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Argumentative Essay on Immigration. Illegal immigration has been a problem for the United States for a long time. Social Dissertations & Theses! This phenomena is housewife, not new and thousands of illegal immigrants have come into US through either the & theses, Mexico border, the Pacific Ocean, or through many other ways. Some people have entered the country legally through a visit visa, but then have stayed illegally and are working in various places. Illegal immigration is a double edged sword; on the one hand it provide the local economy with cost benefits as the illegal immigrants are not paid so much, while they are more productive. On the other hand, these illegal immigrants do not pay taxes and their employers also do not pay their taxes. There are both pros and cons of illegal immigration and this paper shall take a look at global some facts pertinent to illegal immigration in proquest journals & theses the United States. College Essay! “Every day thousands of illegals stream across the 2,500 miles of border with Mexico. According to journals dissertations the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, or INS, the total number of illegals in America from this source increases by 275,000 annually. Already the United States is is critical thinking, host to an illegal population of 7 to proquest social journals & theses 12 million, of whom the thinking, vast majority are Mexican or Hispanic in origin.
These illegal and uninvited guests help themselves to jobs, education, welfare and unemployment compensation. The many whose wages are paid under the table pay little or no taxes. And they are easy prey for unscrupulous employers and social science dissertations & theses, politicians” (Hayes 2000) The U.S. population primarily is growing as a result of births in the minority and immigrant communities. We do not like to thinking important think about it--as it is a political correctness problem--but there is stratification of labor, mostly along education lines, where the tough jobs in agriculture, manufacturing, and services are taken by those without recourse into the white-collar world of employment. Especially when these low paying jobs do not require language ability, immigrants historically have jumped at these opportunities as a way to get their foot in the door. Social Journals Dissertations & Theses! The U.S.-born unemployed do not think first about having just any job to help plant their feet.
They first think about what their wages will be. If you are here illegally, you clearly have a competitive advantage (Howell 2006). Most of the Americans and the American officials are of the opinion that illegal immigration is bad for the country and it should be stopped completely. Creative Department! The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is a law in the United States of America that pertains to the policies and regulations regarding employment. This law was enacted in 1986 for various reasons, which includes the fact that many illegal employees work in proquest social science journals dissertations & theses the United States.
The two main requirements of the writers in sc, IRCA include: “(1) to hire only persons authorized to social journals work in the United States and (2) to not discriminate on the basis of citizenship status or national origin” (LMD 1992). Plan Writers! In order to be eligible to social journals dissertations work in the United States, the thinking important, workers must complete an I-9 form and must be able to social journals & theses prove their authorization to work in the United States to their employers. “Employers may not refuse to consider all qualified persons with work authorization, whether citizen or non-citizen. Business Plan Writers! Employers must accept any document listed in proquest & theses the INS Handbook for Employers, and may not arbitrarily specify an creative, INS document, or require additional documents. Science Journals Dissertations & Theses! Employers may not refuse to hire a qualified worker whose employment authorization expires at writing nyu a later date. IRCA imposes back pay and severe penalties on employers who commit immigration-related employment discrimination” (LMD 1992).
I am for this immigration reform as I believe that illegal employment is a drain on the economy of the United States. There are more than 10 million undocumented workers (excluding their families) in the United States (White). Most of these illegal workers are concentrated in California and Texas, although their presence can be felt all over the country. About three quarters of these illegal immigrants come to proquest social science journals dissertations & theses the United States after crossing the US/Mexico border. Many of is critical thinking important these illegal immigrants are hired by US employers as undocumented workers and science, this is done because they can be hired at a pay less than minimum wage. Most of these workers are hired to work in the agricultural, manufacturing, and construction industries, or in backroom jobs.
These workers are not given any kind of health care or any other benefits (White). These jobs are mostly opened illegally by US employers in order to save up on taxes and also save up on their costs by paying the workers less than minimum wage. It is for this reason that I believe it important for the immigration reform to business plan writers in sc be in place as it makes it harder for the employers to cheat the government out of the taxes etc. One other benefit that can be derived from the IRCA is proquest social science, that of the social costs related with illegal immigration into thinking, the United States. When the illegal immigrants enter America, they do so without any papers or any authorization. This means that there is no record of proquest social science journals & theses where they come from plan or what sort of a background they have.
They might be infected with a hundred diseases, such as polio, tuberculosis, etc. These diseases can spread and cause a lot of social science journals dissertations & theses problems for the American citizens. Other than that, there are more costs that are added for a state as it has to pay for the education etc for these illegal immigrants. “In an already under funded programs they give these services a more heavy burden to deal with. Important! Republicans have reached agreement among themselves on legislation designed to combat illegal immigration (Carney 1996). Social Science Dissertations & Theses! But with their package facing delaying tactics from Senate Democrats and a veto from the president, they finished the week of Sept. 2 uncertain of their next move” (Website). It would be useful to consider the downside of implementing strict immigration laws. If the labor market were not being filled by application, illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican border, these positions would have to proquest dissertations & theses be filled by someone else.
If we were to bring more agricultural and service workers into resume format, the U.S. through a regularized process, the proquest journals dissertations & theses, resulting body of in sc immigrants would be less Mexican and more Arab, Muslim, South Asian, and African. For those who want an idea of how this would impact American society, take a look at Europe. This is an issue of culture, language, and religion. Author Samuel Huntington (Who Are We?) and others have argued that Mexican culture is proquest social journals & theses, not readily compatible with the Anglo-Protestant culture under which the U.S. Writing Nyu! has prospered. This may be true. but it certainly is more compatible than Iraqi culture (Howell 2006). Proquest Dissertations! If the Mexicans were not coming in illegally, we would have to process--and keep track of--all of business them. What would the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS, the social science, successor agency to the Immigration and Naturalization service under the new Department of Homeland Security) have to look like to process the 500 workers who are sneaking into the country illegally on a daily basis? What would it cost?
There roughly are 11,000,000,000 illegal immigrants in writing department nyu the U.S. By any process other than deporting them all, there will be a substantial increase in the size of the government agencies designed to monitor them (Howell 2006). By making such an issue of illegal immigrants from Mexico, we are discouraging all immigrants about life in the U.S., including those that we need desperately. The issue is proquest social, plugging up the immigration system for applicants who have math and science skills. Is Critical Thinking Important! Many claim that the education system is being overburdened by the children of illegal immigrants.
Yet, such skills have not--at least over the last 20 years--been produced by that same system, forcing us to proquest dissertations import our technological capability from India, East Asia, and elsewhere (Howell 2006). College! One might argue that the proquest social science dissertations, immigrants are people after all and that they should not be discriminated against even if they come illegally into global resume, the country. A lot of public controversy has been sparked on the discourse of affirmative action, which is about the proquest social journals & theses, discrimination of the immigrants in the workplace. This started as a period of “passionate debate that began around 1972 and tapered off after 1980, and the second indicating a resurgence of debate in baruch application essay the 1990s leading up to social science journals dissertations the Supreme Court's decision in the summer of 2003 upholding certain kinds of affirmative action” (Fullinwider 2005). Other than this, there have been two paths that the development, defense, and contestation of plan in sc preferential affirmative action have taken. Social Dissertations! “One has been legal and administrative as courts, legislatures, and executive departments of government have made and writing, applied rules requiring affirmative action. The other has been the proquest social, path of public debate, where the practice of preferential treatment has spawned a vast literature, pro and con” (Fullinwider 2005).
Many people argue that the writers, immigrants are usually skilled labor and they help increase the local production of the proquest social science journals dissertations & theses, United States. Others also argue that when the businesses pay them lower than minimum wage, their costs go down, which means that the resume, costs of production as well as the prices goes down, and these help the citizens of the United States. It is also argued that the immigrants tend to send their US dollars outside America to their families, and dissertations, this strengthens the value of the dollar, making it more valuable, thereby making the resume, economy of US stronger. Yet, we find that these benefits are far outweighed by the costs that the illegal immigrants bear on the US. Many immigrants have felt that they are being discriminated against in the workplace for one or more of the various kinds of discriminatory practices that occur within various organizations. Social Journals! Many of these employees are women who believe that they have been discriminated based on their sex.
The Revised Order of 1972 affected a change that included women among the “protected classes” whose “underutilization” demanded the creative writing, setting of “goals” and proquest social science journals dissertations, “timetables” for “full utilization” (Graham 1990). There are some theories that are presented in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that pertain to discrimination in employment, even if the employee is an illegal immigrant. The IRCA changes all that. An illegal immigrant cannot be considered an employee under the IRCA, which automatically takes care of the discrimination problem. It can be concluded that the immigration reforms are a good practice for both the resume, immigrants, and more importantly, for the US. The illegal immigrants pose many problems for our country and science journals & theses, they should not be allowed to enter in the first place. But since it is oppression essay titles, very hard to implement total security, steps should be taken to reduce the illegal immigrant inflow into our country and the first step is to implement immigration reform. Much of journals & theses what these people earn in the US is sent to college application their homes in their own countries and the US economy is proquest social & theses, deprived of their taxes. By staying in the US, they are spending each second doing an illegal act as just their presence inside the US borders is an illegal act.
Many people tend to think that eradicating illegal immigration is impossible and that it can never work. This is not true. Illegal immigration can be repealed if the government takes the proper measures. While there is no painless magic answer, illegal migration can be significantly reduced with a few effective measures. Some of those measures require money; some require political will; many can be accomplished by the President without new legislation. Adopted as part of resume format a comprehensive approach, these measures will be effective. Adopted selectively, they will fail.
As a first step, however, current law and regulations must be clarified. Employers are caught between competing legal mandates when hiring non-citizens; aliens with only a tenuous claim to social science journals dissertations presence in the U.S. remain here for global format, years under the color of law; and some government officials do not know whether they are obliged to report information to or withhold it from the INS. Congress and the regulators must simplify legal requirements so that the average person, citizen or alien, can know what the rules are (Lempres 1994). Interdiction can be effective because of the proquest social & theses, nature of the flow of illegal migration. Over 95 per cent of illegal border crossers come through Mexico, where the terrain funnels traffic into several crossing points. By far the busiest crossing point in the nearly 6,000 miles of land border is the 13 miles near San Diego. Over 40 per cent of the thinking important, Border Patrol's total interdictions occur in that 13-mile strip of land.
Moreover, the Border Patrol estimates that over 90 per cent of its total apprehensions occur in just 100 miles of border segments. The concentration of illegal traffic means that interdiction efforts can be focused for greater effectiveness. Physical structures such as lights, fences, and anti-automobile barriers can be placed along the high-traffic crossing points. Without new legislation, the Administration can build these structures and proquest social science journals & theses, add Border Patrol officers at creative writing department nyu the hot spots (Lempres 1994). Other than that, there has been a lot of prosecutions regarding illegal immigration over the past few years. But the government is not merely prosecuting illegal immigrants for immigration offenses; it is reinvigorating its investigation and prosecutorial efforts against corporate America as well. Various corporate scenarios in the United States show that corporate America currently faces in confronting federal prosecutions. Congress first deputized corporate America into proquest social journals dissertations, controlling the flow of illegal immigration at our nation's borders in 1986--by making it illegal for employers to knowingly hire, or knowingly retain after hiring, illegal immigrants, as well as to fail to comply with the employment verification requirements--and then subjecting employers to stiff civil and criminal penalties for noncompliance. Business! Congress further deputized corporate America in 1996, and subjected corporate America to even higher financial stakes, when it made certain immigration offenses predicate offenses in RICO, and thereby opened the proquest social journals, doors to suits from plaintiffs' lawyers for treble damages for having knowingly hired at least ten undocumented workers in a twelve-month period. Given the increasingly high stakes for employers, it is imperative that they expend the resources now to take the preventive measures outlined in this article.
To do less will only perpetuate exposure to unnecessary and costly risk (Ciobanu and Green 2006). Housewife Resume! Carney, Dan, (1996). Proquest Science Journals! Social Policy Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 54, (36): 2531. Ciobanu, Ileana M. and Thomas C. Green. (2006). “Deputizing - and Then Prosecuting - America's Businesses in the Fight against Illegal Immigration,” American Criminal Law Review, 43, (3): 1203+. Fullinwider, Robert, (2005). Writing Nyu! “Affirmative Action”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of proquest social journals & theses Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2005/entries/affirmative-action/ Graham, Hugh Davis, (1990), The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy 1960-1972 (New York: Oxford University Press): 413.
Hayes, Ted, (September 25, 2000 ). “Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture,” Insight on the News, 16, (36): 46. Howell, Llewellyn d. (July 2006). “Ironies of Illegal Immigration,” USA Today, 135, (2734): 19. Lempres, Michael T. (1994). “Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration,” National Review, 46, (3): 52+ LMD, (Summer 1992). “How to Avoid Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination,” Labor Management Decisions, 2, (2)
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10 Tips for a Successful Engineering Resume. It’s that time of the proquest social journals dissertations year again where spring is in essay titles, full force, the proquest dissertations sun is shining, birds are chirping and this year’s college graduates are spreading their wings and sending out resumes. Despite at least four years of titles schooling and tens of thousands of dollars spent on tuition, it’s unfortunate that their curriculum doesn’t include a resume 101 course or at least require students to attend a seminar on resume writing. Awkwardly crafted and abysmal resumes aren’t constrained to recent graduates but also reach into proquest social science journals the general engineering population. This leaves the perfect opportunity to review some basic tips for handling resumes and establishing an housewife, online presence, after all, resumes are no longer limited to simple paper versions. Tip #1 – Ignore the one page rule. For some reason, since the beginning of time there has been this notion that a resume should only social science dissertations & theses, be one page.
It should be short and simple and provide very basic information. Resume Format. This is great if the plan is to be a professional job seeker. A single page, in a readable font, provides enough space to proquest social science dissertations, put a name, a few companies and education before there is no more room left on the page. It doesn’t provide enough space to really sell or distinguish the applicant from anyone else. Single page resumes are often looked at and quickly discarded because there is nothing on them that really catches attention. Don’t allow this outdated rule to dictate the length of a resume. Tip #2 – Explicitly show experience. Baruch College. A potential employer is social & theses, not going to take the time to read between the lines as to whether an individual has a certain type of experience or skill. Experience needs to be explicitly declared and not implied. This can be done by listing each project that was performed at a company and then providing details as to what was involved.
Demonstration of problem identification and the ability to come up with a solution is critical. Tip #3 – Use bullet points to improve readability. Instead of global resume format writing paragraphs about the work performed at a company or on a project, the use of bullet points is proquest social science journals & theses, highly recommended because they can drastically improve the readability of a resume. Bullet points are a quick way to break down skills and efforts that were put into a project. They allow the resume format potential employer to quickly skim through and catch the highlights or experience.
Figure 1 shows an example of how sentence structure can be combined with bullet points to effectively get the proquest social dissertations point across. This is something that someone adhering to the one page rule would never be able to do. Tip #4 – List professional experience first. College degrees always hold a special place in everyone’s heart especially after paying the enormous tuition rates that have become known to global format, students in modern times. Unfortunately, on a resume they hold less weight than professional experience. This means that while having a degree may be necessary, they should be listed after professional experience. It seems unfair but the fact of the matter is that the first few years of one’s career are spent learning what should have been taught in higher educational institutions. Please note that professional experience was noted earlier in the paragraph. This means that coffee shops and proquest journals dissertations & theses, a stint at McDonalds are not going to be of interest to your next engineering employer, so it can be removed from the experience list.
Tip #5 – If project experience is lacking, use a DIY project. Sometimes inexplicable things happen and a college student never has an internship, or an experienced engineer finds themselves on the unemployment list for a while. This can result in an employer having a hard time justifying even taking the time to talk with the candidate. This is why these gaps should be filled with learning experiences from do-it-yourself (DIY) projects. Create something and college application, go through the design process of gathering requirements, block diagramming and prototyping and put that experience and maybe even some lessons learned on the resume! This will show the prospective employer that the individual is self-motivated, passionate and a number of other things. The best part is that when they call for an interview, the candidate can bring what was designed and talk about the process, the social science journals dissertations hardware design, the oppression titles software etc. It might just give that edge needed to even beat out the competition. Social Journals Dissertations & Theses. Forcing an employer to resume format, read between the lines is a dangerous game. Listing project details is one thing but an science journals dissertations & theses, employer also wants to know in general the types of skills the candidate has. Having a technical expertise section that lists various items such as hardware, software and programming language and provide a quick overview summary of housewife resume what an proquest science journals & theses, individual brings to the table can be very beneficial.
Figure 2 shows such as an example. Tip #7 – Identify industry buzz words and essay titles, use a few. At different times there are certain buzz words that take an industry by storm. They may indicate a certain type of social dissertations design paradigm such as model driven design or event driven design or perhaps a new field of device such as internet-of-things or machine-to-machine. The whole point is that while the resume is being dusted off and updated, spending a little bit of essay titles time learning the current buzz words can do a lot to increase the likely hood of the resume being discovered. Proquest Social Science & Theses. Of course if the buzz word doesn’t apply it should be over-looked but there will most likely be buzz words that do apply and that greatly raise the resumes visibility. Companies like to have leaders on their teams or up and coming leaders. Leaders are action driven and employers like to resume, look for candidates that take initiative and are on their way to proquest journals dissertations, becoming leaders. For this reason it is always nice to include action words that grab extra attention. Mention leading the team or managed the team or were conducting investigations to list a few. While investigating resume action words, a website with “100 Great Resume Words” popped up and after a quick review there was little argument about it.
The website is linked here and it is highly recommended that they be perused by the reader the next time resume updating occurs. Tip #9 – Use social media to enhance your resume. Creative Writing Nyu. Paper is out, electronic is in. The resume in general hasn’t changed a whole lot but with social media outlets such as Linkedin and Twitter, the opportunity to enhance a resume is journals, astounding. Linkedin can be used as an enhanced resume by duplicating the information on a resume and then filling in the extras that Linkedin allows. In today’s society there seems to thinking important, be more chance of being found on a social media website first and then only after connecting with someone does a request for a resume occur. Proquest Science. This means that social media profiles need to be just as good at attracting attention as a resume but that is an nyu, entirely different article for another day.
A few examples of some enhancements that can be made through social media are getting colleagues to verify your skills, getting recommendations and then also cross linking colleagues on projects. This provides employers with the ability to cross reference what they are being told and verify that the material is in fact real. There has been some buzz about something called Klout that is supposed to proquest social dissertations & theses, analyze social media interactions and essay, then rank a user based on those interactions. A value of 1 to science & theses, 99 is then assigned to them. Despite all the authors’ interactions on social media sites, posting baby pictures on Facebook seems to raise the score the most. Essay Titles. This leads the author to journals dissertations & theses, believe that Klout is an interesting sidebar that will most likely not be taken seriously by employers in the near future. Housewife. Tip #10 – Review and update quarterly. The worst time to update a resume is when an individual is social journals dissertations, looking for a job. Going for long periods of time without updates usually results in gaps of baruch application essay information or misrepresentation from just forgetting what was done. That is proquest & theses, why it is useful to set a periodic time, whether it is every quarter or twice a year to sit down and update the resume with new projects, skills, etc.
Sometimes employers will include employee resumes in titles, proposals in order to show a potential client that their team has the skills necessary to get the job done. If a resume isn’t kept up to date then the proquest journals & theses team could quickly look like they are not up-to-date with the resume format latest and greatest techniques and proquest science journals, cause the employer to lose business.
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Free Information Technology essays. In 2008, Google reported that they had discovered more than 1 trillion unique Uniform Resource Locators on the Web. And as previous research has shown or any other search engine, is even close to discovering all the available content on the Web. The Web is proquest social science & theses, quite a large place, and finding information can be a typical task without a web search engine. So web search engine is thinking, very useful to find information on the web. Regular Web Search: The most popular type of proquest social science journals dissertations search which searches the housewife, index based on any type of web page. Other on-line textual resources like PDFs and Microsoft Office formats are also available through regular web search. News Search: It searches only news-related websites. Typically the search results are ordered based on age of the story. Image Search: It searches only images that were discovered during the web crawling.
Images are normally indexed by using the image's filename and text surrounding the image. Artificial intelligence techniques for trying to social science journals dissertations discover what is actually pictured in the image are slowly emerging. Video Search: It searches the global resume, text accompanied by videos on the Web. Journals! Like image search, there is heavy dependency on people to input text which accurately describes the thinking, video. Search starts with the web. It's made up of over large no. of individual pages and it's constantly growing. Google navigates the proquest science journals dissertations & theses, web by crawling. Crawling means links from page A to page B. Global Resume! Site owners wish their sites are crawled. Pages are then sorted by content and dissertations other factors and the index keep track of it all. As you search some keyword, algorithms get to is critical thinking work looking for clues to better understand what you mean as follows: Spelling: Identifies and corrects possible spelling errors and provides alternatives.
Auto complete: It predicts what you might be searching for and includes understanding terms with more than one meaning. Google Instant: It displays immediate results as you type. Query Understanding: It gets to the deeper meaning of the words you type. Synonyms: It recognizes words with similar meanings. Based on these clues, the relevant documents from the index are pulled. And then the search results or web pages in search results are ranked by some algorithms and they use some factors like freshness, site and page quality etc.
These algorithms are constantly changing. Science & Theses! These changes comes as ideas in the minds of engineers. They take these ideas and implements them, analyze the results, tweak them, and baruch essay run them again and again. The most popular algorithm for the ranking of web pages is PageRank algorithm which is explained in next topic. Overview of PageRank Algorithm  Page Rank was proposed by Sergey Brin and Larry Page, students at Stanford University and the founders of Google. Proquest Social Science Journals Dissertations! According to Google, PageRank considers the number of nyu links and quality of links to a web page to estimate importance of the website. The underlying assumption is that more important websites are likely to receive more links from other websites. PageRank is a link analysis algorithm and proquest science dissertations & theses it assigns a numerical weighting to each element of a hyperlinked set of documents, such as the World Wide Web, with the housewife resume, purpose of measuring its relative importance within the set. Social Journals Dissertations & Theses! The algorithm may be applied to any collection of entities with reciprocal quotations and references.
The numerical weight that it assigns to any given element A is resume, referred to as the PageRank of A and denoted by PR(A). A PageRank results from a mathematical algorithm based on the webgraph. Webgraph is science journals & theses, created by all World Wide Web pages as nodes and hyperlinks as edges. The rank value indicates an importance of is critical a particular page. Number of hyperlinks to a page is considered as a vote of support. The PageRank of a web page is defined recursively and depends on the number and PageRank metric of all pages that link to it. Proquest Journals & Theses! A page that is linked by many web pages, who has high PageRank, receives a high rank itself. A web page is important if it is pointed to by other important web pages. Baruch! Google calculates a page's importance from the votes cast for it. Importance of social journals dissertations each vote is taken into account when a page's Page Rank is calculated. Page Rank is department nyu, Google's way of deciding a importance of web page.
It matters because it is one of the factors that determine a page's ranking in the search results. PageRank Notation- 'PR'. The main objective of the research is to science dissertations & theses provide an efficient algorithm for sorting the web pages generated as search results in web search procedure. This provides the efficient and better search results to users relevant to their query. Global Format! Our main purpose behind this work is that user does not need to check thousands of search results for the information that user wants. The proposed algorithm ranks the pages according to user's query and proquest social dissertations most appropriate web page with the content that best match with user query gets the business writers in sc, highest pagerank value and according to science dissertations & theses that pages have been sorted and result have been displayed. So the algorithm saves the user's time and essay give better result in shortest duration. As world-wide web is proquest social dissertations, developing rapidly, Internet has become the world's richest and business writers in sc most dense source of information.
Users face the social & theses, problem which is how to get relevant and useful information from the is critical, large number of disorder information . Search engines become an important tool for proquest science journals dissertations users to retrieve information for creative department a particular query. However, current search engines cannot fully satisfy the user's need of high-quality information search services; and it raises many new challenges for information retrieval. Proquest Dissertations! So this motivated me to enhance the pagerank calculation. Theoretical Background Literature Review. 2.1 Theoretical Background. 2.1.1 Pagerank Algorithm  Formula for pagerank calculation. PR(A) - pagerank of page A.
N- total pages accounted. d - Damping Factor. L(B) - Total number of outbound links of page B. So any page's PageRank is derived in large part from the PageRank of other pages. Important! The damping factor takes the derived value downward. Sometimes following formula used, which has led to some confusion:
There is a difference between the above two formula. In first formula, PageRank values sums to science dissertations & theses one. In second formula each PageRank is multiplied by N and the sum becomes N. A statement in Page and Brin's paper that the sum of all PageRank values is to one like first formula. Step :1 At , an resume, initial probability distribution is assumed, Step :2 At each time step, the computation, as detailed above, yields is the science & theses, set of pages that link to pi. where p_1, p_2, ', p_N are the pages under consideration, M(p_i) is the set of pages that link to p_i.
L(p_j)is the resume, number of outbound links on page p_j,and N is the total number of pages. The calculations do not work if they are performed just once. Accurate values are obtained through much iteration. Suppose we have 2 pages, A and B, which link to science dissertations & theses each other, and neither have any other links of any kind. Titles! Page Rank of proquest science journals A depends on Page Rank value of B and Page Rank of depends on Page Rank value of A. We can't work out A's Page Rank until we know B's Page Rank, and we can't work out writing B's Page Rank until we know A's Page Rank. But performing more iterations can bring the values to such a stage where the proquest dissertations, Page Rank values do not change. Essay! Therefore more iterations are necessary while calculating Page Ranks. Simple Example for calculating Pagerank: Consider following Figure:
No. of outlinks from A and social B are same i.e = 1. PR(A) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. PR(B) = 0.15/2 + 0.85(0.5/1) = 0.5. Why we need damping factor? Assume the business writers, following scenario where A, B, C and D are web pages and their respective linking as shown in proquest science dissertations & theses, graph : Figure 1 Inlinks and Outlinks for web pages A, B, C and D. Figure 2 PageRank values for web pages A, B, C and D. So every page has at least a PR of 0.15/n to share out. In this context we have discussed some papers, which introduce and analyze various ranking algorithms. Baruch College Application! Some papers analyze the pagerank algorithm, limitations of the algorithm and proquest science journals & theses propose the creative department nyu, improved version of the proquest social science dissertations & theses, pagerank which improve the pagerank algorithm and giving the better results. In some papers ranking algorithms which use web structure mining and baruch college application are categorized based on input parameters they use.
Some algorithms use weights of inlinks, some use weight of outlinks, some use weight of inlinks and outlinks both and some ranking algorithms use weight of inlinks, outlinks and science dissertations & theses no. of user's click information for calculating pagerank values. We then show Comparision among various ranking algorithms and oppression essay strengths and proquest social dissertations & theses weaknesses of those algorithms. We also discussed some content based algorithms which use web content mining. In the next section we discuss those research papers. 2.2.1 RatioRank: Enhancing the global, impact of Inlinks and Outlinks  Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2012. In this paper various ranking algorithms are analyzed and explained, in which different users use different parameters for ranking algorithm. Some algorithms use inlinks weight, some use outlinks weight, some use number of visit of links of webpage. Some use both inlink weight as well as outlinks weight.
They are compared for knowing advantages and disadvantages of them. Then the new algorithm is presented which is called RatioRank, in which the inlink weights and outlink weights are used with the consideration of proquest & theses number of visit count and is compared with some algorithms by using certain parameters. Table 1 Comparison of various ranking algorithms. Algorithm Technique Strength Limitations. Page Ranking Algorithm Algorithm based on Web graph of the.
webpages and creative writing nyu considers the inbound. links to rank the journals, pages Ranking is done on the basis of. importance of the pages Ranking is at indexing time. HITS Algorithm Hubs and important Authority score is used to. rank the web pages Relevancy of the pages is high Problem of theme drift and all. links are considered of same. Weighted Page Ranking. Algorithm Based on the popularity of social journals dissertations inlinks and. outlinks if the page ranking is done Higher relevancy because popularity.
of the links is considered Theme Drift. Weighted Page Ranking(VOL) Rank on the basis of visit count of any. inlinks and popularity of the inlinks. are considered User input is business in sc, considered hence. relevancy is higher Theme drift and surfer jamming. Page Ranking Based on visit of link.
of pages Extend the standard page ranking by. considering the visit count of links of. webpages User input is considered hence the. relevancy of the pages is higher Theme Drift. Improved Page Ranking. Algorithm Replaces the rank of pages by mean of. the rank values of all pages and go for. another round and carry on until the. value of proquest social dissertations & theses two consecutive pages is. equal Reduces the computational.
complexity Relevancy is low and theme drift. Above table compare various ranking algorithms. From the table we can observe the strengths and limitations of global format various algorithms. New RatioRank Method: In the RatioRank, both the inlinks and outlinks are being considered for social journals dissertations & theses computing the page ranking, and the number of times the thinking, user visit the particular link. Figure 3 Shows inlinks and proquest science Outlinks between pages A, B and C.
As shown in the figure from page B, there is one inlink and one outlink so the resume, number of times the inlinks is visited is the fact of interest and outlinks to it. Proquest & Theses! The importance or the popularity of out linked page C from page B will vote for ranking computation. The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v) are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively. W_((v,u))^in and W_((v,u))^outare used to record the popularity of the inlinks and the outlinks and creative writing calculated as per Weighted Page Ranking Algorithm. d is the science journals dissertations, dampening factor. V_u is the number of visits of link which points from v to u. TL(v) is the total number visit of all links present on v, B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u, x is the ratio of inlink weight and creative writing y is the proquest dissertations, ratio of outlink weight.
The values of x and y will be set between 0 to 1 on the basis of business writers empirical results, while the social science journals dissertations & theses, ratio of inlink weights will be higher than that to the ratio of outlink weights because inlinks are considered to be more important to rank the resume, webpages. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Initially assign 1 as the proquest science journals & theses, rank of all the retrieved WebPages. Step 2: In the next round compute the rank again using the initialization made in step 1, using the ranking formula as given in oppression titles, equation. Step 3: Assign the proquest & theses, final rank value to the WebPages as obtained after step2 and the pages accordingly. As the inlinks of any WebPages votes more to increase the popularity of the page less of that by is critical, outlinks, that's why we assign more weightage to the inlink weights as that of outlink weights. In this paper the proquest social science, parametric comparison of the algorithms are explained as follows. Table 2 Parametric Comparison of Various Page Ranking Algorithms. Algorithm Description Mining Technique.
Used I/P Parameters Relevancy of the Pages. ed Algorithm) Static computation of page using the writing nyu, inlinks. and outlinks with number of VOL as the user. input Web Structure Mining Inlinks, outlinks and the. number of VOL from user More than weighted page. Algorithm Computes scores at science, indexing time Web Structure Mining Inbound links of the pages Medium. Algorithm It computes the hubs.
and authority of the. relevant pages. Thinking! Web Structure Mining, Web Content Mining Content, Back and. Forward links Less than PR. Algorithm Static computation of page ranks according. to the social science journals dissertations, importance level a page is observed Web Structure Mining Backlinks, forward links Higher than PR. In this paper the proposed algorithm considers the oppression essay, inlinks, outlinks and proquest science journals & theses the number of times a user visits the inlink of a webpage.
The algorithm will give better results in terms of relevance of web pages, because no other then the creative nyu, RatioRank page Ranking algorithm uses all the features together as the inlinks and outlinks of any webpage and the visit of proquest social science journals & theses link count. 2.2.2 Enhanced-RatioRank: Enhancing Impact of Inlinks and essay Outlinks  Author Name: Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma. Published Year: 2013. In this paper a few of link based page ranking algorithm are revised and social journals dissertations a new page ranking algorithm is proposed named Enhanced-RatioRank in which the inlinks, outlinks and the number of times user visits the link of the webpages. The relevancy of the web pages returned is more because the creative, user behavior is also considered to rank the webpages.This Paper also consider ratio of weight of the inlinks and weight of outlinks for calculation and check which ratio gives the best result which ratio helps to give better relevancy of the web pages. Social Science Dissertations & Theses! The problem of theme drift exist (some link may not give the data about the query), and surfer jamming are the major limitations of the page ranking algorithm, HITS Algorithm considers all links of same importance are the major limitations of the HITS algorithm. The problem of topic drift was also exist in business plan writers in sc, this. In Weighted pagerank algorithm  theme drift and surfer jamming exist which are counted as the proquest science dissertations & theses, limitations of this algorithm.
Limitation of weighted page ranking algorithm based on visits of links of users is that it only important, uses the inlinks and the similar ranking to the non-visited webpages.New Enhanced algorithm is proposed to remove some limitations as follows: Enhanced RatioRank Algorithm. In the Enhanced-RatioRank both the inlinks and the outlinks are being considered for computing the page ranking, and the number of times the user visit the particular link. Figure 4 Shows inlinks and outlinks in web pages X, Y, Z and V. As shown in the figure from page V,X,Y and social Z there exist different visit count and business in sc so the number of times the inlinks are visited is the fact of user interest.
The mathematical equations of the inlinks and outlinks weights are given as follows: The equation for the proposed algorithm is as follows: Where RR(u) and RR(v)are ranking of the webpages u and v respectively, d is the proquest science journals & theses, dampening factor, V_u is the number of writing department visits of link which points from v to u, TL(v) is the total number of visits of all links present on v. B(u) are the pages which points to webpage u. As in equation only 70 percent of the weight of inlinks and the 30 percent of the weight of the outlinks is proquest dissertations, being used.
Compare to other this ratio gives the creative writing, better result. Algorithm: how actually the RatioRank works as follows: Step 1: Take the link structure of the retrieved webpages from the crawler . Step 2: Obtain the webgraph from the link structure of the social science journals & theses, retrieved webpages. Step 3: Assign 1 as the initial ranking to all the webpages. Step 4: Calculate the weights of inlinks and outlinks using equation number '(1)', '(2)'. ?? Step 5: Apply the proposed algorithm (RatioRank) as in the equation '(3)'. Step 6: Repeat the process iteratively until ranks of all webpages are stable means same in creative writing, two consecutive iteration.
Disadvantage: The problem of theme drift still exist in this algorithm. By using all three parameters for computing the pagerank and taking particular ratio of weight of inlinks and outlinks gives the better relevancy of web pages. 2.2.3 Improved PageRank Algorithm based on feedback of userclicks  Author Name: Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai, Li Shasha. Published Year: 2011. This paper analyzes the PageRank algorithm, find out its shortcoming and put forward an improved PageRank algorithm. Proquest Journals & Theses! Based on the behaviour of user clicks, this algorithm on the one hand collects the clicks of essay result pages and the recently click time of result pages, on proquest social journals dissertations the other hand set the oppression essay titles, weight of clicks and click time as formula parameters of PageRank algorithm, and verify this algorithm does improve the precision ratio of search engines through experiments. They analyzes some limitations of Pagerank in this paper:
PageRank algorithm emphasize the old page: The number of links points to the page plays a decisive role on the PR value in PageRank algorithm. The old page exists longer so that can be easier to have more links point to it to improve its PR value than the new page. But most users just want to search the contents maybe in the latest pages. So the PR values of pages do not necessarily reflect the real importance of the page. Topic shift problems: The PageRank algorithm is not dependent on the keywords, the information of user feedback, and cannot judge whether a hyperlink is related to the subject of the page or users inquiry. So it's easy to have the problem of topic shift. Some large website has large numbers of hyperlinks to get a higher PR value, but not necessarily relevant to the subject of user search.
Page cheating: Some rogue websites deliberately add a lot of popular keywords which are not related to the content in the title or content of the page to cheat search engines. Science Dissertations! PageRank algorithm does not identify the content of the pages. If a website can maintain a certain number of hyperlinks, it will be ranked in the forefront of business writers search results. New Improved Method: This paper figures the feedback information of proquest science journals & theses user, optimize formula of PR value and housewife adjust PR value of page appropriately. In order to reduce the social dissertations, probability of topic shift and page cheating, In this paper they have added weight parameter of PR value through analyzing collected click information.
S(i) =Clicks weight. N =Clicks of page i in a certain period of time. ?? =Attenuation Coefficient, controls the weight of is critical thinking important clicks, generally sets to 0.3. '??=compensation coefficient, reflects the importance attached to a new page, set to 1. The weight of click time reset as follows: T = Time interval of page i. Tnow = Time of user real-time search.
Tlast = Last click time of webpage i. Tupdate = Modify time of page i. ?? =Attenuation coefficient, control the weight of time interval, usually set to 1/12. The New proposed formula by them : They have done experimental analysis. They took open source search engine Notch to capture and analyze pages on the http://news.qq.com, and get 181348 valid pages. Deploying standard PageRank algorithm and improved PageRank algorithm respectively on two same computers set up the proquest social journals, user's search click log, record user's relevant search click information. It shows that the improved PageRank algorithm improves the accuracy of writing search results to social science journals & theses some extent, and business plan has a good result. This paper starts from the point of view of user, based on user search click feedback, adds clicks weight and click time weight as two parameters to classic PageRank algorithm. Science Journals & Theses! After experimental analysis and comparison, the global format, improved PageRank algorithm can properly enhance the page's PR value and get ranking results which better satisfy user. 2.2.4 Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search 
Author Name: Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Goudar and Asit Tyagi. Published Year: 2013. The Semantic Web realization is based on the availability of a significant mass of metadata for the web content, associated with the suitable information about the world. Searching the large internet information for small particular information leads to proquest journals dissertations & theses many deviations in the results of present searching techniques such as imprecision, large irrelevant search result, unable to creative writing nyu interpret user's query and so on.
Author has proposed architecture of science journals dissertations semantic information retrieval to enhance the relevancy of search results. An algorithm is proposed to calculate the PageRank of the documents and essay then semantic indexing  is being performed by proquest social science journals & theses, these ranked web pages. In this algorithm, author is considering the housewife, two factors for science journals computing the page rank. One is the application essay, frequency of the keyword occurred in proquest science journals dissertations & theses, the web page. Second is plan in sc, associative factor of the same keyword with the meaningful interrogative words which are generally ignored by the existing search schemes. Rank of web page is calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]=(11 - Disp)+(Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth main keyword of query. Qp = pth interrogative word.
Disp = Distance between main keyword and pth interrogative word. Freqk = frequency of kth keyword. The proposed architecture of information retrieval presents the vision of journals semantic search. To achieve the housewife resume, goal of providing the most relevant results to the user, content is matched to user's query and journals dissertations & theses relevancy is taken in consideration. To improve performance, the semantic index for the ranked web pages is being created. To compute the page rank, the algorithm is oppression essay titles, proposed considering the associative factor with the proquest social science journals, interrogative words and frequency factor of the keywords so as to provide the relevant and precise result. Baruch! On the basis of the experiments done, creating semantic indexes on the basis of the rank calculated is proquest science journals dissertations & theses, reasonable in either the hierarchical databases such as RDF (Resource description Framework) or the relational databases.' 2.2.5 PageRank optimization applied to spam detection  Author Name: Olivier Fercoq.
Published Year: 2012. In this paper new link spam detection and PageRank demotion algorithm called MaxRank is business plan in sc, introduced. Like TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank, it starts with a seed of hand-picked trusted and spam pages. MaxRank of a web page is the number of visit of this web page by a random user minimizing an average cost per social science, time unit. On a given page, the random surfer selects a set of hyperlinks and thinking important clicks with uniform probability on any of these hyperlinks. The cost function is used to penalize spam pages and to proquest social remove hyperlinks. The goal is to plan writers determine a hyperlink that has minimum score. The MaxRank is proquest science & theses, interpreted as a modi'ed PageRank vector, used to sort web pages instead of the resume, usual PageRank vector. This algorithm uses both TrustRank and AntiTrustRank for nonspam and spam page detection respectively. P = Transition Matrix.
e = Column Vector with all entries equal to 1. Z = Zapping or Teleportation vector [Row vector] As in journals, TrustRank  and AntiTrustRank , we start with a seed of trusted pages and known spam pages. The basic idea is to minimize the PageRank score of spam pages and maximize the PageRank score of is critical thinking important trusted web pages. Social Journals & Theses! Hyperlinks are going to be removed, which points to web page, which has low PageRank value. Hence, the set of known spam pages will get less inlinks and it will have a lower PageRank. The World-Wide Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee circa 1991. By the late 1990s, the amount of content on the Web had exploded, but searching this content was becoming an increasingly pressing problem.
Human-generated indices (e.g. Yahoo!) could not keep up, and automatically generated indices (e.g. AltaVista) were sometimes of low quality. The PageRank algorithm essentially solved the web search problem and was the basis for Google's success. When a search query is received, satisfying that query can be thought of as a three-stage process: Determine which pages can be returned (e.g. which ones contain the business plan in sc, query string). Rank these pages in & theses, order of importance. PageRank solves this stage. Format the ranked list and display it to the user. It becomes very important to provide an efficient and relevant search results in response to particular query. In which Pagerank algorithm is basic one which sorts the search results and provides the best result.
Pagerank algorithm has some limitations. To get advance algorithm, many enhancements are done so far. But sometimes web page does not show content which we want. There is one reason for irrelevant search results which comes mainly when the search is performed using keywords stored in meta-tags of the web pages. Today internet has become the main source of retrieving information. To find the relevant information regarding a particular topic from the huge amount of data and information present on internet, an efficient searching technique is required. The traditional web searching techniques like Keyword-based search adopted by many web search engines are having some advantages like simple, quick and is critical easy to implement but on the other hand they have shortcomings like less precision in results, large set of search results, which is time consuming for user to find relevant information out of it and cannot judge the proquest social journals dissertations, meaning of the user's query. Many web designers add the keywords in meta-tags irrespective of the content of the web pages to increase the rank factor so that the link of the is critical, web page is shown at the top of the search result. 3.2 Analysis of Gap. Many improvements to Pagerank algorithm are done so far.
Some algorithm use content based Information Retrieval (web content)  approach to calculate Pagerank value and some algorithms use link based (web structure) algorithms to calculate Pagerank value. Content-based Information Retrieval approach does not consider the pages link by the page while ranking the page and hence affect the quality of web documents. Link based approach has the limitation of the proquest social science journals, topic drift. 'Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for global resume format Effective Semantic Search'  is content based algorithm in journals & theses, which main keywords, interrogative words and business plan writers in sc web pages are taken as the input parameters for calculating the Pagerank value. They gave better accuracy in terms of proquest social science & theses relevancy of content as compared to the standard pagerank algorithms but some improvement like in terms of creative writing topic theme still exist in these algorithm. So our work is to reduce the problem of topic theme exist in proquest social science, these algorithms. For this work I am going to use web content mining for ranking. We have to calculate content relevance of web pages to our query.
Relevance of the web pages is calculated by taking new parameters TrustRank  and Anti-TrustRank . TrustRank of web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata and content of web page. Nyu! Anti-TrustRank of web page is increased when keywords are found in metadata but not in content of web page. Rank of proquest science dissertations web page is format, calculated as follows: Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp]= (11 - Disp) * (Freqk / Wordsj) WPj = jth Web Page. Keywords[K] = kth keyword of query. Qp = pth keyword of word. Disp = Distance between kth keyword and pth keyword.
Freqk = frequency of proquest dissertations kth keyword. PageRank [WPj] = PageRank [WPj] + TrustRank[WPj] ' AntiTrustRank[WPj] TrustRank[WPj] = TrustRank of jth Web Page. AntiTrustRank[WPj] = Anti-TrustRank of jth Web Page' 4.1 Flow chart of the Proposed Algorithm.
Figure 5 Flow chart of proposed algorithm. 4.2 Proposed Algorithm. Input: Keywords, WP, Q , AntiTrustRank, TrustRank. Output: PageRank [WPj] for each WPj of set WP do, for each Keywords[k] of set Keywords do, for each WPj[i] do, increase Wordsj by 1. if (Keyword[k] = WPj[i]) increase Freqk by 1. for each Qp of set Q do, for (l=i-5 to i+5) do, tempp = WPj[i] ' WPj[l] for each Disp do, for each closep do, Rank [WPj, Keywords[K], Qp] = closep*(Freqk / Wordsj) if(spamPage) Increase AntiTrustRank[WPj] else Increase TrustRank[WPj]
PageRank [WPj] = calculateFinalPageRank() Implementation and Results. Figure 6 Architecture used in implementation. We have used MVC architecture in our implementation. MVC means Model View and Controller. Essay Titles! In this implementation, Database is as model, JSP is as view and Servlet is social journals dissertations & theses, as controller. User query is submitted using jsp page to servlet. In servlet all logic is implemented. Servlet make database connection using JDBC. We have used apache as web server and creative department nyu tomcat as container.
In our algorithm, we have added two new parameters TrustRank  and Anti-TrustRank . TrustRank is measurement of science journals & theses trust of page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of antitrust of format page. These parameters are stored in database. In this algorithm, input parameters are user's query string, web pages, Anti-TrustRank and TrustRank of web pages.
Output is PageRanks for web pages. TrustRank and proquest social science dissertations & theses Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database for each page. If page contains one of keyword of user's query string in metadata then that page is related to user's query. If keywords are found in web page then web page is not spam page . So TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page. Baruch Application! If none keywords are found in web page then web page is spam page. So Anti-TrustRank is increased inversely proportional to number of words in web page.
So each time Either TrustRank or Anti-TrustRank is increased if page is related to user's query. Modified TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are stored in database again. So it keeps effect of proquest social science journals & theses past results. Owner of web page can insert only related keywords in metadata. Let say a keyword K is selected from the set of keywords.
For K we select a web page WP on which searching is done. Baruch! So we scan the whole web page WP comparing each word with K. As soon as we find K at proquest social dissertations, any index I of WP, we increment the frequency Freq for K by 1. If keyword K is found at index I, we try to creative find other keywords from Q from science, index i-5 to i+5. If keyword from Q is found at creative department, index l then distance (l-i) is measured. For whole web page calculate these distances and proquest social science journals dissertations find closeness for each keyword in Q. Writers In Sc! We also calculate the total number of words for proquest social science journals dissertations & theses web page WP as Words. Writing! The rank of WP for keyword K and Q is calculated by multiplying closeness and frequency factor that is Freq/Words. If none keyword K is proquest dissertations & theses, found in webpage WP then its PageRank value is 0. This webpage is considered as spam page and its Anti-TrustRank value is increased by 1/Words. If even single keyword is found in web page then web page is not spam page and its TrustRank is is critical thinking, increased by 1/Words. After finding PageRank values for all keywords K and proquest social science journals all keywords Q, final PageRank value is is critical, calculated by adding these PageRank values.
Minimum(Disp, tempp) function has two integer arguments. Here Dispp is minimum distance between K and Q if keyword Q is found. For example Q is found 2 times in single line then closest Q is taken in consideration. Closeness is reversal of distance. Proquest Social Science Dissertations! If distance is high means closeness is low. If distance is low means closeness is high. So here each distance is subtracted from 6 beacause maximum distance is 6 between keyword K and Q. isSpamPage() function returns true if web page is spam page or false if web page is not spam page. Web Page is spam page when web page metadata contains keywords related to user query but content of housewife resume web page does not contains single keyword related to proquest science dissertations user's query. If web page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. Resume! If web page is not spam page then its Trust-Rank value is science & theses, increased.'
Table 3 Result of modified algorithm for 5 web pages and 5 queries. Query sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar sachin tendulkar football sachin tendulkar. Sachin.htm PageRank 0.67511 0.67529 0.67548 0 0.67548. TrustRank 0.00018 0.00036 0.00054 0.00054 0.00072. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00018 0.00018.
SachinBiography.htm PageRank 0.6565 0.65811 0.65971 0 0.65971. TrustRank 0.00161 0.00321 0.00482 0.00482 0.00642. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00161 0.00161. SachinESPN.htm PageRank 0.08554 0.08586 0.08618 0 0.08618. TrustRank 0.00032 0.00065 0.00097 0.00097 0.00129. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00032 0.00032. SachinYahoo.html PageRank 0.14089 0.14195 0.14301 0 0.14301. TrustRank 0.00106 0.00212 0.00318 0.00318 0.00424. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00106 0.00106.
SachinInfo.html PageRank 0.94634 0.94688 0.94743 0 0.94743. TrustRank 0.00054 0.00108 0.00163 0.00163 0.00217. Anti-TrustRank 0 0 0 0.00054 0.00054. All results are displayed in above table. This table contains result of 5 executions. In each execution 5 web pages are filtered according to user's query and metadata for web pages. In table, PageRank values are displayed for resume 5 executions for 5 different web pages. TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are displayed for 5 executions. In 4th execution PageRank values are 0 because web pages are considered as spam pages.
So Anti-TrustRank values are increased, too.' For analysis, we have tested existing and modified algorithm 5 times. Existing algorithm gives same value for same query and modified algorithm gives different value according to previous queries due to modification in TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank parameters. Results are displayed in table 1. From table 1 we can see modified algorithm considers previous queries from social journals dissertations & theses, user and existing algorithm gives constant value. Figure 1 is graphical presentation of Table 1. In figure 1, one line has constant height, which is for existing algorithm. Oppression! Other line has increasing height, which is for modified algorithm. Here PageRank value is increasing for same query for same web page because TrustRank value is increasing each time whenever web page is not spam page. In 4th test, web page is considered as spam page so Anti-TrustRank value is increased.
So 3rd and science journals dissertations & theses 5th test has same PageRank value because in 3rd and 4th test TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank value are increased respectively. We have tested modified algorithm for 5 different pages 5 times. Results are shown in Table 2. Figure 2 is comparison of PageRank values of 5 different web pages for 5 queries. TrustRank and global Anti-TrustRank parameters were 0 for all web pages before analysis. Table 4 Comparison of social dissertations & theses Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Query Modified Algorithm Existing Algorithm. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.675113122.
sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.675113122. Figure 7 Comparison of Existing algorithm and Modified algorithm. Table 5 PageRank for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.675113122 0.656500803 0.08553906 0.140889831 0.9463415. sachin tendulkar 0.675294118 0.658105939 0.08586185 0.141949153 0.9468835. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255.
Football 0 0 0 0 0. sachin tendulkar 0.675475113 0.659711075 0.08618464 0.143008475 0.9474255. Figure 8 Comparison of PageRank values. During analysis, TrustRank and essay Anti-TrustRank values were changed, which are shown in Table 2 below. For example for query 'sachin tendulkar' for web page 'Sachin.htm' TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values are 0.00018 and 0 respectively. Here 'football' is proquest, stored in oppression titles, metadata for all web pages.
But it is not found in contents of the page. All pages are considered as Spam pages and proquest science journals Anti-TrustRank values were increased for all web pages. Table 6 TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank values for 5 different web pages for 5 Queries. Query Sachin.htm SachinBiography.htm SachinESPN.htm SachinYahoo.html SachinInfo.html. sachin tendulkar 0.00018. sachin tendulkar 0.00036. sachin tendulkar 0.00054. sachin tendulkar 0.00072. Conclusion and Future Work. In this work we have analyzed various PageRank algorithms.
The basic pagerank algorithm has many drawbacks like topic theme and more emphasis on old pages. Then pagerank algorithm is to be analyzed and global resume some limitations of the science & theses, algorithm are improved. After understanding various content based ranking algorithms, we understood that content based ranking algorithms use only essay titles, trust rank, i.e. some pages does not gives result related to proquest dissertations user's query. So some content matching method is needed to reduce this problem. So we have added two new parameters TrustRank and Anti-TrustRank in existing algorithm. If page is not spam page then its TrustRank value is increased.
If page is spam page then its Anti-TrustRank value is increased. By proper analysis of this algorithm we conclude that these parameters make results more efficient. This algorithm finds relatedness of two keywords in the page. Anti-TrustRank is measurement of anti trust of page. TrustRank is measurement of trust of page. As a future work, this algorithm can be improved accuracy of algorithm by providing synonyms. Algorithm can take in creative department nyu, consideration synonym of user's query. Search results can be filtered more accurately. Social Journals Dissertations! Algorithm can be modified to use indexing to improve performance. Meta-tags can be used instead of metadata. This algorithm uses text as content.
Algorithm can be enhanced to media files, too.' S. Brin and L. Page, 'The Antonomy of plan writers in sc a Large Scale HyperTextual Web Search Engine,'7th International WWW Conference Proceedings, Australia, April 1998. Wei Huang and Bin Li, 'An Improved Method for the Computation of PageRank', Mechatronic Science, Electric Engineering and Computer (MEC), 2011 International Conference. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' RatioRank: Enhancing the Impact of Inlinks and Outlinks' 3rd IEEE International Advance Computing Conference (IACC) 2013. Ranveer Singh and Dilip Kumar Sharma,' Enhanced-RATIORANK: Enhancing Impact of Inlinks and Outlinks' IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies 2013.
Wenpu Xing and Ali Ghorbani,' Weighted PageRank Algorithm', Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Communication Networks and journals dissertations & theses Services Research (CNSR'04),IEEE 2004. Ling Zhang and Zheng Qin, 'The Improved Pagerank in Web Crawler', Information Science and Engineering (ICISE), 2009 1st International Conference 2009. Zhou Cailan and Chen Kai,Li Shasha,' Improved PageRank Algorithm Based on is critical thinking important Feedback of User Clicks' IEEE 2011. Robin Sharma, Ankita Kandpal, Priyanka Bhakuni, Rashmi Chauhan, R.H. Social & Theses! Goudar and Asit Tyagi, ' Web Page Indexing through Page Ranking for Effective Semantic Search', Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2013 7th International Conference.
Olivier Fercoq,' PageRank optimization applied to spam detection', Network Games, Control and Optimization (NetGCooP), 2012 6th International Conference. Z. Gy ??ongyi, H. Oppression Essay Titles! Garcia-Molina, and J. Pedersen, 'Combating web spam with trustrank,' in proquest journals dissertations & theses, Proc. Important! 30th international conference on Very large data bases, vol. 30. VLDB Endowment, 2004, pp. 576'587. V. Krishnan and R. Raj, 'Web spam detection with anti-trust rank,' in Proc.
ACM SIGIR workshop on Adversarial Information Retrieval on social science & theses the Web, 2006. L. Page, S. Brin, R. Motwani, and T. Winograd, 'The PageRank Citation Ranking: Bringing Order to the Web Technical report, Stanford Digital Library Technologies Project, 1998. Ashish Jain, Rajeev Sharma, Gireesh Dixit and Varsha Tomar,'Page Ranking Algorithms in baruch college essay, Web Minning, Limitations of Existing methods and New Method for indexing Web Pages', International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies IEEE 2013. Apostolos Kritikopoulos, Martha Sideri and proquest social science dissertations & theses Iraklis Varlamis, 'Wordrank: A Method for housewife resume Ranking Web Pages Based on Content Similarity', Databases, 2007. BNCOD '07. 24th British National Conference 2007. Bing-Yuan Pu, Ting-Zhu Huang and Chun Wen, 'An Improved PageRank Algorithm: Immune to Spam ', Network and System Security (NSS), 2010 4th International Conference 2010. Sunil and Anjali Sardana, 'A PageRank based detection technique for phishing web sites ', Computers Informatics (ISCI), 2012 IEEE Symposium 2012. PageRank Algorithm - The Mathematics of Google Search.
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