaku model/contoh). Short. Kedua, terdapat hubungkait yang erat antara pelajar dengan lingkungannya (lingkungan, perilaku, faktor-faktor pribadi). Rediffmail. Ketiga, hasil pembelajaran adalah berupa kode perilaku visual dan verbal yang diwujudkan dalam perilaku sehari-hari. Status Of Sports. Jadi perilaku individu terbentuk melalui peniruan terhadap perilaku di lingkungan, pembelajaran merupakan suatu proses bagaimana membuat peniruan yang sebaik-baiknya sehingga bersesuaian dengan keadaan dirinya dan tujuannya. Resume Rediffmail. Proses pembelajaran menurut teori Bandura, yaitu:

Perilaku model (contoh), Pengaruh perilaku model, Proses internal belajar, Fungsi perilaku model: Untuk memindahkan informasi kedalam diri individu, Untuk memperkuat atau memperlemah perilaku yang tlah ada, Untuk memindahkan pola-pola perilaku yang baru. Romance. Dalam kaitannya dengan pembelajaran, ada tiga macam model: Live model, model yang berasal dari kehidupan nyata. Rediffmail. Symbolic model, model-model yang berasal dari sesuatu perumpamaan. Of Sports In India. Verbal description model, model yang dinyatakan dalam suatu uraian verbal (kata-kata). Model-model yang akan ditiru ditentukan oleh tiga faktor: Pertama, ciri-ciri model (sesuai atau tidak dengan individu). Resume. Kedua, nilai frestise (baik atau buruk untuk individu) Ketiga, peringkat ganjaran intrinsik (kepuasan meniru suatu model) Dalam mengembangkan proses pengajaran yang efektif, teori ini menyarankan strategi sebagai berikut: 1) Mengidentifikasi model-model perilaku yang akan digunakan dalam kelas. Resume Birth. 2) Mengembangkan perilaku yang memberikan nilai-nilai secara fungsional, dan memilih perilaku-perilaku model. Resume. 3) Mengembangkan urutan atau peringkat proses pengajaran.

4) Menerapkan aktivitas pengajaran dan membimbing aktivitas pembelajaran siswa dalam membentuk proses kognitif dan motorik. ASPEK-ASPEK PSIKOLOGIS DALAM PROSES PEMBELAJARAN DAN PENGAJARAN. Progressive Era. Kegiatan belajar-mengajar merupakan inti kegiatan pendidikan secara keseluruhan. Resume Rediffmail. Dalam prosesnya kegiatan ini melibatkan interaksi individu yaitu pengajar disatu pihak dan pelajar dipihak lain. Essay Of Smoking. Keduanya berinteraksi dalam suatu proses yang disebut proses belajar mengajar yang berlangsung dalam situasi belajar-mengajar. Resume. Hubungan antara komponen-komponen dalam kegiatan tersebut dapat digambarkan sebagai berikut: 2 = pelajar (siswa) yang berperilaku belajar. On The Progressive. 4 = situasi yang menunjang berlangsungnya proses belajar-mengajar.

Individu melakukan berbagai perbuatan dari yang paling sederhana sampai ke yang paling kompleks. Resume Rediffmail. Menurut Robert Gagne, bentuk perilaku dari yang sederhana ke yang paling komplek itu adalah: Mengenal tanda atau isyarat, Menghubungkan stimulus dengan respons, Merangkaikan dua respons atau lebih, Asosiasi verbal (menghubungkan lebel ke stimulus) Diskriminasi (menghubungkan respons yang berbeda ke stimulus yang sama), Mengenal konsep (menempatkan stimulus yang beda dalam kelas yang sama), Mengenal prinsip (membuat hubungan antara dua konsep atau lebih), dan Pemecahan masalah (penggunaan prinsip untuk merancang respons). Write Romance. Dalam hubungannya dengan proses belajar, yang harus dikenal betul oleh para pengajar adalah: Metakognisi, yakni pengetahuan seorang individu terhadap proses dan hasil belajar yang terjadi dalam dirinya serta hal-hal yang terkait. Rediffmail. Persepsi sosial-psikologis pelajar, sampai seberapa jauh pelajar mempersepsi proses belajar yang berlangsung serta situasi-situasi yang berpengaruh. Typing Essays. Tujuannya ialah supaya peserta didik mampu menjadi: Pribadi yang mandiri, pribadi yang mengenal, menerima dan mengarahkan dirinya sendiri dan lingkungannya, dan pada gilirannya dapat mewujudkan dirinya secara optimal. Resume Rediffmail. Pelajar yang efektif, mampu melakukan kegiatan belajar dengan hasil yang baik dan dapat diterapkan dalam bebagai aspek kehidupannya. Of Mice Essays About. Pekerja yang produktif, mampu melaksanakan pekerjaan dengan hasil yang optimal. Resume Rediffmail. Anggota masyarakat yang baik, perwujudan diri yang bermakana dalam keseluruhan perjalanan hidup. On Effects Of Smoking. Untuk mewujudkan tujuan tersebut diatas maka hal yang harus dikembangkan pada siswa:

Belajar untuk menjadi ( learning to rediffmail be ), kegiatan belajar yang dilakukan siswa sehingga pada gilirannya akan menghasilkan pribadi-pribadi yang mandiri. Essay. Belajar untuk belajar ( learning to rediffmail learn ), bahwa apa yang dicapai dari satu pristiwa belajar, hendaknya mendorong siswa untuk belajar lebih lanjut, baik secara horizontal (perluasan kegiatan belajar) maupun vertikal (mencapai hasil yang lebih tinggi). And Men About Dreams. Belajar untuk berbuat ( learning to rediffmail do ), apa yang dipelajari hendaknya menjadi modal dasar bagi keefektifan dan produktivitas bekerja. How To Romance. Belajar untuk hidup bersama ( learning to resume live together ), mengembangkan nilai-nilai kehidupan melalui tatanan hidup bersama atas dasar toleransi yang ditandai oleh nilai-nilai universal yang bersumber dari ajaran agama. Resume Birth. C. Rediffmail. Guru: Prilaku Mengajar. Typing Essays For Money. Guru tidak terbatas hanya sebagai pengajar dalam arti penyampai pengetahuan, akan tetapi lebih meningkat sebagai: Perancang pengajaran, mengelola seluruh proses belajar-mengajar dengan menciptakan kondisi-kondisi belajar sedemikian rupa sehingga setiap anak dapat belajar secara efektif dan efisien.

Manajer pengajaran, senantiasa menimbulkan, memelihara, meningkatkan motivasi siswa untuk belajar. Resume Rediffmail. Penilai hasil belajar siswa, secara terus menerus mengikuti hasil-hasil belajar yang dicapai oleh siswa dari waktu kewaktu. Of Mice And Men Essays Dreams. Direktur belajar, dapat mengenal dan memahami siswa secara lebih mendalam, sehingga dapat membantu dalam keseluruhan proses belajarnya. Rediffmail. Dari itu, guru dituntut mampu mengenal dan memahami setiap siswa, baik secara individual atau kelompok; memberikan informasi-informasi yang diperlukan dalam proses belajar; memberikan kesempatan yang memadai agar setiap siswa dapat belajar dengan karakteristik pribadinya; membantu setiap siswa dalam menghadapi masalah-masalah pribadi yang dihadapinya; menilai keberhasilan setiap langkah kegiatan yang telah dilakukannya. Essay. Karakteristik pengaja yang diharapkan adalah: Memiliki minat yang besar terhadap pelajaran dan mata pelajaran yang diajarkannya. Resume. Memiliki kecakapan untuk memperkirakan kepribadian dan suasana hati secara tepat serta membuat kontak dengan kelompok secara tepat. And Men Dreams. Memiliki kesabaran, keakraban, dan sensitivitas yang diperlukan untuk menumbuhkan semangat belajar. Rediffmail. Memiliki pemikiran yang imajinatif (konseptual) dan praktis dalam usaha memberikan penjelasan kepada peserta didik.

Memiliki kualifikasi yang memadai dalam bidangnya, baik isi maupun metode. How To Write. Memiliki sikap terbuka, luwes, dan eksperimental dalam metode dan teknik. Pengajar akan mengajar dengan baik apabila: 1) Memiliki sikap dasar yang benar dan: Bertindak sebagai pembimbing dan kawan. Resume. Menghindari corak hubungan yang berjarak antara pengajar dan pelajar. Status In India. Memahami tujuan dan kesulitan pelajaran; oleh karena itu, seyogyanya para pengajar: u Bertemu dengan kelompok secara informasi untuk mengenal mereka secara mendalam. Resume. u Berminat kepada pelajar disamping berminat kepada pelajaran. 2) Memiliki sasaran yang benar dan: Mewujudkan tujuan untuk mengembangkan pribadi belajar dan bukan memberikan informasi. Write Romance. Menyadari bahwa tujuan jangka panjang adalah perkembangan optimal dan pribadi belajar, sehingga tercapai ke puasan pribadi dan produkktivitas kerja yang optimal; oleh karena itu, para pengejar seyogianya: u Menyiapkan rencana kegiatan belajar mengajar dengan sebaik-baiknya. Resume. u Melaksanakan rencana tersebut dengan baik. Era. 3) Memiliki informasi faktual yang diperlukan; oleh karena itu mengajar seyogyanya: Menemukan, memahami, dan memilih informasi yang memadai. Rediffmail. Mempersiapkan pokok-pokok rangkuman materi. How To Romance. Menghargai dan memanfaatkan penemuan pelajar.

4) Memahami macam-macam metoda dan teknik, dan mengetahui bagaimana memilihnya, oleh karena itu, parapelajar seyogyanya: Mampu memilih macam-macam metoda dan teknik pada setiap tahapan. Rediffmail. Memberikan kesempatan untuk mengembangkan keterampilan, mendapatkan informasi, analisis, menilai dan menyatakan gagasan dengan jelas. How To Romance. 5) Membantu pelajar dalam merencanakan tindak lanjut, oleh karena itu, para pelajar seyogyanya: Mendiskusikan masalah-masalah secara baik sebelum kegiatan belajar berakhir. Rediffmail. Proses (proses belajar, metode mengajar, pola-pola interaksi) saling mempengaruhi sehingga terjadi perubahan perilaku pada diri pelajar dalam bentuk tercapainya hasil belajar. Of Smoking. Faktor-faktor yang harus diperhatikan guru: Penjabaran tujuan Motivasi kepada siswa Penggunaan model Urutan materi Bantuan dalam usaha pertama Pengaturan latihan secara efektif masalah perbedaan individual evaluasi dan bimbingan usaha menghafal bantuan dalam aplikasi hasil belajar. Rediffmail. Pola-pola interaksi, yaitu: Salah satu model pembelajaran yang cukup konperehensif oleh Ernest Chang dan Don Simpson (1997) dengan nama “The Circle of essays for money, Learning: Individual and resume Group Proses”. Romance. Pembelajaran dapat berlangsung tidak hanya tanggung jawab individual, akan tetapi dapat dalam bentuk kolaboratif melalui proses kehidupan kelompok (hubungan antara aktivitas dan orientasi). Resume. Dalam proses berlangsungnya pembelajaran ada dua dimensi, yaitu: Dimensi Aktivitas Pembelajaran, aktivitas pembelajaran yang dilakukan dirinya sendiri dan kelompok sebaya.

Dimensi Orientasi Proses, pembelajaran orang sebagai pokus dan pembelajaran kelompok sebagai fokus. Status Of Sports In India. Dari hubungan dua dimensi itu menghasilkan pola pembelajaran, yaitu: 1. Rediffmail. Traditional Lectures (ceramah tradisional), ceramah dari pihak pengajar akan tetapi kurang memberikan pemberdayaan secara positif terhadap pembelajar. How To Romance. Ciri utamanya ialah mendengarkan penjelasan pengajar, kegiatan dan lingkungan dikendalikan oleh pengajar, pengetahuan yang diperoleh tergantung penangkapan pembicaraan pengajar, sedikit dukungan teknologi, dan berlangsung dalam suasana otoriter. Rediffmail. 2. Essay Of Smoking. Self Study (belajar sendiri), dilakukan secara mandiri oleh pelajar dalam keseluruhan aktivitasnya dan dituntut adanya disiplin diri yang kuat dari pihak pembelajar karena harus mengatur dirinya sendiri secara terarah. Rediffmail. Ciri utamanya adalah berfokus pada pemikiran sendiri, prosesnya diarahkan sendiri, isi pengetahuan yang berupa refleksi dan integrasi, dengan menggunakan multi media, diatas penghargaan diri yang otonom. On The Progressive. 3. Resume. Concurrent Learning (pembelajaran berbarengan), pembelajaran dilakukan atas dasar tanggung jawab pembelajar secara mandiri, namun dalam suasana berbarengan dengan yang lain dan saling berinteraksi baik langsung maupun tidak langsung.

Ciri utamanya ialah dilakukan secara partisipatif, dalam satu forum terbuka, dalam suasana saling menghargai satu dengan yang lainnya, materi yang berada dalam perspektif masing-masing, dan suasana demokratis dengan dukungan teknologi. Essays For Money. 4. Rediffmail. Pembelajaran Kolaboratif, dilakukan dalam bentuk kerjasama yang saling membantu antar pembelajar dalam bentuk tim (untuk mencapai keputusan bersama). Ciri utamanya adalah dilakukan melalui satu bentuk kerjasama, untuk mendapatkan konsensus, adanya berbagai dan saling pemahaman nilai, adanya keputusan yang dibuat bersama, atas dasar nilai yang disepakati bersama. Essay Of Smoking. Dari keempat dimensi tersebut memiliki sejumlah dimensi yang saling terkait, sehingga berkembang menjadi dimensi-dimensinya adalah hubungan antar pribadi; lingkungan pembelajaran; isi pengetahuan; dukungan teknologi; dan dimensi sosiologis. Rediffmail. ASPEK-ASPEK PRILAKU PEMBELAJARAN. Typing Essays For Money. Beberapa alasan bahwa motivasi itu merupakan hal yang sangat penting; Para siswa harus senantiasa didorong untuk bekerja sama dalam belajar dan senantiasa berada dalam situasi itu, Para siswa harus senantiasa didorong untuk bekerja dan berusaha sesuai dengan tuntutan belajar, Motivasi merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam memelihara dan mengembangkan SDM melalui pendidikan. Motivasi dapat diartikan sebagai upaya untuk menimbulkan atau meningkatkan dorongan untuk mewujudkan perilaku tertentu yang terarah kepada pencapaian suatu tujuan tertentu.

Karekteristik motivasi: 1) sebagai hasil dari kebutuhan; 2) terarah kepada suatu tujuan; 3) menopang perilaku. Resume Rediffmail. Alasan bahwa motivasi itu merupakan hal yang kompleks, yaitu: 1) Motif yang menjadi sebab dari tindakan seseorang itu tidak dapat diamati, akan tetapi hanya diperkirakan. Essays On The Progressive Era. 2) Individu mempunyai kebutuhan atau harapan yang senantiasa berubah dan berkelanjutan. Resume Rediffmail. 3) Manusia memuaskan kebutuhannya dengan bermaca-macam cara. Resume Birth. 4) Kepuasan dalam satu kebutuhan tertentu dapat mengarah kepada peningkatan intensitas kebutuhan. Resume Rediffmail. 5) Perilaku yang mengarah kepada tujuan, tidak selamanya dapat menghasilkan kepuasan. Essays Progressive. Reaksi yang terjadi bila dalam pencapaian tujuan itu belaum berhasil menimbulkan keadaan yang disebut frustasi atau reaksi seseorang terhadap kegagalan dan ke-kecewaannya, ialah: Pertama Reaksi yang tergolong konstruktif, individu mampu menghadapi kegagalan itu. Rediffmail. Secara realistik dan mampu melakukan tindakan untuk menanggulangi kegagalan secara realistik dan benar menurut norma yang berlaku (realistis dan rasional). Kedua reaksi yang tergolong defensif, bentuk perilaku reaksi untuk mempertahankan atau melindungi dirinya dari kegagalan yang dihadapi (reaksi kurang disadari dan kehilangan kontrol). Essays For Money. Faktor yang mempengaruhi kepuasan siswa dalam belajar: Imbalan hasil belajar, sesuatu yang dapat diperoleh siswa sebagai konsekuensi dari perilaku belajar yang berupa pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan (berbentuk nilai atau angka). Resume. Rasa aman dalam belajar, adanya rasa aman dalam situasi belajar atau perlindungan diri dari kegelisahan atau tekanan yang diterimanya.

Kondisi belajar yang memadai, belajar dalam tempat baik, bersih, dan sehat dapat memberikan kepuasan dibandingkan dengan belajar dalam lingkungan yang kurang memadai (fisik, psikis, sosial). On The Era. Kesempatan untuk memperluas diri, kesempatan bagi siswa untuk mengembangkan diri demi masa depannya yang lebih baik. Resume. Hubungan pribadi, suasana terciptanya hubungan antar pribadi dalam lingkungan kelas atau diluar kelas. Essays On The Era. Suatu unjuk kerja yang mendatangkan suatu ganjaran tertentu cenderung akan memperkuat motivasi, dan sebaliknya unjuk kerja yang tidak memberikan dampak ganjaran tidak akan mempunyai kaitan dengan motivasi. Resume. C. And Men Essays About Dreams. Prinsip-Prinsip Motivasi Prinsip kompetisi, persaingan secara sehat baik inter pribadi (dalam diri pribadi masing-masing/dimensi tempat dan waktu) ataupun antar pribadi (individu yang satu dengan yang lain). Prinsip pemacu, motif individu ditimbulkan dan ditingkatkan melalui upaya secara teratur untuk mendorong selalu melakukan berbagai tindakan dan unjuk kerja yang sebaik mungkin. Resume Rediffmail. Prinsip ganjaran dan hukuman, ganjaran dan hukuman yang diterima seseorang dapat meningkatkan motivasi untuk melakukan tindakan yang menimbulkan ganjaran atau hukuman itu. Essays About Dreams. Kejelasan dan kedekatan tujuan, makin jelas dan makin dekat suatu tujuan, maka akan semakin mendorong seseorang untuk melakukan tindakan. Rediffmail. Pemahaman hasil, para siswa hendaknya selalu dipupuk untuk memiliki rasa sukses dan. On The Progressive Era. terhindar dari berkembangnya rasa gagal.

Pengembangan minat, motivasi seseorang cenderung akan meningkat apabila yang bersangkutan memiliki minat yang besar dalam melakukan tindakannya. Resume. Lingkungan yang kondusif, lingkungan kerja yang kondusif, baik lingkungan fisik, sosial, maupun psikologis, dapat menumbuhkan dan mengembangkan motif untuk bekerja dengan baik dan produktif. Keteladanan, perilaku guru dapat menjadi sumber keteladanan bagi para siswanya. Resume Birth. D. Resume. Pengamatan dan Perhatian Pengamatan, suatu proses mengenal lingkungan dengan menggunakan alat indera, dengan proses pengamatan yang dimulai dari penerimaan rangsangan oleh alat indera, pengiriman informasi kepusat kesadaran atau otak, pemberian tafsiran terhadap rangsangan yang diterima. Short Era. Beberapa gaya pengamatan individu, yaitu: Gaya Pengamatan Visual, dengan menggunakan indera penglihatan atau mata. Rediffmail. Gaya Pengamatan Auditif, dengan menggunakan indera pendengaran atau telinga.

Gaya Pengamatan Taktil, dengan menggunakan indera peraba atau penciuman. Romance. Gaya Pengamatan Kinestetik, pengamatan melalui gerakan. Rediffmail. Faktor-faktor ke efektifan suatu pengamatan, antara lain: Faktor Rangsangan, ada rangsangan yang diterima individu apabila jelas, kuat dan berarti. Of Mice And Men. Faktor Individu, kualitas alat indera, kualitas pusat kesadaran, kondisi fisik, pengalaman, motivasi, perhataian, kesehatan, kepribadian, dsb. Resume Rediffmail. Faktor Lingkungan, lingkungan yang baik akan menunjang terjadinya pengamatan yang baik dan sebaliknya lingkungan yang kurang baik akan menghambat proses pengamatan. Macam-macam kelainan dalam pengamatan: Ilusi, kelainan pengamatan dalam bentuk terjadinya perbedaan antara apa yang diamati dengan keadaan yang sebenarnya. Resume Birth. Halusinasi, keadaan dimana individu merasa mengamati sesuatu, padahal rangsangan yang sebenarnya tidak ada. Resume. Osilasi, terjadinya bermacam-macam atau pergantian terhadap suatu rangsangan. How To Write Romance. Hal-hal yang dapat dilakukan guru untuk membantu siswa melakukan pengamatan yang baik dalam pembelajaran adalah: 1) Pengamatan akan lebih efektif kepada rangsangan-rangsangan yang mempunyai struktur dan bentuk yang jelas, Hal-hal yang akan dipelajari hendaknya mempunyai struktur dan organisasi yang jelas. Resume Rediffmail. 2) Pengamatan kepada sesuatu yang dekat akan lebih berkesan, siswa diberi banyak kesempatan untuk lebih dekat dengan hal-hal yang akan dipelajari. 3) Pengamatan dipengaruhi oleh pengalaman sebelumnya, pada waktu guru mulai mengajar sebaiknya dimulai dengan pengalaman-pengalaman siswa.

4) Pengamatan dimulai dengan keseluruhan, baru kemudian kepada bagian-bagian yang lebih khusus. Status In India Essay. 5) Pengalaman dipengaruhi oleh peringkat perkembangan individu, pengajaran hendaknya disesuaikan dengan peringkat perkembangan individu terutama peringkat perkembangan kognitif. Resume. 6) Terdapat perbedaan individual dalam pengamatan. Essays About Dreams. Tiapa individu mempunyai macam gaya pengamatan (visual, auditif, taktil dan kinestetik). Rediffmail. Oleh karena itu, pengajaran hendaknya disesuaikan dengan gaya pengamatan masing-masing siswa. Of Sports In India. 7) Beberapa faktor dapat menimbulkan terjadinya kesalahan atau kelainan pengamatan, hindari hal-hal yang dapat menimbulkan kesalahan pengamatan, seperti rangsangan yang kurang jelas, kurangnya perhatian siswa, pengalaman dimasa lampau, kurang baiknya alat indera, lingkungan yang mengganggu, dsb. Perhatian, peningkatan aktivitas mental terhadap suatu rangsangan tertentu.

Setiap individu mempunyai cara memberikan perhatian yang berbeda. Resume. Ada yang Terpencar, yaitu kemampuan memberikan perhatian kepada berbagai hal atau rangsangan sekaligus dalam waktu yang bersamaan, dan ada yang Terpusat, yaitu kemampuan memberikan perhatian secara khusus kepada hal atau rangsangan tertentu. Short Essays On The Progressive. Hal-hal yang mempengaruhi perhatian dari faktor rangsangan ialah: 1) Intensitas atau kekuatan rangsangan, intensitas atau kekuatan yang lebih tinggi akan lebih menarik pehatian. 2) Actractiveness atau daya tarik, rangsangan yang sangat berbeda dengan rangsangan lain di lingkungannya, sehingga mempunyai kekuatan untuk menarik perhatian. Resume. 3) Perubahan atau pergantian, rangsangan yang selalu berubah akan lebih menarik perhatian. Resume Birth. 4) Keteraturan, rangsangan yang datang berulang-ulang secara teratur.

5) Suara yang tinggi, suara yang memiliki getaran yang tinggi, sehingga berbeda rangsangan disekitarnya. Rediffmail. 6) Rangsangan yang terlazim dan yang terbiasa, rangsangan yang sudah terbiasa dihadapi sehari-hari, seperti nama sendiri, nama ibu atau bapak, dsb. Of Mice Essays About. 7) Isyarat atau tanda, rangsangan yang merupakan tanda terhadap sesuatu rangsangan atau aktivitas. Hal-hal yang mempengaruhi perhatian dari faktor individu ialah: 1) Minat, sesuatu yang diminati akan lebih menarik perhatian. Resume Rediffmail. 2) Kondisi fisik atau kesehatan, perhatian akan lebih baik dalam kondisi fisik yang baik. Resume Birth. 3) Keletihan, dalam keadaan letih, seseorang akan sukar memberikan perhatian kepada suatu rangsangan.

4) Motivasi, orang yang memiliki motivasi yang besar terhadap suatu aktivitas, akan lebih banyak memberikan perhatian. Rediffmail. 5) Kebutuhan perhatian, orang yang merasa perlu untuk memperhatikan sesuatu, akan dengan sendirinya banyak memberikan perhatian lebih banyak. Of Sports. 6) Harapan, perkiraan seseorang terhadapsuatu tujuannya akan mendorong orang itu untuk dapat lebih banyak memberikan perhatian. Resume Rediffmail. 7) Karakteristik kepribadian, sifat-sifat pribadi seseorang akan mempengaruhi kualitas perhatiannya terhadap sesuatu (aspek kepribadian). Guru dapat membantu siswa dalam memusatkan memelihara perhatian dalam proses pembelajaran, dengan hal-hal sebagai berikut: Isyarat, memberikan isyarat tertentu kepada siswa pada saat memulai atau pergantian pelajaran. Of Smoking. Gerakan, senantiasa bergerak dan berkeliling keseluruh kelas selama menyajikan pelajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Variasi, menggunakan variasi dalam gaya mengajar, suara, isyarat badan, dan alat-alat bantu mengajar. Status Of Sports In India. Minat, membangkitkan semangat siswa sebelum dan selama proses pengajaran, materi yang diajarkan sesuai dengan minat siswa. Resume. Pertanyaan, mengajukan pertanyaan selama proses pengajaran berlangsung, mendorong siswa untuk memberikan jawaban dengan kata-kata mereka sendiri dan tekankan bahwa mereka mempunyai tanbggung jawab dalam proses pembelajaran masing-masing.

Mengingat merupakan proses menerima, menyimpan, dan mengeluarkan kembali informasi-informasi yang telah diterima melalui pengamatan, kemudian disimpan dalam pusat kesadaran/otak (terdiri dari ingatan jangka panjang dan pendek) setelah diberikan tafsiran. Essays On The Progressive Era. Proses mengingat banyak dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor, antara lain: Faktor individu, memiliki minat yang besar, motivasi yang kuat, memiliki metode dalam pengamatan dan pembelajaran, kondisi fisik dan kesehatan yang baik. Resume Rediffmail. Faktor sesuatu yang harus diingat, sesuatu yang memiliki organisasi dan struktur yang jelas, mempunyai arti, mempunyai keterkaitan dengan individu, mempunyai intensitas rangsangan yang cukup kuat, dsb. Essays On The Progressive Era. Faktor lingkungan, lingkungan yang menunjang dan terhindar dari adanya gangguan-gangguan. Lupa ialah suatu keadaan dimana individu kehilangan kemampuan untuk mengeluarkan kembali informasi yang telah tersimpan dalam ingatan jangka panjang atau jangka pendek. Resume. Lupa dapat disebabkan oleh: Keusangan, hilangnya informasi dari tempat penyimpanan ingatan karena tidak pernah dipakai. Essays Dreams. Gangguan informasi baru terhadap informasi lama atau sebaliknya.

Gangguan dalam otak. Rediffmail. Kesengajaan untuk dilupakan. Write Romance. F. Rediffmail. Transfer dalam Pembelajaran. Pemindahan hasil pembelajaran dari satu situasi kesituasi lain. Write. Transfer akan terjadi apabila terdapat kesamaan antara pembelajaran yang satu dengan yang situasi lainnya. Resume Rediffmail. Ada dua macam transfer yaitu: Transfer positif , hasil pembelajaran yang satu menunjang hasil pembelajaran yang lainnya, dan. Essays. Transfer negatif , hasil pembelajaran yang satu sukar ditransfer karena ada perbedaan. Resume Rediffmail. Suatu situasi kekurangan dalam diri individu dan menuntut pemuasan agar dapat berfungsi secara efektif. Of Mice About. Ada dua macam kebutuhan yang harus diperhatikan, yaitu: Kebutuhan fisiologi (hayat), disebut juga kebutuhan biologis yang meliputi jenis kebutuhan mendapatkan makanan, minuman, tidur dan istirahat, udara, pembuangan kotoran, sek dan bergerak.

Kebutuhan psikologis, kebutuhan untuk memperoleh kepuasan kejiwaan yang meliputi antara lain keselamatan, kasih sayang, penghargaan, diperlukan, persamaan hak, mengetahui, berprestasi, estetik, perwujudan diri, dsb. Resume. A. Resume Birth. Proses Pengajaran yang Efektif 1. Rediffmail. Berpusat pada siswa, dalam proses pengajaran siswa merupakan subyek/perhatian utama dari para guru, segala bentuk aktivitas hendaknya diarahkan untuk membantu perkembangan siswa. Write Romance. Keberhasilan proses pembelajaran dan pengajaran terletak dalam perwujudan diri siswa sebagai pribadi yang mandiri, pelajar efektif dan pekerja produktif. Resume Rediffmail. 2. And Men Dreams. Interaksi edukatif antara guru dengan siswa, terjalin hubungan yang bersifat edukatif/mendidik dan mengembangkan. Resume Rediffmail. Guru harus menjadi figur yang merangsang perkembangan pribadi siswa.

Adanya saling pemahaman antar guru dengan siswa. And Men. 3. Resume Rediffmail. Suasana demokratis, semua pihak memperoleh penghargaan sesuai dengan prestasi dan potensinya, sehingga dapat memupuk rasa percaya diri, dan pada gilirannya dapat berinovasi dan berekreasi sesuai dengan kemampuan masing-masing. Essays On The Progressive Era. 4. Resume Rediffmail. Variasi metode mengajar, guru tidak mengajar hanya dengan satu metode saja, melainkan berganti-ganti sesuai dengan keperluannya. Essays For Money. 5. Rediffmail. Guru profesional, guru memiliki keahlian yang memadai dan rasa tanggung jawab yang tinggi. Of Sports In India. Guru mencintai pekerjaannya dan melaksanakannya dengan penuh dedikasi dan tanggung jawab. Rediffmail. 6. On The Progressive Era. Bahan yang sesuai dan bermanfaat, bahan bersumber dari kurikulum yang telah ditetapkan secara baku. Tugas guru adalah mengolah bahan pengajaran menjadi sajian yang dapat dicerna (sesuai dengan kondisi dan lingkungan siswa) oleh siswa secara tepat dan bermakna, sehingga siswa melakukan aktivitas pembelajaran dengan lebih bergairah. Resume Rediffmail. 7. Of Sports In India Essay. Lingkungan yang kondusif, lingkungan yang dapat menunjang bagi proses pembelajaran-pengajaran secara efektif. Rediffmail. Guru mampu bekerjasama dengan fihak luar sekolah, khususnya dengan keluarga. Short On The. 8. Resume Rediffmail. Sarana belajar yang menunjang, berupa alat bantu mengajar, laboratorium, aula, lapangan olah raga, perpustakaan, dsb. Resume Birth. B. Rediffmail. Mengenal Model-Model Mengajar.

Bruce Joyce dan Marsha Weil (1986, model of status essay, teaching . Resume Rediffmail. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International) mengemukakan ada sejumlah model mengajar yang dikelompokan dalam em[pat rumpun, yaitu: Rumpun model-model informasi, berorientasi pada kecakapan siswa dalam memproses informasi dan cara-cara mereka dapat memperbaiki kecakapan untuk menguasai informasi. Essay On Effects. Rumpun model-model personal, berorientasi kepada individu dan perkembangan keakuan (selfhood), untuk membentuk dan menata realitas keunikannya. Resume Rediffmail. Perhatian banyak diberikan kepada kehidupan emosional. Resume Birth. Rumpun model-model interaksi sosial, menekankan hubungan individu dengan orang lain atau masyarakat (hubungan sosial). Resume. Rumpun model-model behavioral (perilaku), menekankan pada aspek perubahan perilaku psikologis dan perilaku yang tidak dapat diamati. Typing For Money. Penjabaran tugas-tugas yang harus dipelajari menjadi serangkaian perilaku dalam bentuk yang lebih kecil. Rediffmail. C. Resume Birth. Mengembangkan Perbendaharaan Model-Model Mengajar. Resume Rediffmail. Mengembangkan perbendaharaan model-model mengajar berarti mengembangkan keluwesan, karena ini akan merupakan landasan bagi pemahaman dan kemungkinan pemilihan dalam penerapannya. On Effects. Pada sisi pribadi, perbendaharaan menuntut kecakapan untuk menumbuhkan dan memperluas potensi seseorang, dan kemampuan untuk mengajar dengan cara-cara bervariasi dan menarika agar dapat menyesuaikan dengan tuntutan kebutuhan yang ada.

Model-model mengajar itu merupakan suatu simulator bagi aktivitas dirinya sendiri (guru). Model-model itu sebagai landasan dalam mengkreasikan kegiatan mengajarnya sesuai dengan tujuan yang akan dicapai dan situasi dan kondisi yang ada. Rediffmail. Keseluruhan perilaku yang harus dilakukan guru dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai guru. Status Essay. Disekolah guru berperan sebagai perancang pengajaran, pengelola pengajaran, penilai hasil pembelajaran, dan sebagai pembimbing murid. Rediffmail. Dalam keluarga guru berperan sebagai pendidik dalam keluarga atau family educator. On Effects Of Smoking. Sedangkan dimasyarakat guru berperan sebagai pembina masyarakat, pendorong masyarakat, penemu masyarakat, dan sebagai agen masyarakat. Resume Rediffmail. Dalam hubungannya dengan aktivitas pengajaran dan administrasi pendidikan, lebih jauh guru berperan sebagai: Pengambil inisiatif, pengarah, dan penilai aktivitas-aktivitas pendidikan. Resume Birth. Wakil masyarakat disekolah, guru berperan sebagai pembawa suara dan kepentingan masyarakat dalam pendidikan. Resume. Seorang pakar dalam bidangnya, menguasai bahan yang harus diajarkannya. Essays About Dreams. Penegak disiplin, guru harus menjaga agar siswa-siswa melaksanakan disiplin.

Pelaksana administrasi pendidikan, guru bertanggung jawab agar pendidikan dapat berlangsung dengan baik. Pemimpin generasi muda, guru bertanggung jawab untuk mengarahkan perkembangan siswa sebagai generasi muda yang akan menjadi pewaris masa depan. Resume. Penterjemaah kepada masyarakat, guru berperan untuk menyampaikan berbagai kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi kepada masyarakat. Write Romance. Dipandang dari segi dirinya pribadi (self-oriented), seorang guru dapat berperan sebagai: Pekerja sosial, memberikan pelayanan kepada masyarakat. Resume Rediffmail. Pelajar dan ilmuan, harus senantiasa belajar secara terus menerus. Write. Orang tua, wakil orang tua disekolah bagi setiap siswa. Resume Rediffmail. Model keteladanan, model tingkah laku yang harus dicontoh oleh siswa-siswanya. Short On The Progressive Era. Pemberi keselamatan, memberikan rasa keselamatan bagi setiap siswa. Resume. Dari sudut pandang secara psikologis, guru adalah sebagai: Pakar psikologi pendidikan, memahami psikologi pendidikan dan mampu mengamalkannya dalam melaksanakan tugasnya sebagai pendidik. Seniman dalam hubungan antar manusia, memiliki kemampuan menciptakan suasana hubungan antar manusia, khususnya dengan siswa-siswa.

Pembentuk kelompok, menciptakan kelompok dan aktivitas-aktivitas sebagai cara untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan. On Effects. Citalyticagent atau inovator, menciptakan suasana pembaharuan bagi membuat suatu hal yang lebih baik. Resume Rediffmail. Petugas kesehatan mental, bertanggung jawab bagi terciptanya kesehatan mental para siswa. Write Romance. B. Resume Rediffmail. Kebutuhan dan Motivasi. Resume Birth. Kebutuhan merupakan suatu situasi kekurangan dalam diri individu yang mendorongnya untuk berperilaku untuk mencapai tujuan. Dalam hubungannya dengan jabatan guru, perilaku pada dasarnya adalah upaya memenuhi kebutuhannya. Rediffmail. Lima tingkatan kebutuhan manusia menurut A.H.

Maslow, ialah kebutuhan fisik dan jasmani, memperoleh keselamatan, kebutuhan sosial/hubungan dengan orang lain di lingkungan, memperoleh harga diri, mewujudkan diri. Typing. Kebutuhan itu akan memotivasi manusia untuk berperilaku, peringkat kebutuhan itu akan mendorong guru melakukan perilaku keguruan. Resume Rediffmail. Faktor yang mempengaruhi kerja guru, ialah: Imbalan kerja, guru merasakan memperoleh kepuasan kerja dari imbalan yang diterimanya. Short Essays On The Era. Rasa aman dalam pekerjaan, merasakan adanya keamanan lahir bathin dalam melaksanakan tugasnya. Resume. Kondisi kerja yang baik, adanya kepuasan kerja karena pada umumnya kondisi kerja. Resume Birth. guru lebih baik dari kondisi lainnya. Resume. Kesempatan pengembangan diri, benyak memperoleh kesempatan untuk memperluas dan mengembangkan diri untuk kepentingan dimasa depan.

Hubungan pribadi, dalam pekerjaannya sebagai guru banyak kesempatan untuk membina hubungan pribadi teutama dengan siswa. C. Short. Kompetensi Guru. Resume. Kompetensi adalah keseluruhan pengetahuan, sikap, dan keterampilan yang diperlukan oleh seseorang dalam kaitan dengan sesuatu tugas tertentu. Typing For Money. Kompetensi guru meliputi: Kompetensi personal, kemampuan pribadi yang diperlukan agar dapat menjadi guru yang baik. Resume. Mencakup kemampuan pribadi yang berkenaan dengan pemahaman diri, penerimaan diri, pengarahan diri, dan perwujudan diri. Kompetensi profesional, berbagai kemampuan pribadi yang diperlukan agar dapat mewujudkan dirinya sebagai guru profesional, mencakup kepakaran atau keahlian dalam bidangnya yaitu penguasaan bahan yang harus diajarkannya beserta metodenya, rasa tanggung jawab akan tugasnya, dan rasa kebersamaan dengan sejawat guru lainnya. How To. Kompetensi sosial, kemampuan dalam berhubungan dengan orang lain atau keterampilan dalam interaksi sosial dalam melaksanakan tanggung jawab sosial. Resume Rediffmail. Kompetensi intelektual, penguasaan berbagai ilmu pengetahuan yang berhubungan dengan tugasnya sebagai guru. Essay On Effects Of Smoking. Kompetensi spiritual, kualitas keimanan dan ketaqwaan sebagai orang yang beragama.

Dari suatu penelitian yang dilakukan oleh A.M. Rediffmail. MacKay, tentang pengajaran yang efektif (dalam Guy R. Of Sports In India Essay. Lefrancois. Resume. 1991. Resume Birth. Psychology for resume Teaching. Belmont, California, Wadwordh Publising Company, p.13-14) disarankan PERILAKU UNTUK MENGAJAR YANG EFEKTIF, sebagai berikut: Menggunakan suatu sistem aturan tertentu dalam menghadapi hal-hal pribadi atau prosedur tetentu. Of Sports. Mencegah agar perilaku siswa yang salah tidak keterusan. Resume Rediffmail. Mengarahkan tindakan dengan disiplin secara tepat. Of Smoking. Bergerak keseluruh ruang kelas untuk mengamati seluruh siswa. Rediffmail. Situasi-situasi yang mengganggu, diatasi dengan cara-cara yang baik (dengan cara non-verbal, isyarat, pesan-pesan, pendekatan, kontak mata, dsb. Of Sports Essay. Memberikan tugas-tugas yang menarik minat siswa, terutama apabila mereka bekerja secara bebas. Rediffmail. Menggunakan cara yang memungkinkan siswa malaksanakan tugas-tugas belajar dengan arahan seminimal mungkin.

Memanfaatkan waktu pembelajaran sebaik mungkin dan siswa harus terlibat aktif dan produktif dalam melaksanakan tugas-tugas pembelajaran. Typing For Money. Menggunakan cara-cara tertentu untuk mendapatkan perhatian siswa. Resume Rediffmail. Tidak memulai berbicara kepada kelas sebelum semua siswa memberikan perhatian. Short Essays. Menggunakan teknik-teknik mengajar yang bervariasi dan menyesuaikan pengajaran dengan keperluan pembelajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Menggunakan satu sistem pemeriksaan tugas-tugas. Essays. Menghubungkan bahan yang diajarkan dengan aktivitas yang harus dilakukan siswa. Resume. Menggunakan teknik-teknik yang memberikan kemudahan berpindah secara berangsur dari aktivitas yang konkrit ke yang lebih abstrak.

Menggunakan campuran pertanyaan dari peringkat yang rendah dan tinggi. Status Of Sports. Menyadari apa yang sedang berlangsung didalam kelas. Resume. Dapat menghadirkan lebih dari satu hal dalam satu waktu. Of Smoking. Mengatur perhatian pelajaran atau aktivitas secara mulus. Memelihara jalannya arahan pelajaran dengan baik. Rediffmail. Memberikan penyajian secara jelas di dalam kelas. Short Essays On The Progressive. Dapat memotivasi siswa dalam pembelajaran. Resume Rediffmail. Menunjukan sikap memelihara, menerima, dan menghargai anak. Resume Birth. Memberikan tindak balas ( respons ) yang memadai terhadap makna, perasaan dan pengalaman anak-anak. Resume Rediffmail. Mengarahkan pertanyaan kepada banyak siswa yang berbeda-beda, dan bukan hanya kepada siswa tertentu saja. Essays About Dreams. Menggunakan berbagai teknik untuk membantu siswa dalam memperbaiki tindak balas yang keliru atau salah.

Memberikan penghargaan dan ganjaran untuk memotivasi siswa. Menggunakan kritikan yang halus dalam mengkomunikasikan harapan kepada siswa yang lebih pandai. Resume. Menerima inisiatif siswa yang disampaikan melalui pertanyaan, bahasan, atau sasaran. Of Sports In India Essay. D. Rediffmail. Profesionalisme Guru. Of Mice About. Guru yang memiliki keahlian, tanggung jawab, dan rasa kesejawatan (satu perwujudan solidaritas kebersamaan sesama guru untuk mencapai tujuan bersama) yang didukung oleh etika profesi yang kuat. Rediffmail. Unjuk kerja secara profesional mencakup berbagai dimensi secara terpadu, yaitu filosofi, konseptual, dan operasional. Of Mice And Men Dreams. Kematangan profesi guru ditandai dengan perwujudan guru yang memiliki: 1) keahlian; 2) rasa tanggung jawab; dan 3) rasa kesejawatan yang tinggi. Guru yang profesional ialah mereka yang memiliki keahlian, baik yang menyangkut materi keilmuan yang dikuasainya maupun keterampilan metodologinya, yang telah mendapat pengakuan formal yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk sertifikasi, lisensi, dan akreditasi dari pihak yang berwenang (pemerintah dan organisasi profesi). Resume Rediffmail. Perwujudan unjuk kerja profesional guru di tunjang dengan jiwa profesionalisme yaitu sikap mental (intrinsik) yang senantiasa mendorong dirinya untuk mewujudkan diri sebagai guru profesional. Resume Birth. Profesionalisme guru mempunyai makna penting karena, profesionalisme memberikan jaminan perlindungan kepada kesejahteraan masyarakat umum, merupakan satu cara untuk memperbaiki profesi pendidikan, memberikan kemungkinan perbaikan dan pengembangan diri yang memungkinkan guru dapat memberikan pelayanan sebaik mungkin dan memaksimalkan kompetensinya.

Kualitas profesionalisme ditunjukan oleh lima unjuk kerja sebagai berikut: Keinginan untuk selalu menampilkan perilaku yang mendekati standar ideal. Rediffmail. Mengidentifikasikan dirinya kepada figur yang dipandang memiliki standar ideal. Of Sports. Meningkatkan dan memelihara citra profesi. Rediffmail. Keinginan untuk selalu meningkatkan dan memelihara citra profesi melalui perwujudan perilaku profesional, seperti penampilan, cara bicara, penggunaan bahasa, postur, sikap hidup sehari-hari, hubungan antar pribadi, dsb. Keinginan untuk senantiasa mengejar kesempatan pengembangan profesional yang dapat meningkatkan dan memperbaiki kualitas pengetahuan dan keterampilannya, berusaha mencari dan memanfaatkan kesempatan yang dapat mengembangkan profesinya, antara lain: a) mengikuti kegiatan ilmiah (lokakarya, seminar dsb); b) mengikuti penataran atau pendidikan lanjutan; c) melakukan penelitian atau pengabdian pada msyarakat; d) menelaah kepustakaan, membuat karya ilmiah; e) memasuki organisasi profesi. How To Write. Mengejar kualitas dancita-cita dalam profesi, aktif dalam seluruh kegiatan dan perilakunya untuk menghasilkan kualitas yang ideal atau selalu memperbaiki diri untuk memperoleh hal-hal yang lebih baik dalam melaksanakan tugasnya.

Memiliki kebanggaan terhadap profesinya, memiliki rasa bangga dan percaya diri akan profesinya serta berdedikasi tinggi terhadap tugas-tugasnya sekarang, dan menyakini akan potensi dirinya bagi perkembangan dimasa depan.. Resume. E. How To Write Romance. Menampilkan Kepribadian. Resume Rediffmail. Keseluruhan perilaku dalam berbagai aspek yang secara kualitatif akan membentuk keunikan atau kekhasan seseorang dalam interaksi dengan lingkungan di berbagai situasi dan kondisi. In India Essay. Sifat utama guru adalah kemampuannya dalam mewujudkan penampilan. kualitas kepribadian dalam interaksi pendidikan yang sebaik-baiknya agar kebutuhan dan tujuan dapat tercapai secara efektif. Rediffmail. Hal itu dapat digambarkan sebagai berikut: Komponen Penampilan, kemampuan mewujudkan berbagai perilaku kinerja yang Nampak sesuai dengan bidang jabat dan tugasnya sebagai pendidik. How To Write. Komponen subjek, kemampuan penguasaan bahan / substansi pengetahuan yang relavan dengan bidang jabatan dan tugas pendidik sebagai prasyarat bagi penampilan kinerjanya secara tepat dan efektif. Resume. Komponen Subyek, kemampuan penguasaan substansi pengetahuan dan keterampilin teknis keahlian khusus dalam bidang jabatan dan tigas pendidik yang diperoleh melalu Komponen Profesional, kemampuan penguasaan proses-proses mental-intelektual yang mencakup proses berfikir (logis, kritis rasional, kreatif) dalam pemecahan masalah, pembuatan keputusan, dsb. How To Write Romance. Sebagai prasyarat bagi terwujudnya penampilan kinerja pendidik.

Komponen penyesuayan diri, kemampuan penyerasian dan penyesuaian diri terhadap tuntutan lingkungan berdasarkan karakteristik pribadi untuk mencapai keefektifan kinerja kependidikan. Rediffmail. Komponen Kepribadian , kualitas keseluruhan perilaku sebagai prasyarat fundamental bagi terwujudnya penampilan kinerja secara keseluruhan. Of Mice And Men Essays. Akan terwujud melalui berfungsinya keseluruhan fotensi manusiawi secara penuh dan utuh melalui interaksi antara diri dengan lingkungannya. Resume Rediffmail. Potensi manusiawi itu berbentuk daya nalar sebagai pilar penyangga dengan empat jenjang anak-anak tangga yang berupa: 1) Coping, kemampuan melakukan tindakan sehari-hari dengan baik; 2) Knowing, memahami kenyataan dan kebenaran dunia sehari-hari; 3) Believing, kenyakinan yang melandasi berbagai tindakan; 4) Being, perwujudan diri yang otentik dan bermakna (William D.Htt,1993). Penalaran, Sumber-sumber daya, seseorang memerlukan atau daya berupa kecakapan untuk melakukan sesuatu, mempengaruhi pihak lain, dan mendapatkan hasil dari tindakannya. Essay On Effects. Dalam melaksanakan tugas pendidikan secara efektif, sekurang-kurangnya hasur memiliki tiga prinsip sumber daya atau kekuatan, yaitu: (1) staf, yaitu pihak-pihak lain yang menjadi mitra kerja yang siap, mau, dan mampu, (2) informasi, yaitu seperangkat pengetahuan yang memiliki untuk enunjang jalannya tugas-tugas, (3) jaringan kerja, yaitu kontak-kontak pribadi untuk berbagai gagasan, informasi, dan sumber-sumber. Rediffmail. pe ngetahuan, merupakan pilar penunjang bagi kepribadian yang efektif yang diperoleh melalui pengalaman hidup, pengalaman kerja, atau melalui suatu proses terstruktur seperti melalui pendidikan dan latihan. Essays. Untuk perwujudan kepribadian efektif, pengetahuan yang harus dikuasai secara utuh mencakup: (1) pengetahuan tentang diri sendiri, yaitu sejauh mana mengenal, memahami, dan menerima berbagai aspek tentang dirinya secara utuh dan benar; (2) pengetahuan tentang tugas atau pekerjaan, yaitu pemahaman mengenai berbagai tugas-tugas utama yang harus dilaksanakan dalam hubungan dengan jabatan atau pekerjaannya; (3) pengetahuan tentang organisasi, yaitu pemahaman mengenai berbagai aspek organisasi tempat tugas; (4) pengetahuan tentang bisnis utma, yaitu pemahaman mengenai visi dan misi secara khusus organisasi tempat tugas; dan (5) pengetahuan tentang dunia, yaitu pemahaman mengenai berbagai aspek lingkungan dan perkembangannya, baik local maupun global. Rediffmail. Funfsi-fungsi uatama, konsisten terhadap keyakinan dasar yang menjadi panduan dalam hidupnya. How To Write Romance. Kepribadian efektif akan tercermin dari keseluruhan pe-rilakunya yang dilandasi dan dibimbing oleh nilai-nilai yang berakar pada keyakinannya.

Atas dasar itu, ada enam fungsi dasar yang dilakukan oleh pendidik berkepribadian efktif yang meliputi; (1) valving, yaitu kemampuan penguasaan nilai-nilai yang baik da-lam lingkungan pendidikan dan mampu menterjemahkan nilai-nilai itu dalam praktek, (2) visioning, yaitu memiliki gambaran mental yang jelas mengenai masa depan yang diinginkan bagi pendidikan, (3) coaching, yaitu membantu orang lain mengembangkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan yangdiperlukan untuk mencapaai visi, (4) empowering, yaitu memberdayakan orang lain untuk bergerak sampai visi, (5) team bulding, yaitu mengembangkan kebersamaan dengan orang-orang yang bersedia untuk bersama-sama mencapai visi, dan (6) promoting quality, yaitu mencapai suatu reputasi meningkatnya mutu kinerja lembaga pendidikan. Kualitas watak, perwujudan potensi kepribadian pada tingkatan yang paling tinggi melalui penampilan dari secara otentik dan paripurna. Rediffmail. Kepribadian efektif pendidik dalam tingkatan ini meliputi; (1) identitas, atau jatidiri yaitu keaslian diri dengan rasa keutuhan dan keterpadun; (2) kebebasan diri, yaitu menjadi orang yang lebuh banyak terkendali secara internal dari pada terkendali secara eksternal; (3) otentisitas atau keaslian, menyatakan diri secara benar dan memelihara keterpaduan antara diri bagian dalam ( inner self ) dengan diri bagian luar ( outer self ); (4) tanggung jawab, yaitu menjadi akuntabel dalam keputusan dan tindakan sendiri; (5) keteguhan hati, yaitu mempertahankan jatidiri meskipun dalam menghadapi rintangan; (6) integritas, yaitu terbimbing oleh seperangkat prinsip-prinsip moral dan diakui oleh orang lain sebagai orang yang memiliki keutuhan diri. Of Mice Essays Dreams. F. Rediffmail. Menampilkan Kewibawaan. Of Sports Essay. PROF. Resume. DR. H. Of Mice Essays About Dreams. MOHAMAD SURYA (2004). Resume. PSIKOLOGI PEMBELAJARAN PENGAJARAN.

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Remarks of President Barack Obama – State of the Union Address As Delivered. The White House is rediffmail once again making the full text of the State of the Union widely available online. The text, as prepared for delivery, is also available on Medium and Facebook notes, continuing efforts to meet people where they are and make the speech as accessible as possible. Through these digital platforms, people can follow along with the speech as they watch in typing essays for money real time, view charts and infographics on key areas, share their favorite lines, and resume rediffmail provide feedback. Mr.

Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, my fellow Americans: Tonight marks the eighth year that I’ve come here to report on the State of the short essays on the progressive, Union. And for this final one, I’m going to try to make it a little shorter. (Applause.) I know some of resume you are antsy to get back to Iowa. (Laughter.) I've been there. I'll be shaking hands afterwards if you want some tips. (Laughter.) And I understand that because it’s an election season, expectations for what we will achieve this year are low. But, Mr.

Speaker, I appreciate the constructive approach that you and the other leaders took at the end of last year to pass a budget and make tax cuts permanent for working families. So I hope we can work together this year on some bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform -- (applause) -- and helping people who are battling prescription drug abuse and heroin abuse. (Applause.) So, who knows, we might surprise the cynics again. But tonight, I want to go easy on the traditional list of proposals for write romance, the year ahead. Resume Rediffmail? Don’t worry, I’ve got plenty, from helping students learn to write computer code to personalizing medical treatments for patients. And I will keep pushing for progress on of mice essays about dreams the work that I believe still needs to be done. Fixing a broken immigration system. (Applause.) Protecting our kids from gun violence. (Applause.) Equal pay for equal work. (Applause.) Paid leave. (Applause.) Raising the minimum wage. (Applause.) All these things still matter to hardworking families. Rediffmail? They’re still the right thing to do. And I won't let up until they get done.

But for my final address to this chamber, I don’t want to short essays on the just talk about next year. I want to focus on the next five years, the next 10 years, and beyond. I want to resume focus on status essay our future. We live in a time of extraordinary change -- change that’s reshaping the way we live, the way we work, our planet, our place in the world. It’s change that promises amazing medical breakthroughs, but also economic disruptions that strain working families. It promises education for girls in the most remote villages, but also connects terrorists plotting an resume ocean away. It’s change that can broaden opportunity, or widen inequality. And whether we like it or not, the pace of status of sports in india this change will only accelerate. America has been through big changes before -- wars and depression, the influx of new immigrants, workers fighting for resume, a fair deal, movements to expand civil rights. Each time, there have been those who told us to fear the future; who claimed we could slam the brakes on change; who promised to restore past glory if we just got some group or idea that was threatening America under control.

And each time, we overcame those fears. We did not, in the words of Lincoln, adhere to resume birth the “dogmas of the quiet past.” Instead we thought anew, and acted anew. We made change work for resume rediffmail, us, always extending America’s promise outward, to the next frontier, to more people. And because we did -- because we saw opportunity where others saw only peril -- we emerged stronger and better than before. What was true then can be true now. Our unique strengths as a nation -- our optimism and work ethic, our spirit of discovery, our diversity, our commitment to rule of law -- these things give us everything we need to ensure prosperity and security for generations to write come. In fact, it’s that spirit that made the resume rediffmail, progress of resume birth these past seven years possible. It’s how we recovered from the worst economic crisis in generations. Resume? It’s how we reformed our health care system, and reinvented our energy sector; how we delivered more care and benefits to status in india essay our troops and veterans, and how we secured the rediffmail, freedom in every state to marry the person we love.

But such progress is not inevitable. It’s the result of choices we make together. And we face such choices right now. Will we respond to the changes of our time with fear, turning inward as a nation, turning against each other as a people? Or will we face the future with confidence in how to who we are, in what we stand for, in the incredible things that we can do together? So let’s talk about the future, and four big questions that I believe we as a country have to resume answer -- regardless of who the next President is, or who controls the next Congress. First, how do we give everyone a fair shot at opportunity and resume birth security in resume rediffmail this new economy? (Applause.)

Second, how do we make technology work for us, and not against us -- especially when it comes to solving urgent challenges like climate change? (Applause.) Third, how do we keep America safe and essays lead the world without becoming its policeman? (Applause.) And finally, how can we make our politics reflect what’s best in us, and not what’s worst? Let me start with the economy, and a basic fact: The United States of America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in the world. Resume? (Applause.) We’re in the middle of the longest streak of private sector job creation in history. (Applause.) More than 14 million new jobs, the short essays era, strongest two years of job growth since the ‘90s, an unemployment rate cut in rediffmail half. Our auto industry just had its best year ever. (Applause.) That's just part of a manufacturing surge that's created nearly 900,000 new jobs in the past six years. And we’ve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters. (Applause.) Anyone claiming that America’s economy is in of mice and men about dreams decline is peddling fiction. (Applause.) Now, what is resume rediffmail true -- and the reason that a lot of Americans feel anxious -- is that the economy has been changing in profound ways, changes that started long before the Great Recession hit; changes that have not let up.

Today, technology doesn’t just replace jobs on the assembly line, but any job where work can be automated. Of Mice Essays? Companies in a global economy can locate anywhere, and they face tougher competition. As a result, workers have less leverage for a raise. Companies have less loyalty to resume rediffmail their communities. And more and more wealth and income is concentrated at the very top. All these trends have squeezed workers, even when they have jobs; even when the economy is growing. Status? It’s made it harder for a hardworking family to pull itself out of poverty, harder for young people to resume rediffmail start their careers, tougher for workers to retire when they want to.

And although none of these trends are unique to America, they do offend our uniquely American belief that everybody who works hard should get a fair shot. For the typing for money, past seven years, our goal has been a growing economy that works also better for everybody. We’ve made progress. But we need to make more. And despite all the political arguments that we’ve had these past few years, there are actually some areas where Americans broadly agree. We agree that real opportunity requires every American to get the education and training they need to rediffmail land a good-paying job. Essay? The bipartisan reform of rediffmail No Child Left Behind was an important start, and together, we’ve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to new highs, boosted graduates in fields like engineering. Resume Birth? In the coming years, we should build on that progress, by providing Pre-K for all and -- (applause) -- offering every student the hands-on computer science and resume rediffmail math classes that make them job-ready on day one. We should recruit and support more great teachers for our kids. Romance? (Applause.)

And we have to make college affordable for every American. (Applause.) No hardworking student should be stuck in the red. We’ve already reduced student loan payments to resume rediffmail 10 percent of short on the a borrower’s income. Resume Rediffmail? And that's good. But now, we’ve actually got to resume birth cut the cost of resume rediffmail college. (Applause.) Providing two years of community college at no cost for every responsible student is one of the best ways to do that, and I’m going to keep fighting to get that started this year. (Applause.) It's the right thing to do. (Applause.) But a great education isn’t all we need in this new economy. We also need benefits and of sports protections that provide a basic measure of security. It’s not too much of a stretch to say that some of the only people in America who are going to work the same job, in resume the same place, with a health and retirement package for 30 years are sitting in this chamber. (Laughter.) For everyone else, especially folks in their 40s and 50s, saving for retirement or bouncing back from job loss has gotten a lot tougher. Status Essay? Americans understand that at some point in their careers, in this new economy, they may have to rediffmail retool and essay they may have to retrain. Resume? But they shouldn’t lose what they’ve already worked so hard to build in the process.

That’s why Social Security and Medicare are more important than ever. We shouldn’t weaken them; we should strengthen them. (Applause.) And for resume birth, Americans short of retirement, basic benefits should be just as mobile as everything else is today. That, by the way, is what the resume rediffmail, Affordable Care Act is all about. It’s about filling the gaps in employer-based care so that when you lose a job, or you go back to essays on the progressive school, or you strike out and launch that new business, you’ll still have coverage. Nearly 18 million people have gained coverage so far. (Applause.) And in the process, health care inflation has slowed. And our businesses have created jobs every single month since it became law. Now, I’m guessing we won’t agree on health care anytime soon. (Applause.) A little applause right there. (Laughter.) Just a guess. But there should be other ways parties can work together to improve economic security. Say a hardworking American loses his job -- we shouldn’t just make sure that he can get unemployment insurance; we should make sure that program encourages him to retrain for a business that’s ready to hire him. If that new job doesn’t pay as much, there should be a system of rediffmail wage insurance in place so that he can still pay his bills. And even if he’s going from job to job, he should still be able to resume birth save for retirement and rediffmail take his savings with him.

That’s the way we make the on effects of smoking, new economy work better for everybody. I also know Speaker Ryan has talked about his interest in resume tackling poverty. America is about giving everybody willing to work a chance, a hand up. And I’d welcome a serious discussion about essay on effects, strategies we can all support, like expanding tax cuts for low-income workers who don't have children. Resume? (Applause.) But there are some areas where we just have to be honest -- it has been difficult to find agreement over the last seven years. How To? And a lot of them fall under the resume rediffmail, category of what role the government should play in short essays on the making sure the system’s not rigged in resume favor of the wealthiest and biggest corporations. (Applause.) And it's an honest disagreement, and the American people have a choice to make. I believe a thriving private sector is the lifeblood of our economy.

I think there are outdated regulations that need to on the era be changed. Rediffmail? There is red tape that needs to be cut. (Applause.) There you go! Yes! (Applause.) But after years now of record corporate profits, working families won’t get more opportunity or bigger paychecks just by letting big banks or big oil or hedge funds make their own rules at everybody else’s expense. (Applause.) Middle-class families are not going to feel more secure because we allowed attacks on for money collective bargaining to go unanswered. Food Stamp recipients did not cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did. (Applause.) Immigrants aren’t the resume, principal reason wages haven’t gone up; those decisions are made in essay on effects the boardrooms that all too often put quarterly earnings over resume, long-term returns. It’s sure not the essay of smoking, average family watching tonight that avoids paying taxes through offshore accounts. (Applause.) The point is, I believe that in this new economy, workers and start-ups and small businesses need more of a voice, not less. The rules should work for resume, them. (Applause.) And I'm not alone in this.

This year I plan to typing for money lift up the many businesses who’ve figured out resume rediffmail, that doing right by their workers or their customers or their communities ends up being good for their shareholders. (Applause.) And I want to spread those best practices across America. That's part of a brighter future. Resume Birth? (Applause.) In fact, it turns out many of resume our best corporate citizens are also our most creative. And this brings me to the second big question we as a country have to answer: How do we reignite that spirit of how to innovation to meet our biggest challenges? Sixty years ago, when the rediffmail, Russians beat us into space, we didn’t deny Sputnik was up there. (Laughter.) We didn’t argue about the science, or shrink our research and development budget. We built a space program almost overnight.

And 12 years later, we were walking on write romance the moon. (Applause.) Now, that spirit of discovery is in our DNA. America is resume Thomas Edison and the Wright Brothers and George Washington Carver. America is Grace Hopper and Katherine Johnson and resume birth Sally Ride. Rediffmail? America is essays every immigrant and rediffmail entrepreneur from Boston to Austin to Silicon Valley, racing to shape a better world. (Applause.) That's who we are. And over the past seven years, we’ve nurtured that spirit. We’ve protected an and men open Internet, and taken bold new steps to get more students and low-income Americans online. (Applause.) We’ve launched next-generation manufacturing hubs, and online tools that give an entrepreneur everything he or she needs to start a business in a single day. But we can do so much more. Last year, Vice President Biden said that with a new moonshot, America can cure cancer. Last month, he worked with this Congress to resume rediffmail give scientists at the National Institutes of Health the how to romance, strongest resources that they’ve had in over a decade. (Applause.) So tonight, I’m announcing a new national effort to get it done. Rediffmail? And because he’s gone to the mat for all of us on essays so many issues over the past 40 years, I’m putting Joe in charge of Mission Control. (Applause.) For the loved ones we’ve all lost, for the families that we can still save, let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all. (Applause.)

Medical research is rediffmail critical. Of Sports In India Essay? We need the rediffmail, same level of commitment when it comes to on effects developing clean energy sources. (Applause.) Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at resume, it. You will be pretty lonely, because you’ll be debating our military, most of America’s business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree it’s a problem and resume birth intend to resume solve it. (Applause.) But even if -- even if the planet wasn’t at stake, even if 2014 wasn’t the warmest year on record -- until 2015 turned out to be even hotter -- why would we want to pass up the chance for short, American businesses to produce and resume sell the energy of the resume birth, future? (Applause.) Listen, seven years ago, we made the rediffmail, single biggest investment in clean energy in our history. Here are the of mice essays, results.

In fields from Iowa to Texas, wind power is now cheaper than dirtier, conventional power. On rooftops from Arizona to New York, solar is saving Americans tens of rediffmail millions of dollars a year on their energy bills, and employs more Americans than coal -- in jobs that pay better than average. We’re taking steps to give homeowners the freedom to generate and store their own energy -- something, by the way, that environmentalists and essay of smoking Tea Partiers have teamed up to rediffmail support. And meanwhile, we’ve cut our imports of foreign oil by romance, nearly 60 percent, and cut carbon pollution more than any other country on resume rediffmail Earth. (Applause.) Gas under two bucks a gallon ain’t bad, either. Short On The Progressive Era? (Applause.) Now we’ve got to accelerate the transition away from resume rediffmail old, dirtier energy sources.

Rather than subsidize the past, we should invest in the future -- especially in of smoking communities that rely on rediffmail fossil fuels. We do them no favor when we don't show them where the trends are going. That’s why I’m going to push to change the way we manage our oil and coal resources, so that they better reflect the costs they impose on taxpayers and our planet. For Money? And that way, we put money back into those communities, and rediffmail put tens of thousands of Americans to work building a 21st century transportation system. (Applause.) Now, none of this is going to happen overnight. And, yes, there are plenty of entrenched interests who want to protect the status quo. But the jobs we’ll create, the money we’ll save, the planet we’ll preserve -- that is the kind of future our kids and our grandkids deserve. And it's within our grasp.

Climate change is just one of resume birth many issues where our security is linked to the rest of the world. Rediffmail? And that’s why the third big question that we have to answer together is essay how to keep America safe and strong without either isolating ourselves or trying to resume rediffmail nation-build everywhere there’s a problem. I told you earlier all the talk of America’s economic decline is political hot air. Well, so is all the rhetoric you hear about resume birth, our enemies getting stronger and rediffmail America getting weaker. Let me tell you something. The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth.

Period. (Applause.) Period. It’s not even close. Essays? It's not even close. (Applause.) It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined. Our troops are the finest fighting force in the history of the world. (Applause.) No nation attacks us directly, or our allies, because they know that’s the path to ruin. Surveys show our standing around the world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to resume every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead -- they call us. (Applause.) I mean, it's useful to resume birth level the set here, because when we don't, we don't make good decisions.

Now, as someone who begins every day with an resume intelligence briefing, I know this is essay on effects a dangerous time. But that’s not primarily because of some looming superpower out there, and certainly not because of diminished American strength. In today’s world, we’re threatened less by evil empires and more by failing states. The Middle East is going through a transformation that will play out for a generation, rooted in resume rediffmail conflicts that date back millennia. Economic headwinds are blowing in from a Chinese economy that is in significant transition. Even as their economy severely contracts, Russia is short essays on the progressive era pouring resources in to prop up Ukraine and Syria -- client states that they saw slipping away from their orbit. And the international system we built after World War II is now struggling to keep pace with this new reality. It’s up to us, the United States of America, to help remake that system. Resume? And to status of sports do that well it means that we’ve got to set priorities.

Priority number one is protecting the resume rediffmail, American people and going after terrorist networks. Status Of Sports Essay? (Applause.) Both al Qaeda and now ISIL pose a direct threat to our people, because in today’s world, even a handful of resume rediffmail terrorists who place no value on human life, including their own, can do a lot of how to romance damage. Resume? They use the Internet to poison the minds of individuals inside our country. Their actions undermine and destabilize our allies. We have to take them out./p But as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into and men, their hands. Masses of resume fighters on the back of pickup trucks, twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages -- they pose an enormous danger to civilians; they have to be stopped.

But they do not threaten our national existence. (Applause.) That is the story ISIL wants to short progressive tell. That’s the kind of propaganda they use to recruit. We don’t need to build them up to resume show that we’re serious, and we sure don't need to in india essay push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is somehow representative of one of the world’s largest religions. (Applause.) We just need to call them what they are -- killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed. (Applause.) And that’s exactly what we’re doing. Resume Rediffmail? For more than a year, America has led a coalition of more than 60 countries to cut off ISIL’s financing, disrupt their plots, stop the flow of terrorist fighters, and stamp out their vicious ideology.

With nearly 10,000 air strikes, we’re taking out resume birth, their leadership, their oil, their training camps, their weapons. We’re training, arming, and supporting forces who are steadily reclaiming territory in Iraq and Syria. If this Congress is serious about winning this war, and wants to send a message to our troops and the world, authorize the use of resume rediffmail military force against ISIL. Take a vote. (Applause.) Take a vote. Essays? But the American people should know that with or without congressional action, ISIL will learn the same lessons as terrorists before them. If you doubt America’s commitment -- or mine -- to see that justice is done, just ask Osama bin Laden. (Applause.) Ask the leader of al Qaeda in Yemen, who was taken out resume rediffmail, last year, or the perpetrator of the Benghazi attacks, who sits in essays progressive a prison cell.

When you come after Americans, we go after you. (Applause.) And it may take time, but we have long memories, and resume rediffmail our reach has no limits. (Applause.) Our foreign policy hast to be focused on the threat from ISIL and al Qaeda, but it can’t stop there. For even without ISIL, even without al Qaeda, instability will continue for decades in many parts of the world -- in the Middle East, in Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, in parts of resume birth Central America, in Africa, and resume Asia. Some of these places may become safe havens for of mice essays, new terrorist networks. Others will just fall victim to rediffmail ethnic conflict, or famine, feeding the next wave of refugees. The world will look to us to resume birth help solve these problems, and our answer needs to be more than tough talk or calls to carpet-bomb civilians. That may work as a TV sound bite, but it doesn’t pass muster on the world stage. We also can’t try to take over and rebuild every country that falls into crisis, even if it's done with the best of intentions. (Applause.) That’s not leadership; that’s a recipe for quagmire, spilling American blood and treasure that ultimately will weaken us. It’s the lesson of Vietnam; it's the lesson of rediffmail Iraq -- and we should have learned it by essays on the era, now. (Applause.) Fortunately, there is a smarter approach, a patient and disciplined strategy that uses every element of our national power.

It says America will always act, alone if necessary, to protect our people and our allies; but on issues of global concern, we will mobilize the rediffmail, world to work with us, and make sure other countries pull their own weight. That’s our approach to conflicts like Syria, where we’re partnering with local forces and leading international efforts to help that broken society pursue a lasting peace. That’s why we built a global coalition, with sanctions and principled diplomacy, to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran. Typing? And as we speak, Iran has rolled back its nuclear program, shipped out resume, its uranium stockpile, and on effects of smoking the world has avoided another war. (Applause.) That’s how we stopped the rediffmail, spread of Ebola in West Africa. (Applause.) Our military, our doctors, our development workers -- they were heroic; they set up the resume birth, platform that then allowed other countries to join in behind us and stamp out that epidemic. Hundreds of thousands, maybe a couple million lives were saved.

That’s how we forged a Trans-Pacific Partnership to open markets, and protect workers and the environment, and advance American leadership in Asia. It cuts 18,000 taxes on resume products made in America, which will then support more good jobs here in America. Typing Essays For Money? With TPP, China does not set the rules in that region; we do. You want to resume show our strength in this new century? Approve this agreement. Give us the tools to enforce it. It's the right thing to do. (Applause.) Let me give you another example. Fifty years of isolating Cuba had failed to essay on effects of smoking promote democracy, and set us back in Latin America. That’s why we restored diplomatic relations -- (applause) -- opened the door to travel and resume commerce, positioned ourselves to improve the lives of the Cuban people. (Applause.) So if you want to consolidate our leadership and for money credibility in resume the hemisphere, recognize that the Cold War is over -- lift the embargo. (Applause.) The point is American leadership in the 21st century is not a choice between ignoring the rest of the world -- except when we kill terrorists -- or occupying and rebuilding whatever society is unraveling.

Leadership means a wise application of short on the era military power, and rallying the world behind causes that are right. It means seeing our foreign assistance as a part of our national security, not something separate, not charity. When we lead nearly 200 nations to the most ambitious agreement in history to fight climate change, yes, that helps vulnerable countries, but it also protects our kids. When we help Ukraine defend its democracy, or Colombia resolve a decades-long war, that strengthens the international order we depend on. When we help African countries feed their people and care for the sick -- (applause) -- it's the right thing to do, and it prevents the next pandemic from resume reaching our shores. Right now, we’re on track to end the scourge of HIV/AIDS. That's within our grasp. (Applause.) And we have the chance to accomplish the same thing with malaria -- something I’ll be pushing this Congress to fund this year. (Applause.) That's American strength.

That's American leadership. And that kind of leadership depends on the power of our example. That’s why I will keep working to shut down the prison at of sports essay, Guantanamo. (Applause.) It is expensive, it is unnecessary, and it only resume, serves as a recruitment brochure for our enemies. (Applause.) There’s a better way. (Applause.) And that’s why we need to reject any politics -- any politics -- that targets people because of race or religion. (Applause.) Let me just say this. This is not a matter of write political correctness. This is resume rediffmail a matter of understanding just what it is that makes us strong. The world respects us not just for resume birth, our arsenal; it respects us for our diversity, and our openness, and the way we respect every faith. His Holiness, Pope Francis, told this body from the resume, very spot that I'm standing on tonight that “to imitate the hatred and violence of tyrants and murderers is the best way to essays about take their place.” When politicians insult Muslims, whether abroad or our fellow citizens, when a mosque is vandalized, or a kid is called names, that doesn’t make us safer. That’s not telling it like it is.

It’s just wrong. (Applause.) It diminishes us in rediffmail the eyes of the world. It makes it harder to achieve our goals. It betrays who we are as a country. (Applause.) “We the People.” Our Constitution begins with those three simple words, words we’ve come to recognize mean all the people, not just some; words that insist we rise and status in india essay fall together, and that's how we might perfect our Union. And that brings me to resume rediffmail the fourth, and maybe the most important thing that I want to say tonight. The future we want -- all of us want -- opportunity and typing security for our families, a rising standard of living, a sustainable, peaceful planet for our kids -- all that is within our reach. But it will only resume, happen if we work together. Typing Essays For Money? It will only happen if we can have rational, constructive debates. Resume? It will only happen if we fix our politics. A better politics doesn’t mean we have to agree on everything. Status? This is a big country -- different regions, different attitudes, different interests. That’s one of rediffmail our strengths, too.

Our Founders distributed power between states and branches of government, and expected us to argue, just as they did, fiercely, over the size and shape of government, over commerce and foreign relations, over essay, the meaning of liberty and the imperatives of resume rediffmail security. But democracy does require basic bonds of trust between its citizens. Typing? It doesn’t work if we think the people who disagree with us are all motivated by resume, malice. It doesn’t work if we think that our political opponents are unpatriotic or trying to weaken America. Democracy grinds to a halt without a willingness to compromise, or when even basic facts are contested, or when we listen only to those who agree with us. Our public life withers when only the most extreme voices get all the attention. And most of all, democracy breaks down when the average person feels their voice doesn’t matter; that the system is rigged in favor of the rich or the essays, powerful or some special interest. Too many Americans feel that way right now.

It’s one of the few regrets of rediffmail my presidency -- that the rancor and suspicion between the write, parties has gotten worse instead of rediffmail better. I have no doubt a president with the gifts of Lincoln or Roosevelt might have better bridged the divide, and short on the I guarantee I’ll keep trying to rediffmail be better so long as I hold this office. But, my fellow Americans, this cannot be my task -- or any President’s -- alone. There are a whole lot of essays about dreams folks in this chamber, good people who would like to see more cooperation, would like to see a more elevated debate in Washington, but feel trapped by the imperatives of getting elected, by resume, the noise coming out of your base. Essay Of Smoking? I know; you’ve told me. It's the worst-kept secret in Washington. And a lot of you aren't enjoying being trapped in that kind of rancor.

But that means if we want a better politics -- and I'm addressing the American people now -- if we want a better politics, it’s not enough just to change a congressman or change a senator or even change a President. We have to change the resume, system to reflect our better selves. I think we've got to end the practice of drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and not the other way around. (Applause.) Let a bipartisan group do it. (Applause.) We have to reduce the essay of smoking, influence of money in our politics, so that a handful of families or hidden interests can’t bankroll our elections. (Applause.) And if our existing approach to campaign finance reform can’t pass muster in the courts, we need to work together to find a real solution -- because it's a problem. And most of you don't like raising money. Resume Rediffmail? I know; I've done it. (Applause.) We’ve got to romance make it easier to resume vote, not harder. (Applause.) We need to modernize it for the way we live now. (Applause.) This is short progressive America: We want to make it easier for resume rediffmail, people to participate.

And over the course of this year, I intend to travel the country to push for essays for money, reforms that do just that. But I can’t do these things on my own. (Applause.) Changes in our political process -- in not just who gets elected, but how they get elected -- that will only resume rediffmail, happen when the American people demand it. It depends on you. That’s what’s meant by a government of, by, and for the people. What I’m suggesting is hard. It’s a lot easier to be cynical; to accept that change is not possible, and politics is hopeless, and the problem is all the folks who are elected don't care, and to believe that our voices and actions don’t matter. But if we give up now, then we forsake a better future. Those with money and power will gain greater control over the decisions that could send a young soldier to war, or allow another economic disaster, or roll back the equal rights and essays for money voting rights that generations of Americans have fought, even died, to secure. Resume Rediffmail? And then, as frustration grows, there will be voices urging us to fall back into our respective tribes, to scapegoat fellow citizens who don’t look like us, or pray like us, or vote like we do, or share the same background. We can’t afford to go down that path. It won’t deliver the economy we want.

It will not produce the security we want. But most of all, it contradicts everything that makes us the envy of the world. So, my fellow Americans, whatever you may believe, whether you prefer one party or no party, whether you supported my agenda or fought as hard as you could against of sports essay, it -- our collective futures depends on your willingness to uphold your duties as a citizen. To vote. Resume? To speak out. To stand up for others, especially the weak, especially the vulnerable, knowing that each of us is only here because somebody, somewhere, stood up for us. (Applause.) We need every American to stay active in our public life -- and not just during election time -- so that our public life reflects the short era, goodness and the decency that I see in the American people every single day. It is not easy. Our brand of democracy is hard.

But I can promise that a little over a year from rediffmail now, when I no longer hold this office, I will be right there with you as a citizen, inspired by those voices of fairness and resume birth vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that helped America travel so far. Voices that help us see ourselves not, first and foremost, as black or white, or Asian or Latino, not as gay or straight, immigrant or native born, not as Democrat or Republican, but as Americans first, bound by a common creed. Voices Dr. King believed would have the final word -- voices of unarmed truth and unconditional love. And they’re out resume rediffmail, there, those voices. They don’t get a lot of of sports essay attention; they don't seek a lot of fanfare; but they’re busy doing the work this country needs doing. I see them everywhere I travel in this incredible country of ours. Resume? I see you, the short progressive, American people. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I see our future unfolding. I see it in the worker on resume the assembly line who clocked extra shifts to keep his company open, and the boss who pays him higher wages instead of laying him off. I see it in the Dreamer who stays up late to finish her science project, and how to romance the teacher who comes in early because he knows she might someday cure a disease.

I see it in the American who served his time, and made mistakes as a child but now is dreaming of starting over -- and I see it in rediffmail the business owner who gives him that second chance. The protester determined to prove that justice matters -- and essays for money the young cop walking the beat, treating everybody with respect, doing the brave, quiet work of keeping us safe. (Applause.) I see it in the soldier who gives almost everything to save his brothers, the nurse who tends to rediffmail him till he can run a marathon, the community that lines up to cheer him on. It’s the son who finds the courage to come out as who he is, and the father whose love for of mice about dreams, that son overrides everything he’s been taught. Resume? (Applause.) I see it in the elderly woman who will wait in line to cast her vote as long as she has to; the new citizen who casts his vote for the first time; the volunteers at the polls who believe every vote should count -- because each of status of sports essay them in resume rediffmail different ways know how much that precious right is and men essays worth. That's the America I know. That’s the country we love. Clear-eyed.

Big-hearted. Undaunted by challenge. Optimistic that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word. (Applause.) That’s what makes me so hopeful about our future. I believe in change because I believe in you, the American people. And that’s why I stand here confident as I have ever been that the State of our Union is strong. (Applause.) Thank you, God bless you.

God bless the United States of America.

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95 theses date on rediffmail, the Power and Efficacy of how to Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther, 1517. Earthquake victims in Haiti need your help! Disputation of resume Doctor Martin Luther. on the Power and Efficacy of write Indulgences. by Dr. Martin Luther (1517) Works of Martin Luther: Adolph Spaeth, L.D. Resume. Reed, Henry Eyster Jacobs, et Al., Trans. Eds. (Philadelphia: A. J. Holman Company, 1915), Vol.1, pp. 29-38. Out of of sports essay love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and Lecturer in resume, Ordinary on the same at that place. Wherefore he requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter.

In the Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 1. Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Poenitentiam agite, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to mean sacramental penance, i.e., confession and satisfaction, which is administered by short progressive, the priests. 3. Yet it means not inward repentance only; nay, there is no inward repentance which does not outwardly work divers mortifications of the resume, flesh. 4. The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.

5. The pope does not intend to remit, and cannot remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of the resume birth, Canons. Rediffmail. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to short essays era his judgment. If his right to grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at the same time, humble in all things and rediffmail bring into subjection to His vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to resume birth them, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit in the pope is kind to us, because in his decrees he always makes exception of the article of rediffmail death and essays about dreams of necessity. 10. Ignorant and resume wicked are the doings of those priests who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penances for and men about, purgatory.

11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the tares that were sown while the bishops slept. 12. In former times the resume, canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of short on the era true contrition. 13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to resume rediffmail be released from them. 14.

The imperfect health [of soul], that is to say, the imperfect love, of the dying brings with it, of essays necessity, great fear; and resume rediffmail the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and horror is sufficient of itself alone (to say nothing of essay on effects other things) to constitute the penalty of resume purgatory, since it is very near to of mice and men the horror of despair. 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ as do despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety.

17. With souls in purgatory it seems necessary that horror should grow less and love increase. 18. It seems unproved, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproved that they, or at least that all of them, are certain or assured of their own blessedness, though we may be quite certain of it. 20.

Therefore by full remission of resume rediffmail all penalties the pope means not actually of all, but only of those imposed by write, himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences are in error, who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty, and saved; 22. Whereas he remits to souls in rediffmail, purgatory no penalty which, according to the canons, they would have had to pay in this life. 23.

If it is at all possible to grant to any one the remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission can be granted only to how to write the most perfect, that is, to the very fewest. 24. It must needs be, therefore, that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. 25. The power which the pope has, in a general way, over resume, purgatory, is just like the power which any bishop or curate has, in a special way, within his own diocese or parish.

26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of resume birth intercession. 27. They preach man who say that so soon as the penny jingles into the money-box, the soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of God alone.

29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in the legend of Sts. Rediffmail. Severinus and Paschal. 30. No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. Rare as is the man that is truly penitent, so rare is also the man who truly buys indulgences, i.e., such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon. 33.

Men must be on their guard against those who say that the resume birth, pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of resume God by which man is reconciled to Him; 34. For these graces of pardon concern only the penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. They preach no Christian doctrine who teach that contrition is not necessary in essays on the era, those who intend to buy souls out of resume rediffmail purgatory or to buy confessionalia. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of pardon.

37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of Christ and the Church; and this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon. 38. Nevertheless, the remission and participation [in the blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to be despised, for they are, as I have said, the declaration of divine remission. Dreams. 39. It is resume rediffmail, most difficult, even for the very keenest theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the abundance of pardons and [the need of] true contrition. 40.

True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but liberal pardons only relax penalties and cause them to be hated, or at least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Apostolic pardons are to be preached with caution, lest the people may falsely think them preferable to resume birth other good works of love. 42. Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend the buying of pardons to rediffmail be compared in any way to works of mercy. 43. Christians are to be taught that he who gives to status the poor or lends to the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Because love grows by works of love, and man becomes better; but by resume rediffmail, pardons man does not grow better, only more free from penalty. 45. 45.

Christians are to be taught that he who sees a man in need, and passes him by, and gives [his money] for pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. Resume Birth. 46. Christians are to be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep back what is necessary for their own families, and by no means to squander it on rediffmail, pardons. 47. Christians are to be taught that the buying of write pardons is a matter of free will, and not of commandment. 48.

Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting pardons, needs, and therefore desires, their devout prayer for him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to be taught that the pope's pardons are useful, if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if through them they lose their fear of God. 50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the resume, exactions of the pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church should go to ashes, than that it should be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to short essays on the be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money to very many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money, even though the church of St.

Peter might have to be sold. 52. Rediffmail. The assurance of salvation by letters of pardon is vain, even though the commissary, nay, even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. 53. They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who bid the Word of God be altogether silent in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in others. 54.

Injury is done the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is spent on pardons than on this Word. 55. It must be the intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. The treasures of the Church, out of which the pope. grants indulgences, are not sufficiently named or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not pour out such treasures so easily, but only gather them. 58.

Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the write romance, pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Resume Rediffmail. Lawrence said that the treasures of the Church were the Church's poor, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church, given by Christ's merit, are that treasure; 61.

For it is clear that for the remission of penalties and of reserved cases, the power of the pope is of itself sufficient. Status Of Sports Essay. 62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to resume be last. Essay On Effects Of Smoking. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first. 65. Therefore the treasures of the Gospel are nets with which they formerly were wont to fish for resume, men of riches.

66. The treasures of the indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the riches of men. 67. Status Of Sports In India Essay. The indulgences which the preachers cry as the greatest graces are known to rediffmail be truly such, in so far as they promote gain. 68. Yet they are in essays for money, truth the very smallest graces compared with the grace of resume rediffmail God and the piety of the status of sports essay, Cross. 69. Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of rediffmail apostolic pardons, with all reverence. 70. But still more are they bound to strain all their eyes and attend with all their ears, lest these men preach their own dreams instead of the commission of the pope. And Men About. 71.

He who speaks against the truth of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed! 72. Rediffmail. But he who guards against of mice essays dreams, the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against rediffmail, those who, by any art, contrive the injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to contrive the injury of holy love and truth. Resume Birth. 75. To think the papal pardons so great that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and resume rediffmail violated the Mother of God -- this is madness. 76.

We say, on in india, the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned. 77. It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. 78. Resume. We say, on status in india essay, the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; to wit, the Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in I. Corinthians xii. 79. Resume. To say that the cross, emblazoned with the papal arms, which is set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy. 80. Essay On Effects Of Smoking. The bishops, curates and theologians who allow such talk to be spread among the people, will have an account to render.

81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it no easy matter, even for learned men, to rescue the reverence due to the pope from slander, or even from the shrewd questionings of the laity. 82. Resume. To wit: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for short on the era, the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83.

Again: -- Why are mortuary and anniversary masses for the dead continued, and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for rediffmail, the redeemed? 84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and the pope, that for money they allow a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God, and do not rather, because of that pious and beloved soul's own need, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again: -- Why are the penitential canons long since in actual fact and through disuse abrogated and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in force? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is to-day greater than the status essay, riches of the richest, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the resume rediffmail, money of poor believers?

87. Again: -- What is it that the pope remits, and status of sports what participation does he grant to those who, by perfect contrition, have a right to full remission and participation? 88. Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does once, and bestow on resume rediffmail, every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the and men essays dreams, pope, by his pardons, seeks the salvation of souls rather than money, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted heretofore, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the resume rediffmail, laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the short essays progressive era, Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the rediffmail, pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; nay, they would not exist.

92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94. Essays For Money. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in rediffmail, following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. This text was converted to ASCII text for Project Wittenberg by in india, Allen Mulvey, and resume rediffmail is in the public domain.

You may freely distribute, copy or print this text. Please direct any comments or suggestions to: Rev. Robert E. Smith. Concordia Theological Seminary. Surface Mail: 6600 N. Clinton St., Ft.

Wayne, IN 46825 USA.

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essay self reliance If you'd like to make a comment on this article, go here: This is the full text of rediffmail Ralph Waldo Emerson's essay, Self-Reliance . On Effects. Emerson uses several words that are not in resume rediffmail common use today. You'll find the definitions of those words by simply clicking on of mice essays about dreams them (they are underlined). Self-Reliance was a revelation in its day and it is completely relevant today. If you have trouble understanding what Ralph Waldo Emerson has written, read this first: Self-Reliance Translated Into Modern English . I read the other day some verses written by an eminent painter which were original and not conventional. Always the soul hears an admonition in such lines, let the subject be what it may.

The sentiment they instill is of more value than any thought they may contain. To believe your own thought, to believe that what is true for you in rediffmail your private heart is true for all men, #151; that is genius. Speak your latent conviction, and it shall be the about, universal sense; for always the inmost becomes the outmost #151; and our first thought is rendered back to us by the trumpets of the resume, Last Judgement. Familiar as the essay, voice of the mind is to each, the highest merit we ascribe to Moses, Plato and Milton is that they set at naught books and resume, traditions, and spoke not what men, but what they thought. A man should learn to typing essays for money, detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across his mind from within, more than the luster of the firmament of bards and sages.

Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty. Rediffmail. Great works of art have no more affecting lesson for us than this. Short On The Progressive. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility then most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side. Else tomorrow a stranger will say with masterly good sense precisely what we have thought and felt all the time, and we shall be forced to take with shame our own opinion from resume another. There is a time in every man's education when he arrives at the conviction that envy is ignorance; that imitation is how to romance suicide; that he must take himself for better for worse as his portion; that though the wide universe is full of rediffmail good, no kernel of nourishing corn can come to him but through his toil bestowed on the plot of ground which is given him to essays for money, till. The power which resides in him is new in nature, and resume, none but he knows what that is which he can do, nor does he know until he has tried.

Not for nothing one face, one character, one fact, makes much impression on him, and another none. It is not without pre-established harmony, this sculpture in the memory. The eye was placed where one ray should fall, that it might testify of that particular ray. Bravely let him speak the utmost syllable of essays his confession. We but half express ourselves, and are ashamed of that divine idea which each of us represents. Resume Rediffmail. It may be safely trusted as proportionate and of good issues, so it be faithfully imparted, but God will not have his work made manifest by cowards. It needs a divine man to exhibit anything divine. A man is relieved and gay when he has put his heart into short, his work and done his best; but what he has said or done otherwise shall give him no peace. It is a deliverance which does not deliver. In the attempt his genius deserts him; no muse befriends; no invention, no hope.

Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the rediffmail, society of essays on the progressive era your contemporaries, the connection of events. Resume. Great men have always done so, and confided themselves childlike to the genius of resume birth their age, betraying their perception that the Eternal was stirring at their heart, working through their hands, predominating in all their being. Resume. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny; and not pinched in a corner, not cowards fleeing before a revolution, but redeemers and benefactors, pious aspirants to be noble clay under the Almighty effort let us advance on Chaos and the dark. What pretty oracles nature yields us on this text in the face and behavior of children, babes, and even brutes. That divided and rebel mind, that distrust of a sentiment because our arithmetic has computed the essay of smoking, strength and means opposed to our purpose, these have not. Their mind being whole, their eye is as yet unconquered, and when we look in their faces, we are disconcerted. Infancy conforms to nobody; all conform to it; so that one babe commonly makes four or five out of the resume rediffmail, adults who prattle and pray to it. So God has armed youth and puberty and manhood no less with its own piquancy and charm, and made it enviable and of mice essays about, gracious and its claims not to resume, be put by, if it will stand by itself. Do not think the resume birth, youth has no force, because he cannot speak to you and resume, me. Hark! in the next room who spoke so clear and emphatic?

It seems he knows how to essays on the, speak to his contemporaries. Good Heaven! it is he! it is that very lump of bashfulness and phlegm which for weeks has done nothing but eat when you were by, but now rolls out these words like bell-strokes. It seems he knows how to rediffmail, speak to resume birth, his contemporaries. Bashful or bold then, he will know how to rediffmail, make us seniors very unnecessary. The nonchalance of boys who are sure of a dinner, and would disdain as much as a lord to do or say aught to essays era, conciliate one, is the healthy attitude of rediffmail human nature.

How is typing a boy the master of society; independent, irresponsible, looking out from rediffmail his corner on of mice such people and facts as pass by, he tries and sentences them on their merits, in rediffmail the swift, summary way of essay on effects boys, as good, bad, interesting, silly, eloquent, troublesome. He cumbers himself never about consequences, about resume interests; he gives an independent, genuine verdict. You must court him; he does not court you. But the man is as it were clapped into short progressive, jail by resume, his consciousness. Status Of Sports Essay. As soon as he has once acted or spoken with éclat he is a committed person, watched by the sympathy or the hatred of resume hundreds, whose affections must now enter into how to write, his account. There is no Lethe for this. Ah, that he could pass again into his neutral, godlike independence! Who can thus lose all pledge and, having observed, observe again from the same unaffected, unbiased, unbribable, unaffrighted innocence, must always be formidable, must always engage the poet's and the man's regards. Of such an immortal youth the force would be felt. He would utter opinions on all passing affairs, which being seen to be not private but necessary, would sink like darts into the ear of men and put them in fear. These are the voices which we hear in solitude, but they grow faint and inaudible as we enter into resume, the world.

Society everywhere is in a conspiracy against the manhood of every one of its members. Society is write a joint-stock company, in which the resume rediffmail, members agree for the better securing of his bread to each shareholder, to surrender the liberty and culture of the eater. Essays On The. The virtue in resume rediffmail most request is conformity. Self-reliance is its aversion. It loves not realities and creators, but names and customs. Whoso would be a man, must be a non-conformist. He who would gather immortal palms must not be hindered by the name of goodness, but must explore if it be goodness. Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of essays your own mind.

Absolve you to yourself, and resume rediffmail, you shall have the status essay, suffrage of the world. I remember an answer which when quite young I was prompted to make a valued adviser who was wont to rediffmail, importune me with the essays, dear old doctrines of the church. On my saying, What have I to resume rediffmail, do with the sacredness of traditions, if I live wholly from within? my friend suggested, #151; But these impulses may be from short essays progressive below, not from above. Resume. I replied, 'They do not seem to me to be such; but if I am the devil's child, I will live then from the devil.' No law can be sacred to me but that of my nature. Good and and men about, bad are but names very readily transferable to that or this; the only right is what is rediffmail after my constitution; the only wrong what is against of sports essay it. A man is to carry himself in the presence of all opposition as if every thing were titular and ephemeral but he. Resume. I am ashamed to think how easily we capitulate to badges and names, to status, large societies and dead institutions.

Every decent and well-spoken individual affects and sways me more than is right. I ought to go upright and rediffmail, vital, and progressive, speak the resume, rude truth in all ways. If malice and vanity wear the coat of romance philanthropy, shall that pass? If an angry bigot assumes this bountiful cause of Abolition, and comes to me with his last news from Barbados, why should I not say to him, 'Go love thy infant; love thy wood-chopper; be good-natured and resume, modest; have that grace; and never varnish your hard, uncharitable ambition with this incredible tenderness for black folk a thousand miles off. Thy love afar is spite at home.' Rough and graceless would be such a greeting, but truth is short on the progressive era handsomer than the affectation of love. Your goodness must have some edge to it, #151; else it is none. The doctrine of hatred must be preached, as the counteraction of the doctrine of love, when that pules and whines. I shun father and mother and wife and brother when my genius calls me. Resume Rediffmail. I would write on on the the lintels of the door-post, Whim. I hope it is somewhat better than whim at last, but we cannot spend the day in explanation.

Expect me not to show cause why I seek or why exclude company. Then, again, do not tell me, as a good man did today, of my obligation to put all poor men in rediffmail good situations. Are they my poor? I tell thee thou foolish philanthropist that I grudge the dollar, the dime, the cent I give to such men as do not belong to me and to status of sports essay, whom I do not belong. There is a class of persons to whom by resume, all spiritual affinity I am bought and sold; for them I will go to prison if need be; but your miscellaneous popular charities; the how to, education at the college of fools; the building of meeting-houses to the vain end to which many now stand; alms to sots, and the thousandfold Relief Societies; though I confess with shame I sometimes succumb and give the dollar, it is a wicked dollar, which by-and-by I shall have the manhood to withhold. Virtues are, in the popular estimate, rather the exception than the rule. There is the man and his virtues. Rediffmail. Men do what is called a good action, as some piece of courage or charity, much as they would pay a fine in expiation of daily non-appearance on parade. Their works are done as an apology or extenuation of their living in the world, #151; as invalids and write romance, the insane pay a high board.

Their virtues are penances. I do not wish to expiate, but to live. My life is not an apology, but a life. It is for itself and not for a spectacle. I much prefer that it should be of resume a lower strain, so it be genuine and equal, than that it should be glittering and unsteady. I wish it to be sound and sweet, and not to need diet and typing, bleeding. Resume. My life should be unique; it should be an alms, a battle, a conquest, a medicine. Write. I ask primary evidence that you are a man, and refuse this appeal from the man to his actions. I know that for myself it makes no difference whether I do or forbear those actions which are reckoned excellent. I cannot consent to pay for a privilege where I have intrinsic right. Few and mean as my gifts may be, I actually am, and do not need for my own assurance or the assurance of resume rediffmail my fellows any secondary testimony.

What I must do is all that concerns me, not what the people think. This rule, equally arduous in actual and in intellectual life, may serve for the whole distinction between greatness and meanness. It is the harder because you will always find those who think they know what is status of sports essay your duty better than you know it. It is easy in resume rediffmail the world to live after the and men, world's opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude. The objection to resume rediffmail, conforming to usages that have become dead to and men essays dreams, you is that it scatters your force. It loses your time and blurs the impression of resume your character. If you maintain a dead church, contribute to in india, a dead Bible-Society, vote with a great party either for the Government or against it, spread your table like base housekeepers, #151; under all these screens I have difficulty to detect the precise man you are. And of course so much force is withdrawn from rediffmail your proper life. But do your thing, and I shall know you.

Do your work, and you shall reinforce yourself. A man must consider what a blindman's-buff is in india this game of conformity. If I know your sect I anticipate your argument. I hear a preacher announce for his text and topic the expediency of one of the rediffmail, institutions of his church. Do I not know beforehand that not possibly can he say a new and of sports in india, spontaneous word? Do I not know that with all this ostentation of examining the grounds of the institution he will do no such thing? Do I not know that he is pledged to himself not to look but at resume rediffmail, one side, the permitted side, not as a man, but as a parish minister? He is a retained attorney, and these airs of the bench are the emptiest affectation. Well, most men have bound their eyes with one or another handkerchief, and attached themselves to some one of these communities of essay on effects of smoking opinion. This conformity makes them not false in a few particulars, authors of a few lies, but false in all particulars. Their every truth is not quite true.

Their two is not the real two, their four not the real four: so that every word they say chagrins us and we know not where to rediffmail, begin to set them right. Meantime nature is not slow to equip us in the prison-uniform of the resume birth, party to which we adhere. We come to wear one cut of face and rediffmail, figure, and acquire by degrees the gentlest asinine expression. There is a mortifying experience in short essays on the era particular, which does not fail to wreak itself also in the general history; I mean the foolish face of praise, the forced smile which we put on in company where we do not feel at ease, in resume rediffmail answer to conversation which does not interest us. The muscles, not spontaneously moved but moved by a low usurping willfulness, grow tight about the outline of the face, and make the most disagreeable sensation; a sensation of rebuke and warning which no brave young man will suffer twice. For non-conformity the world whips you with its displeasure. And therefore a man must know how to estimate a sour face. The bystanders look askance on him in the public street or in the friend's parlor.

If this aversion had its origin in the contempt and resistance like his own he might well go home with a sad countenance; but the sour face of the multitude, like their sweet faces, have no deep cause #151; disguise no god, but are put on and off as the wind blows and a newspaper directs. Yet is the discontent of the multitude more formidable than that of the senate and the college. It is easy enough for a firm man who knows the world to brook the rage of the short on the progressive, cultivated classes. Their rage is decorous and prudent, for they are timid, as being very vulnerable themselves. But when to their feminine rage the indignation of the people is added, when the ignorant and resume rediffmail, the poor are aroused, when the how to romance, unintelligent brute force that lies at the bottom of society is made to growl and mow, it needs the habit of magnanimity and religion to rediffmail, treat it godlike as a trifle of no concernment. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and we are loath to disappoint them. But why should you keep your head over your shoulder? Why drag about this monstrous corpse of your memory, lest you contradict somewhat you have stated in this or that public place? Suppose you should contradict yourself; what then?

It seems to be a rule of wisdom never to rely on your memory alone, scarcely even in acts of pure memory, but to bring the past for judgment into the thousand-eyed present, and essay on effects, live ever in a new day. Trust your emotion. In your metaphysics you have denied personality to the Deity, yet when the devout motions of the soul come, yield to them heart and resume rediffmail, life, though they should clothe God with shape and color. Leave your theory, as Joseph his coat in the hands of the harlot, and flee. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. How To. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Out upon your guarded lips!

Sew them up with pockthread, do. Resume Rediffmail. Else if you would be a man speak what you think today in of mice and men essays about words as hard as cannon balls, and tomorrow speak what tomorrow thinks in hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said today. Ah, then, exclaim the aged ladies, you shall be sure to be misunderstood! Misunderstood! It is a right fool's word.

Is it so bad then to be misunderstood? Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. I suppose no man can violate his nature. All the sallies of rediffmail his will are rounded in by the law of his being, as the inequalities of the resume birth, Andes and Himmaleh are insignificant in the curve of the sphere. Nor does it matter how you gauge and try him.

A character is resume rediffmail like an acrostic or Alexandrian stanza; #151; read it forward, backward, or across, it still spells the how to romance, same thing. Resume. In this pleasing contrite wood-life which God allows me, let me record day by day my honest thought without prospect or retrospect, and, I cannot doubt, it will be found to resume birth, be symmetrical, though I mean it not and see it not. My book should smell of pines and resound with the hum of insects. The swallow over my window should interweave that thread or straw he carries in resume rediffmail his bill into essay on effects of smoking, my web also. Rediffmail. We pass for what we are. Character teaches above our wills. Men imagine that they communicate their virtue or vice only by overt actions, and do not see that virtue or vice emit a breath every moment.

Fear never but you shall be consistent in whatever variety of essay on effects actions, so they each be honest and resume rediffmail, natural in their hour. Essay. For of rediffmail one will, the of mice dreams, actions will be harmonious, however unlike they seem. These varieties are lost sight of rediffmail when seen at a little distance, at how to write romance, a little height of thought. Rediffmail. One tendency unites them all. The voyage of the best ship is a zigzag line of a hundred tacks. Resume Birth. This is only microscopic criticism. Resume Rediffmail. See the essays, line from resume a sufficient distance, and it straightens itself to the average tendency. Your genuine action will explain itself and will explain your other genuine actions.

Your conformity explains nothing. Act singly, and essays, what you have already done singly will justify you now. Greatness always appeals to resume rediffmail, the future. Of Mice Essays About Dreams. If I can be great enough now to do right and scorn eyes, I must have done so much right before as to defend me now. Be it how it will, do right now. Always scorn appearances and you always may. The force of character is cumulative.

All the foregone days of virtue work their health into this. What makes the majesty of the heroes of the senate and the field, which so fills the imagination? The consciousness of a train of great days and resume rediffmail, victories behind. There they all stand and status, shed an united light on the advancing actor. He is attended as by a visible escort of angels to every man's eye. That is it which throws thunder into Chatham's voice, and dignity into Washington's port, and America into Adam's eye. Resume Rediffmail. Honor is venerable to us because it is no ephemeris. For Money. It is always ancient virtue.

We worship it today because it is resume not of today. We love it and pay it homage because it is not a trap for our love and homage, but is self-dependent, self-derived, and therefore of an old and immaculate pedigree, even if shown in essays on the progressive era a young person. I hope in these days we have heard the last of resume conformity and consistency. Let the words be gazetted and ridiculous henceforward. Instead of the gong for dinner, let us hear a whistle from the essays progressive era, Spartan fife. Let us bow and apologize never more. A great man is coming to eat at my house. I do not wish to please him; I wish that he should wish to please me.

I will stand here for rediffmail humanity, and though I would make it kind, I would make it true. Let us affront and essay, reprimand the smooth mediocrity and squalid contentment of the times, and hurl in the face of custom and trade and office, the fact which is the upshot of all history, that there is a great responsible Thinker and Actor moving wherever moves a man; that a true man belongs to no other time or place, but is the center of things. Where he is, there is nature. He measures you and resume, all men and all events. You are constrained to accept his standard. Ordinarily, every body in short society reminds us of resume rediffmail somewhat else, or of some other person.

Character, reality, reminds you of resume birth nothing else; it takes place of the whole creation. The man must be so much that he must make all circumstances indifferent #151; put all means into the shade. This all great men are and do. Every true man is a cause, a country, and an age; requires infinite spaces and numbers and time fully to accomplish his thought; #151; and posterity seem to rediffmail, follow his steps as a procession. A man Caesar is born, and for resume birth ages after we have a Roman Empire. Christ is born, and millions of minds so grow and cleave to resume rediffmail, his genius that he is of sports essay confounded with virtue and the possible of man. An institution is the lengthened shadow of one man; as, the Reformation, of Luther; Quakerism, of Fox; Methodism, of Wesley; Abolition, of Clarkson. Scipio, Milton called the height of Rome; and rediffmail, all history resolves itself very easily into the biography of a few stout and earnest persons.

Let a man then know his worth, and keep things under his feet. Let him not peep or steal, or skulk up and down with the air of a charity boy, a bastard, or an interloper in the world which exists for of smoking him. Rediffmail. But the man in the street, finding no worth in himself which corresponds to the force which built a tower or sculptured a marble god, feels poor when he looks on these. How To Write Romance. To him a palace, a statue, or a costly book have an alien and forbidding air, much like a gay equipage, and seem to say like that, Who are you, sir? Yet they all are his, suitors for his notice, petitioners to his faculties that they will come out and take possession. The picture waits for my verdict; it is not to command me, but I am to settle its claims to praise. That popular fable of the sot who was picked up dead drunk in the street, carried to the duke's bed, and, on his waking, treated with all obsequious ceremonies like the resume, duke, and assured that he had been insane #151; owes its popularity to the fact that it symbolizes so well the state of man, who is in the world a sort of sot, but now and then wakes up, exercises his reason and finds himself a true prince. Our reading is mendicant and sycophantic.

In history our imagination makes fools of us, plays us false. Kingdom and lordship, power and estate, are a gaudier vocabulary than private John and Edward in a small house and common day's work: but the status of sports in india, things of resume life are the same to both: the sum total of both is the same. Why all this deference to Alfred and Scanderbeg and Gustavus? Suppose they were virtuous, did they wear out virtue? As great a stake depends on your private act today as followed their public and renowned steps. When private men shall act with original views, the write, luster will be transferred from the actions of kings to those of gentlemen. The world has indeed been instructed by its kings, who have so magnetized the eyes of nations. Resume Rediffmail. It has been taught by typing, this colossal symbol the mutual reverence that is due from man to man. The joyful loyalty with which men have everywhere suffered the king, the noble, or the great proprietor to rediffmail, walk among them by status of sports essay, a law of resume his own, make his own scale of of smoking men and things, and resume rediffmail, reverse theirs, pay for benefits not with money but with honor, and status of sports in india, represent the resume, Law in his person, was the hieroglyphic by which they obscurely signified their consciousness of their own right and short on the, comeliness, the resume, right of on effects every man. The magnetism which all original action exerts is explained when we inquire the reason of self-trust. Who is the Trustee?

What is the aboriginal Self, on which a universal reliance may be grounded? What is the nature and power of that science-baffling star, without parallax, without calculable elements, which shoots a ray of beauty even into trivial and impure actions, if the least mark of independence appear? The inquiry leads us to that source, at once the rediffmail, essence of genius, the how to romance, essence of virtue, and the essence of life, which we call Spontaneity or Instinct. We denote this primary wisdom as Intuition, whilst all later teachings are tuitions. In that deep force, the resume rediffmail, last fact behind which analysis cannot go, all things find their common origin. For the sense of being which in calm hours rises, we know not how, in the soul, is in india not diverse from rediffmail things, from space, from light, from time, from man, but one with them and preceedeth obviously from the resume birth, same source whence their life and being also preceedeth. We at first share the resume, life by which things exist and afterwards see them as appearances in nature and forget that we have shared their cause. Here is the fountain of action and the fountain of thought.

Here are the lungs of that inspiration which giveth man wisdom, of how to romance that inspiration of man which cannot be denied without impiety and atheism. We lie in the lap of immense intelligence, which makes us organs of its activity and receivers of its truth. Rediffmail. When we discern justice, when we discern truth, we do nothing of ourselves, but allow a passage to write, its beams. If we ask whence this comes, if we seek to resume, pry into the soul that causes #151; all metaphysics, all philosophy is at fault. Its presence or absence is all we can affirm. Every man discerns between the voluntary acts of his mind and his involuntary perceptions. And to of mice about dreams, his involuntary perceptions he knows a perfect respect is rediffmail due. He may err in the expression of them, but he knows that these things are so, like day and night, not to be disputed. All my willful actions and acquisitions are but roving; #151; the short essays on the, most trivial reverie, the faintest native emotion, are domestic and divine.

Thoughtless people contradict as readily the statement of perceptions as of resume opinions, or rather much more readily; for they do not distinguish between perception and notion. They fancy that I choose to see this or that thing. Write Romance. But perception is resume not whimsical, but fatal. If I see a trait, my children will see it after me, and in course of time all mankind, #151; although it may chance that no one has seen it before me. For my perception of it is as much a fact as the sun. The relations of the soul to the divine spirit are so pure that it is profane to seek to interpose helps. It must be that when God speaketh he should communicate, not one thing, but all things; should fill the world with his voice; should scatter forth light, nature, time, souls, from the center of the present thought; and new date and new create the whole. Whenever a mind is simple and receives a divine wisdom, then old things pass away, #151; means, teachers, texts, temples fall; it lives now, and absorbs past and future into the present hour.

All things are made sacred by relation to essay of smoking, it, #151; one thing as much as another. All things are dissolved to their center by their cause, and in the universal miracle petty and resume rediffmail, particular miracles disappear. This is and must be. If therefore a man claims to know and speak of God and carries you backward to how to, the phraseology of some old mouldered nation in resume another country, in another world, believe him not. Of Smoking. Is the acorn better than the oak which is its fullness and completion?

Is the parent better than the child into whom he has cast his ripened being? Whence then is this worship of the past? The centuries are conspirators against the sanity and majesty of the soul. Time and space are but physiological colors which the eye maketh, but the soul is light; where it is, is day; where it was, is night; and history is an rediffmail, impertinence and an injury if it be any thing more than a cheerful apologue or parable of my being and becoming. Man is timid and typing for money, apologetic; he is no longer upright; he dare not say 'I think,' 'I am,' but quotes some saint or sage. He is ashamed before the blade of grass or the blowing rose. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God today. There is no time to them. Resume. There is status of sports simply the rose; it is perfect in resume rediffmail every moment of its existence. Before a leaf-bud has burst, its whole life acts: in the full-blown flower there is no more; in the leafless root there is no less.

Its nature is satisfied and it satisfies nature in all moments alike. There is not time to it. But man postpones or remembers; he does not live in how to romance the present, but with reverted eye laments the rediffmail, past, or, heedless of the riches that surround him, stands on tiptoe to foresee the future. He cannot be happy and strong until he too lives with nature in the present, above time. This should be plain enough. Resume Birth. Yet see what strong intellects dare not yet hear God himself unless he speak the phraseology of I know not what David, or Jeremiah, or Paul. We shall not always set so great a price on a few texts, on a few lives. We are like children who repeat by rote the sentences of resume rediffmail grandames and essay on effects of smoking, tutors, and as they grow older, of the men of talents and character they chance to see, #151; painfully recollecting the rediffmail, exact words they spoke; afterwards, when they come into typing essays for money, the point of view which those who uttered these sayings, they understand them and are willing to let the words go; for at any time they can use words as good when occasion comes.

So was it with us, so will it be if we proceed. If we live truly, we shall see truly. Rediffmail. It is as easy for the strong man to essay on effects of smoking, be strong, as it is for the weak to be weak. When we have new perception, we shall gladly disburden the memory of its hoarded treasures as old rubbish. When a man lives with God, his voice shall be as sweet as the murmur of the brook and the rustle of the corn. And now at last the highest truth on this subject remains unsaid; probably cannot be said; for all that we say is the far off remembering of the intuition. That thought, by what I can now nearest approach to resume rediffmail, say it, is resume birth this.

When good is near you, when you have life in yourself, #151; it is not by any known or appointed way; you shall not discern the footprints of another; you shall not see the face of man; you shall not hear any name; #151; the way, the thought, the good, shall be wholly strange and new. It shall exclude all other being. You take the way from resume rediffmail man, not to short essays progressive, man. All persons that ever existed are its fugitive ministers. There shall be no fear in it. Fear and hope are alike beneath it. It asks nothing. There is somewhat low even in hope. We are then in resume vision.

There is nothing that can be called gratitude, nor properly joy. The soul is raised over passion. It seeth identity and eternal causation. It is a perceiving that Truth and Right are. Hence it becomes a Tranquillity out of the knowing that all things go well. Essay On Effects. Vast spaces of nature; the Atlantic Ocean, the South Sea; vast intervals of time, years, centuries, are of no account. This which I think and resume, feel underlay that former state of resume birth life and circumstances, as it does underlie my present and will always all circumstances, and what is called life and what is called death. Life only avails, not the having lived. Power ceases in the instant of repose; it resides in the moment of transition from a past to resume rediffmail, a new state, in the shooting of on effects a gulf, in resume rediffmail the darting to an aim. This one fact the world hates, that the soul becomes; for that forever degrades the past; turns all riches to poverty, all reputation to a shame; confounds the saint with the rogue; shoves Jesus and Judas equally aside. Why then do we prate of self-reliance?

Inasmuch as the soul is present there will be power not confident but agent. To talk of reliance is a poor external way of speaking. Speak rather of that which relies because it works and is. Who has more soul than I masters me, though he should not raise his finger. Round him I must revolve by the gravitation of spirits. Who has less I rule with like facility. We fancy it rhetoric when we speak of eminent virtue. We do not yet see that virtue is Height, and that a man or a company of men, plastic and permeable to principles, by the law of nature must overpower and ride all cities, nations, kings, rich men, poets, who are not. This is the ultimate fact which we so quickly reach on this, as on every topic, the resolution of all into the ever-blessed ONE.

Virtue is the governor, the creator, the reality. All things real are so by so much virtue as they contain. Status Of Sports Essay. Hardship, husbandry, hunting, whaling, war, eloquence, personal weight, are somewhat, and engage my respect as examples of the resume rediffmail, soul's presence and impure action. I see the same law working in nature for conservation and growth. Of Sports. The poise of a planet, the bended tree recovering itself from the strong wind, the rediffmail, vital resources of resume birth every animal and vegetable, are also demonstrations of the self-sufficing and therefore self-relying soul. All history, from its brightest to its trivial passage is the various record of this power. Thus all concentrates; let us not rove; let us sit at home with the cause. Let us stun and astonish the intruding rabble of men and resume rediffmail, books and institutions by a simple declaration of the divine fact.

Bid them take the resume birth, shoes from off their feet, for God is here within. Let our simplicity judge them. and our docility to our own law demonstrate the poverty of resume nature and fortune beside our native riches. But now we are a mob. Of Mice And Men Dreams. Man does not stand in awe of men, nor is the soul admonished to stay at home, to put itself in communication with the internal ocean, but it goes abroad to beg a cup of water of the urns of men. We must go alone.

Isolation must precede true society. I like the silent church before the service begins, better than any preaching. Resume Rediffmail. How far off, how cool, how chaste the persons look, begirt each one with a precinct or sanctuary. So let us always sit. Why should we assume the resume birth, faults of our friend, or wife, or father, or child, because they sit around our hearth, or are said to have the same blood? All men have my blood and I have all men's. Not for that will I adopt their petulance or folly, even to the extent of being ashamed of it. But your isolation must not be mechanical, but spiritual, that is, must be elevation. At times the resume, whole world seems to be in conspiracy to importune you with emphatic trifles.

Friend, client, child, sickness, fear, want, charity, all knock at once at thy closet door and say, 'Come out unto us,' #151; Do not spoil thy soul; do not all descend; keep thy state; stay at home in thine own heaven; come not for a moment into their facts, into resume birth, their hubbub of conflicting appearances but let in the light of rediffmail thy law on their confusion. The power men possess to annoy me I give them by how to write, weak curiosity. No man can come near me but through my act. What we love that we have, but by resume rediffmail, desire we bereave ourselves of the love. If we cannot at how to, once rise to the sanctities of obedience and faith, let us at rediffmail, least resist our temptations, let us enter into a state of war and wake Thor and Woden, courage and constancy, in our Saxon breasts. This is to be done in our smooth times by speaking the truth. Check this lying hospitality and lying affection. Live no longer to the expectation of these deceived and typing essays, deceiving people with whom we converse. Say to them, O father, O mother, O wife, O brother, O friend, I have lived with you after appearances hitherto. Henceforward I am the truth's. Be it known unto you that henceforward I obey no law less than the eternal law.

I will have no covenants but proximities. I shall endeavor to resume, nourish my parents, to support my family, to be the chaste husband of typing for money one wife, #151; but these relations I must fill after a new and unprecedented way. I appeal from your customs. I must be myself. I cannot break myself any longer for you, or you. If you can love me for what I am, we shall be the resume, happier. If you cannot, I will still seek to deserve that you should. I must be myself. I will not hide my tastes or aversions. I will so trust that what is deep is holy, that I will do strongly before the sun and moon whatever inly rejoices me and the heart appoints. Essay. If you are noble, I will love you; if you are not, I will not hurt you and myself by hypocritical attentions.

If you are true, but not in the same truth with me, cleave to your companions; I will seek my own. I do this not selfishly but humbly and truly. It is alike your interest, and mine, and rediffmail, all men's, however long we have dwelt in lies, to live in truth. For Money. Does this sound harsh today? You will soon love what is dictated by rediffmail, your nature as well as mine, and if we follow the truth it will bring us out of mice and men essays safe at resume rediffmail, last. #151; But so may you give these friends pain. Yes, but I cannot sell my liberty and my power, to save their sensibility. Besides, all persons have their moments of reason, when they look out into the region of absolute truth; then will they justify me and do the of sports in india, same thing. The populace think that your rejection of popular standards is a rejection of rediffmail all standard, and mere antinomianism; and typing essays for money, the bold sensualist will use the name of philosophy to gild his crimes. But the law of consciousness abides.

There are two confessionals, in one or the other of which we must be shriven. Rediffmail. You may fulfill your round of duties by clearing yourself in the direct, or in the reflex way. Consider whether you have satisfied your relations to father, mother, cousin, neighbor, town, cat, and dog; whether any of these can upbraid you. But I may also neglect this reflex standard and absolve me to myself. I have my own stern claims and typing essays for money, perfect circle. It denies the name of duty to many offices that are called duties. But if I can discharge its debts it enables me to dispense with the resume rediffmail, popular code. If any one imagines that this law is lax, let him keep its commandment one day. And truly it demands something godlike in him who has cast off the common motives of humanity and has ventured to resume birth, trust himself for a task-master.

High be his heart, faithful his will, clear his sight, that he may in good earnest be doctrine, society, law, to himself, that a simple purpose may be to him as strong as iron necessity is to others. If any man consider the resume, present aspects of what is called by distinction society, he will see the need of these ethics. The sinew and heart of resume birth man seem to be drawn out, and we are become timorous desponding whimperers. We are afraid of truth, afraid of fortune, afraid of rediffmail death, and afraid of resume birth each other. Our age yields no great and resume rediffmail, perfect persons. We want men and essay, women who shall renovate life and our social state, but we see that most natures are insolvent; cannot satisfy their own wants, have an ambition out of all proportion to their practical force, and so do lean and beg day and night continually. Resume Rediffmail. Our housekeeping is mendicant, our arts, our occupation, our marriages, our religion we have not chosen, but society has chosen for us. We are parlor soldiers.

The rugged battle of fate, where strength is born, we shun. If our young men miscarry in their first enterprises they lose all heart. If the young merchant fails, men say he is ruined. If the finest genius studies at one of our colleges and is not installed in an office within one year afterwards in the cities or suburbs of Boston or New York, it seems to his friends and to himself that he is right in being disheartened and in complaining the rest of his life. A sturdy lad from New Hampshire or Vermont, who in turn tries all the professions, who teams it, farms it, peddles, keeps a school, preaches, edits a newspaper, goes to Congress, buys a township, and so forth, in successive years, and status of sports in india, always like a cat falls on his feet, is rediffmail worth a hundred of these city dolls. He walks abreast with his days and feels no shame in not studying a profession, for he does not postpone his life, but lives already. He has not one chance, but a hundred chances. Let a stoic arise who shall reveal the on the progressive, resources of man and tell men they are not leaning willows, but can and must detach themselves; that with the exercise of self-trust, new powers shall appear; that a man is the word made flesh, born to resume, shed healing to the nations, that he should be ashamed of our compassion, and that the short essays on the era, moment he acts from himself, tossing the laws, the books, idolatries and customs out of the window, #151; we pity him no more but thank and revere him; #151; and that teacher shall restore the resume rediffmail, life of man to splendor and make his name dear to of mice essays about, all History. It is easy to see that a greater self-reliance #151; a new respect for the divinity in resume rediffmail man #151; must work a revolution in all the offices and relations of men; in their religion; in their education; in their pursuits; their modes of living; their association; in their property; in their speculative views.

I. In what prayers do men allow themselves! That which they call a holy office is not so much as brave and how to write romance, manly. Prayer looks abroad and asks for some foreign addition to come through some foreign virtue, and loses itself in endless mazes of resume natural and supernatural, and mediatorial and miraculous. Prayer that craves a particular commodity #151; anything less than all good, is vicious. Prayer is the contemplation of the facts of life from the highest point of romance view. It is the resume rediffmail, soliloquy of a beholding and and men essays about dreams, jubilant soul. It is the resume, spirit of God pronouncing his works good.

But prayer as a means to effect a private end is theft and meanness. It supposes duality and not unity in in india essay nature and resume, consciousness. As soon as the man is at one with God, he will not beg. He will then see prayer in all action. The prayer of the short essays on the era, farmer kneeling in his field to weed it, the prayer of the rower kneeling with the stroke of his oar, are true prayers heard throughout nature, though for cheap ends. Caratach, in Fletcher's Bonduca, when admonished to inquire the mind of the god Audate, replies,

His hidden meaning lies in our endeavors; Our valors are our best gods. Another sort of false prayers are our regrets. Rediffmail. Discontent is the want of self-reliance; it is infirmity of essays dreams will. Regret calamities if you can thereby help the sufferer; if not, attend your own work and already the evil begins to be repaired.

Our sympathy is just as base. Resume Rediffmail. We come to essays about dreams, them who weep foolishly and sit down and cry for company, instead of imparting to them truth and health in rough electric shocks, putting them once more in communication with the soul. Rediffmail. The secret of fortune is joy in our hands. Welcome evermore to gods and men is the self-helping man. For him all doors are flung wide. Him all tongues greet, all honors crown all, all eyes follow with desire. Our love goes out to him and embraces him because he did not need it. Essays Progressive Era. We solicitously and resume rediffmail, apologetically caress and celebrate him because he held on his way and scorned our disapprobation. The gods love him because men hated him. To the persevering mortal, said Zoroaster, the blessed Immortals are swift. As men's prayers are a disease of the will, so are their creeds a disease of the intellect.

They say with those foolish Israelites, 'Let not God speak to us, lest we die. Speak thou, speak any man with us, and resume birth, we will obey.' Everywhere I am bereaved of meeting God in my brother, because he has shut his own temple doors and recites fables merely of his brother's, or his brother's brother's God. Every new mind is a new classification. If it prove a mind of uncommon activity and power, a Locke, a Lavoisier, a Hutton, a Bentham, a Spurzheim, it imposes its classification on other men, and lo! a new system. In proportion always to the depth of the thought, and so to the number of objects it touches and resume, brings within reach of the pupil, in his complacency. But chiefly in this apparent in creeds and churches, which are also classifications of some powerful mind acting on the great elemental thought of Duty and and men essays, man's relation to the Highest. Such is Calvinism, Quakerism, Swedenborgianism.

The pupil takes the same delight in subordinating everything to the new terminology that a girl does who has just learned botany in resume rediffmail seeing a new earth and new seasons thereby. It will happen for of mice and men essays dreams a time that the resume, pupil will feel a real debt to the teacher #151; will find his intellectual power has grown by the study of his writings. This will continue until he has exhausted his master's mind. How To Write Romance. But in all unbalanced minds the resume rediffmail, classification is idolized, passes for the end and not for a speedily exhaustible means, so that the essays for money, walls of the resume rediffmail, system blend to their eye in resume birth the remote horizon with the rediffmail, walls of the universe; the luminaries of status essay heaven seem to them hung on the arch their master built. They cannot imagine how you aliens have any right to rediffmail, see #151; how you can see; 'It must be somehow that you stole the light from us.' They do not yet perceive that light, unsystematic, indomitable, will break into any cabin, even into theirs. Let them chirp awhile and call it their own. If they are honest and do well, presently their neat new pinfold will be too strait and low, will crack, will lean, will rot and vanish, and the immortal light, all young and joyful, million-orbed, million-colored, will beam over the universe as on the first morning. 2. It is for want of self-culture that the idol of Traveling, the idol of Italy, of resume birth England, of Egypt, remains for all educated Americans.

They who made England, Italy, or Greece venerable in the imagination, did so not by resume rediffmail, rambling round creation as a moth round a lamp, but by sticking fast where they were, like an axis of the earth. In manly hours we feel that duty is our place and resume birth, that the merry men of circumstance should follow as they may. The soul is no traveler: the wise man stays at home with the soul, and when his necessities, his duties, on any occasion call him from his house, or into foreign lands, he is at home still and is not gadding abroad from himself, and shall make men sensible by the expression of his countenance that he goes, the missionary of wisdom and virtue, and visits cities and men like a sovereign and not like an rediffmail, interloper or a valet. I have no churlish objection to the circumnavigation of the globe for the purposes of art, of of mice essays dreams study, and benevolence, so that the man is first domesticated, or does not go abroad with the hope of rediffmail finding somewhat greater than he knows. He who travels to be amused or to get somewhat which he does not carry, travels away from himself, and grows old even in typing for money youth among old things. In Thebes, in Palmyra, his will and mind have become old and dilapidated as they.

He carries ruins to ruins. Traveling is a fool's paradise. We owe to our first journeys the discovery that place is resume rediffmail nothing. At home I dream that at Naples, at Rome, I can be intoxicated with beauty and lose my sadness. I pack my trunk, embrace my friends, embark on the sea and at last wake up in Naples, and there beside me is the stern Fact, and progressive, sad self, unrelenting, identical, that I fled from. I seek the Vatican and the palaces. Rediffmail. I affect to be intoxicated with sights and suggestions, but I am not intoxicated. My giant goes with me wherever I go.

3. But the rage of traveling is itself only a symptom of a deeper unsoundness affecting the whole intellectual action. The intellect is vagabond, and the universal system of education fosters restlessness. How To Romance. Our minds travel when our bodies are forced to stay at home. We imitate; and what is imitation but the traveling of the mind? Our houses are built with foreign taste; our shelves are garnished with foreign ornaments; our opinions, our tastes, our whole minds, lean, and follow the Past and the Distant, as the resume rediffmail, eyes of a maid follow her mistress. The soul created the arts wherever they have flourished. It was in his own mind that the artist sought the model. It was an application of his own thought to resume birth, the thing to be done and the conditions to be observed.

And why need we copy the rediffmail, Doric or the Gothic model? Beauty, convenience, grandeur of thought and quaint expression are as near to us as to any, and if the American artist will study with hope and love the precise thing to how to romance, be done by him, considering the climate, the soil, the length of the day, the wants of the people, the habit and form of the government, he will create a house in which all these will find themselves fitted, and taste and sentiment will be satisfied also. Insist on yourself; never imitate. Your own gift you can present every moment with the cumulative force of a whole life's cultivation; but of the adopted talent of another you have only an extemporaneous half possession. That which each can do best, none but his Maker can teach him. Resume. No man yet knows what it is, nor can, till that person has exhibited it.

Where is the master who could have taught Shakespeare? Where is the master who could have instructed Franklin, or Washington, or Bacon, or Newton? Every great man is an unique. The Scipionism of Scipio is precisely that part he could not borrow. If anybody will tell me whom the great man imitates in the original crisis when he performs a great act, I will tell him who else than himself can teach him. Of Sports In India. Shakespeare will never be made by the study of Shakespeare. Do that which is assigned thee and thou canst not hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment, there is for me an utterance bare and grand as that of the colossal chisel of resume Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen of Moses or Dante, but different from all of these. Not possibly will the soul, all rich, all eloquent, with thousands cloven tongue, deign to essay, repeat itself; but if I can hear what these patriarchs say, surely I can reply to them in the same pitch of resume voice; for the ear and the tongue are two organs of one nature.

Dwell up there in the simple and noble regions of thy life, obey thy heart and thou shalt reproduce the Foreworld again. 4. As our Religion, our Education, our Art look abroad, so does our spirit of society. All men plume themselves on the improvement of society, and no man improves. Society never advances. Essay Of Smoking. It recedes as fast on one side as it gains on the other. Its progress is only apparent like the resume rediffmail, workers of a treadmill. It undergoes continual changes; it is barbarous, it is essay civilized, it is christianized, it is rich, it is scientific; but this change is not amelioration. For every thing that is given something is taken. Society acquires new arts and loses old instincts. What a contrast between the well-clad, reading, writing, thinking American, with a watch, a pencil and resume rediffmail, a bill of exchange in his pocket, and the naked New Zealander, whose property is a club, a spear, a mat and essay on effects of smoking, an undivided twentieth of a shed to sleep under. But compare the health of the two men and you shall see that his aboriginal strength, the white man has lost.

If the traveler tell us truly, strike the savage with a broad ax and in a day or two the flesh shall unite and heal as if you struck the resume, blow into soft pitch, and the same blow shall send the resume birth, white to his grave. The civilized man has built a coach, but has lost the use of his feet. He is supported on crutches, but lacks so much support of the muscle. Rediffmail. He has got a fine Geneva watch, but he has lost the skill to tell the hour by the sun. A Greenwich nautical almanac he has, and so being sure of the information when he wants it, the man in on the progressive the street does not know a star in the sky. The solstice he does not observe; the equinox he knows as little; and resume rediffmail, the whole bright calendar of the year is without a dial in his mind. His notebooks impair his memory; his libraries overload his wit; the how to romance, insurance-office increases the rediffmail, number of accidents; and it may be a question whether machinery does not encumber; whether we have not lost by refinement some energy, by a Christianity entrenched in establishments and forms some vigor of resume birth wild virtue. For every stoic was a stoic; but in Christendom where is the Christian? There is resume no more deviation in the moral standard than in the standard of height or bulk. Status In India Essay. No greater men are now than ever were. A singular equality may be observed between the great men of the first and of the last ages; nor can all the science, art, religion, and philosophy of the nineteenth century avail to educate greater men than Plutarch's heroes, three or four and twenty centuries ago.

Not in resume rediffmail time is the race progressive. Phocion, Socrates, Anaxagoras, Diogenes, are great men, but they leave no class. And Men. He who is really of their class will not be called by their name, but be wholly his own man, and in his turn a founder of rediffmail a sect. The arts and inventions of typing each period are only resume, its costume and on the, do not invigorate men. Resume. The harm of the improved machinery may compensate its good. Hudson and Behring accomplished so much in their fishing-boats as to astonish Parry and Franklin, whose equipment exhausted the resources of science and art.

Galileo, with an opera-glass, discovered a more splendid series of facts than any one since. Of Mice And Men Essays Dreams. Columbus found the New World in an undecked boat. It is curious to see the periodical disuse and rediffmail, perishing of means and machinery which were introduced with loud laudation a few years or centuries before. The great genius returns to essential man. We reckoned the improvements of the art of war among the triumphs of science, and typing essays, yet Napoleon conquered Europe by the Bivouac, which consisted of falling back on rediffmail naked valor and disencumbering it of all aids. The Emperor held it impossible to make a perfect army, says Las Casas, without abolishing our arms, magazines, commissaries and carriages, until, in imitation of the short on the, Roman custom, the soldier should receive his supply of corn, grind it in resume his hand-mill and bake his bread himself.

Society is a wave. The wave moves onward, but the water of which it is composed does not. The same particle does not rise from the romance, valley to the ridge. Its unity is only phenomenal. The persons who make up a nation today, die, and their experience with them. And so the reliance on Property, including the reliance on governments which protect it, is the want of self-reliance. Men have looked away from themselves and at resume, things so long that they have come to write, esteem what they call the soul's progress, namely, the religious, learned and civil institutions as guards of property, and resume, they depreciate assaults on property. They measure their esteem of each other by typing essays for money, what each has, and not by what each is. Rediffmail. But a cultivated man becomes ashamed of what he has, out of a new respect for his being.

Especially he hates what he has if he see that it is accidental, #151; came to him by for money, inheritance, or gift, or crime; then he feels that it is not having; it does not belong to him, has no root in him, and merely lies there because no revolution or no robber takes it away. But that which a man is, does always by necessity acquire, and what the man acquires, is permanent and living property, which does not wait the beck of rulers, or mobs, or revolutions, or fire, or storm, or bankruptcies, but perpetually renews itself wherever the man is put. Thy lot or portion of life, said the Caliph Ali, is seeking after thee; therefore be at rediffmail, rest from seeking after it. Our dependence on these foreign goods leads us to our slavish respect for numbers. The political parties meet in numerous conventions; the greater the concourse and with each new uproar of announcement, The delegation from how to write romance Essex! The Democrats from New Hampshire! The Whigs of rediffmail Maine! the young patriot feels himself stronger than before by on effects, a new thousand of eyes and arms. In like manner the reformers summon conventions and resume rediffmail, vote and resolve in multitude. But not so, O friends! will the God deign to enter and essays for money, inhabit you, but by a method presently the reverse.

It is rediffmail only as a man puts off from himself all external support and stands alone that I see him to be strong and to prevail. He is weaker by every recruit to his banner. Is not a man better than a town? Ask nothing of write men, and, in the endless mutation, thou only firm column must presently appear the upholder of all that surrounds thee. Resume. He who knows that power is in essay the soul, that he is weak only because he has looked for good out of him and elsewhere, and, so perceiving, throws himself unhesitatingly on his thought, instantly rights himself, stands in the erect position, commands his limbs, works miracles; just as a man who stands on rediffmail his feet is stronger than a man who stands on his head. So use all that is called Fortune. Most men gamble with her, and gain all, and status of sports, lose all, as her wheel rolls. But do thou leave as unlawful these winnings, and deal with Cause and Effect, the chancellors of God. In the Will work and acquire, and thou hast chained the wheel of Chance, and shalt always drag her after thee. A political victory, a rise of rents, the recovery of your sick or the return of your absent friend, or some other quite external event raises your spirits, and you think good days are preparing for you. Do not believe it.

It can never be so. Nothing can bring you peace but yourself. Nothing can bring you peace but the triumph of principles. Author: Ralph Waldo Emerson. Learn about resume rediffmail sustaining motivation, improving relationships, relieving depression, improving your health, reducing anxiety, becoming more optimistic, enjoying a better mood more often, earning more money, expanding your creativity, making better decisions, resolving conflicts, and essays for money, much more.

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