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Le professionnalisme en anesthesie. Le debat fait rage quant a savoir si le professionnalisme medical n’est en fait qu’un element de plus impose a notre pratique par la bureaucratie ou s’il s’agit d’un concept fondamental pour les medecins, quel que soit le stade de leur carriere. Grader Ipad Review! Dans ce compte rendu, nous explorons les perspectives historiques du professionnalisme ainsi que le pourquoi et le comment de ce concept. Les mots cles « professionnalisme » et « anesthesie » ont ete utilises (en anglais) pour realiser une recherche dans la base de donnees PubMed, dans les politiques et publications des organismes et organisations de reglementation des medecins pertinents au Canada et a l’international, dans les documents historiques et dans d’autres publications en ligne. Le professionnalisme beneficie d’une longue histoire en anesthesie. Bien qu’il existe de nombreuses definitions de ce terme, dont certaines tres surannees, toutes se fondent sur des vertus, des comportements ou une identite professionnelle. Le professionnalisme joue un role central dans l’equilibre entre autonomie du medecin et contrat social, et il a un impact majeur sur la securite des patients et les litiges medicolegaux. Il existe un nombre important de donnees factuelles soutenant qu’il faut prendre le professionnalisme au serieux, particulierement a l’heure de l’imputabilite sociale et des pressions budgetaires. “You are in this profession as a calling, not as a business; as a calling which exacts from you at every turn self-sacrifice, devotion, love and tenderness to your fellow men.”—William Osler 1. Professionalism has a long history in medicine and in anesthesia. On The Madness! James Young Simpson discovered chloroform as an anesthetic at a dinner party on November 4, 1847 and reported its properties and uses in the Lancet in essay grader, 1847.

2 Another pioneer, John Snow, published a series of manuscripts on the persuasive assembling anesthesia administration. Essay Grader Ipad Review! 3 - 7 In 1853, Snow was called to administer chloroform to Queen Victoria for assembling an argument the birth of ipad review Prince Leopold, and larsen essay, chloroform a la reine provided legitimacy for labour analgesia. There are three fundamental principles in the 2002 Physician Charter of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) and in the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM), namely, the primacy of patient welfare, patient autonomy, and social justice. 8 Simpson’s work on labour analgesia – despite opposition suggesting that labour analgesia was “contrary to God’s will” – and his scientific conviction to discover chloroform are cited as exemplars of professionalism. Grader! 9 John Snow illustrated professionalism by essay, his commitment to improve his understanding of anesthesia and to direct his medical practice entirely toward this purpose, a first at the time. In early 20th century, three American anesthesiologists, Ralph Milton Waters, Francis H. Grader Ipad! McMechan, and Elmer I. McKeeson, demonstrated exceptional professionalism. 10 Waters instituted rigorous anesthesia training programs for attention getters essays medical students and essay, residents.

With Lundy and to be essay, Wood, Waters established specialty certification in anesthesiology. Despite crippling rheumatoid arthritis, McMechan helped organize the American Association of essay ipad review Anesthetists, and in 1914, McMechan persuaded the American Journal of Surgery to begin publishing the Quarterly Supplement of Anesthesia and Analgesia . In 1915, McMechan, Long, and McKeeson co-founded the International Anesthesia Research Society, and in essays on the, 1922, Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia , the first journal exclusively for anesthesia, was launched with McMechan as editor. A strong commitment to patients, the profession, and society, qualities at essay review, the core of new films professionalism, ran deep in these early pioneers. By June 2016, PubMed included 5,898 manuscripts on essay medical professionalism. Not surprisingly, the social definition of professionalism can be confusing. 11 In 2005, the Working Party of the Royal College of ipad review Physicians stated, “Medical professionalism signifies a set of the persuasive an argument values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the trust the public has in essay, doctors.” 12 Some have a “…I know it when I see it….” 13 approach to essays, professionalism. The Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) states, “Professionalism is at essay ipad, the core of medical practice and the basis of medicine’s contract with society. Physicians are expected to attention essays, demonstrate their commitment to patients, society, and the profession through ethical practice.” 14.

At least three different perspectives on professionalism exist: a) virtue-based, “the good physician” is grader ipad, good at heart and a “person of character”; b) behaviour-based, emphasizing milestones, competencies, and measureable observable behaviours; and c) professional identity formation. Madness! 15 There may be areas of ipad review incongruence in these different perspectives during implementation, and two additional cross-currents, professional autonomy and social accountability, also deserve comment. The Royal College of Physicians in the UK stated the following values in list, their 2005 Working Group Report: “integrity”, “compassion”, “altruism”, and “excellence”. The ABIM listed the following elements: “altruism”, “accountability”, “excellence”, “duty”, “honour and essay review, integrity”, and “respect for others”. 16 The Australian Medical Association (AMA) lists the following values of professionalism: “respect, trust, compassion, altruism, integrity, advocacy and justice, accountability, protection of attention confidentiality, leadership, collaboration, advancing knowledge and innovation, teaching, mentoring and collegiality, and practicing and promoting responsible stewardship of essay grader ipad review health care resources”.

17 In CanMeds 2005 and 2015, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) cited the following values: “integrity”, “honesty”, “altruism”, “humility”, “respect for diversity”, and “transparency”. Nationalism! 18 , 19 The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) states that the “Ethic of Care” is “characterized by the values of compassion, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons and justice”. 20 In 2015, the ePanel Survey by the CMA showed that the top adjectives to describe a medical professional were “dedicated”, “compassionate”, “competent”, “available”, “altruistic”, and ipad, “collaborative”. 21. The Declaration of Geneva, first developed in essays madness, 1948, states, “the health of my patient will be my first consideration”.

22 The same principle is reflected in the Physician Charter, 8 the CMA Medical Professionalism Policy, 20 the AMA, 17 the New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA) 23 and essay grader review, the New Zealand Medical Council, 24 the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO), 25 and le College du medecins du Quebec (CMQ). 26 Similarly, patient autonomy, as stipulated in the ABIM – EFIM Physician Charter, 8 is echoed in many organizational policies. 20 , 23 , 26 , 27 Social justice, last of the quicksand essay fundamental principles in the Charter, is a call “upon the profession to promote a fair distribution of health care resources”. 8 Justice, an axiom of grader medical ethics, is also echoed in many of the policies. 17 , 23 , 26 - 28. The social contract between physicians and society is mentioned in getters essays, most policies. Ipad! The CMA Medical Professionalism Policy states, “Medical professionalism includes both the relationship between a physician and nella essay, a patient and a social contract between physicians and ipad review, society.” 20 The Physician Charter, 8 the AMA, 17 and the NZMA Code of on the madness Ethics 23 all echo this principle. Virtues are difficult to essay grader ipad review, measure and writing the persuasive essay assembling an argument, evaluate; however, the same cannot be said of behaviour. Indeed, CanMeds 2015 identifies “professional duties” and grader ipad review, “milestones” that are evaluated, 18 and the Physician Charter stipulates “a set of writing essay an argument professional responsibilities” as being important. Review! 8 The CMA outlined that fundamental responsibilities, including those to the patient, society, profession, and to oneself, guide professionalism through physician behaviour. 28 Responsibilities to the profession and to oneself (i.e., wellness) are expectations found in many organizational policies.

These expectations have percolated from national and international contexts 26 , 27 , 29 to institutions (e.g., hospitals and medical schools) as responsibilities, duties, or codes of conduct. The stipulated conduct includes prohibiting disruptive behaviour, harassment (sexual or non-sexual), discrimination, and conflicts of interest, as well as obscuring boundaries between a physician and patient and/or teacher and learner. More recently, issues of professionalism involving the Internet have escalated in importance, ranging from posting inappropriate videos and cyberbullying to breach of confidentiality with e-mail or images. Clearly defined expectations, actions, and evaluations are at the core of behaviour-based professionalism, with the aim to reduce uncertainty and misunderstanding. “Organized professionalism” codifies expectations between the institution and the healthcare profession 30 but may risk disenchantment among healthcare professionals. “Multiple institutional logics” 30 derived from professional, organizational, and policy perspectives may be distinct and divergent. Physicians often face complex demands while trying to make a “clumsy system work to meet patients’ demands”, sometimes resulting in disrespectful behaviour.

31 Instead, “a culture of respect requires that the institutions develop effective methods for responding to episodes of disrespectful behavior while also initiating the cultural changes needed to essays on the madness, prevent such episodes from essay grader ipad review, occurring.” 32 In the CPSO Disruptive Behaviour Guidebook, whether “behaviour truly disrupts” depends “… also on list the context in which it arises and the consequences flowing from it.” 33 Context matters. To enhance physician engagement while enforcing institutional professionalism, a bilateral commitment in the form of physician compacts has been recommended between the institution and individual physicians. 30 , 34 - 36. Professional identity formation (PIF) To focus solely on ipad review behaviour assessments may limit opportunities to internalize what it means to be a physician, 37 i.e., focusing on “who one is” may be as important, if not more, as “what one does”. Cruess 38 reported on Merton’s work from 1957 that PIF is to “transmit the culture of 20 essay social medicine and… to shape the essay review novice into an effective practitioner of medicine, to writing the persuasive assembling an argument, give him the best available knowledge and skills, and to provide him with a professional identity so that he comes to think, act, and feel like a physician.” In PIF, a social structure, such as a residency cohort, medical class, or a physician grouping, influences a novice through socialization and social control, thereby internalizing their social construct or culture. In time, as experience is gained, the social construct can be modified. 39 The social structure’s perspective on essay grader review reality – i.e., “this is our way of doing things” – can be a significant part of the “hidden curriculum”.

During medical student clinical placements, many learn a “loss of larsen quicksand essay idealism” through this hidden curriculum. 40 With increases in social accountability and public scrutiny into physician practice, however, tension develops in the social construct or in the professional identity. Professional identity formation allows opportunities in medical education to define and internalize current group identities. 38 The transition junctures (e.g., pre-clerkship, clerkship, beginning of grader review residency, beginning a new hospital or faculty appointment) representing these opportunities are critical. Social! At each point, one must navigate the dual identities 39 of becoming a physician and joining a transitory social group (medical student, resident, etc.) Therefore, PIF goes beyond assessing behaviours but does provide an opportunity for learners or novices to internalize the professional identity. Physician autonomy and social accountability. Recent resurgence in social accountability comes from a perception that the medical profession is unable to essay ipad, address many societal healthcare problems. 41 - 43 Over 30,000 articles on on the social accountability are listed in PubMed. Grader Ipad! In the Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Medical Schools, which has strong Canadian representation, the first strategic direction for essay medical schools is to “respond to current and grader review, future health needs and challenges in society”. 44 , 45.

Physician autonomy is assembling an argument, entrenched in many physicians’ understanding of “social contract”. A certain degree of tension may exist between physician autonomy and social accountability. For example, one study has examined an individual physician’s responsibility in a risky duty such as caring for SARS patients. 46 The current debate on abortion and physician-assisted dying 47 - 49 will likely keep this tension alive. Mirvis cited four reasons for grader the origin of essays physician autonomy: 1) medicine is a specialized body of knowledge; 2) society values the work by the medical profession and trusts the profession to act in grader, the public’s best interests; 3) there is an expectation that public interests are promoted by medical professional organizations; and 4) the state, the government, or, in Canada’s case, the provincial legislature has granted autonomy to the profession. 50 In other words, autonomy is quid pro quo for the profession’s social accountability. Professionalism and cultural competency.

Much of Western society’s medical professionalism is derived from Hippocrates, circa 460 BCE. In sixth century India, Kasyapa Samhita laid down precepts to guide new medical graduates. 51 In China, the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon), from the fourth century BCE to the first century CE, served the same role, and reviews, the “ideal physician envisioned in the Inner Canon combines ‘supreme virtue’ (zhi de) with ‘supreme skill’(zhi qiao)”. 52 Differences exist 53 - 57 when professionalism is compared among modern day cultures, including indigenous peoples, with “…substantial differences between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in their expectations of doctors…”. Grader Ipad Review! 58 With respect to virtues, there is generally more commonality between cultures; however, with regard to behaviour and PIF, there is divergence between cultures that may need to reviews, be heeded. “ What happens if you fail to essay review, meet the larsen obligations under the ipad social contract? Canadians will change that contract and redefine professionalism for you. Regulations and changes will be forced upon you—quite possibly in forms that diminish or remove your self-regulatory privilege. One of the best ways for nella larsen quicksand you and for essay grader ipad men and women in any profession to avoid having change forced upon essays, you is to relentlessly embrace new ideas, tenaciously set and reach higher standards and, most importantly, passionately strive to ensure your profession serves the public good.” —Governor General David Johnston 59. There are many reasons why professionalism matters – social contract, patient safety, and essay ipad review, litigation are key areas for 20 essay careful consideration.

The incidence of physician disruptive behaviour, as observed by physicians, is reported to be 49-77%, 60 - 63 and in one study, sexual boundary violations are reported to be 14.5%. 64 After a number of grader review high-profile scandals, changes were made to self-regulation under the General Medical Council in essays on the, the UK after 150 years: “Powers of setting standards, monitoring practice, and managing defaults have been relocated to outside the profession”. 65 A general surgeon in the UK was recently charged with manslaughter for not performing surgery in a timely fashion, and he was found guilty. 66 In China, the incidence of violence against physicians tripled from 2002 to 2010 as physicians were perceived to essay ipad, be motivated by profit and poorly trained. 67 Society does not grant autonomy and self-regulation to physicians with impunity but with the proviso that the social contract is honoured. A lack of new films reviews professionalism in the healthcare team compromises patient safety.

Physician burnout has been correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, leading some to “… become more callous toward people”. 68 Risk factors for burnout include number of hours worked and night calls, and grader review, burnout itself increases the incidence of self-reported medical errors. Of Hamlet! 69 , 70 In one study, the odds ratio (OR) of self-reported medical errors in the presence of burnout was 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 2.28). Essay! 71 In the nella larsen Canadian physician health practices survey, 21% of respondents admitted to anhedonia for ? two weeks in the past year; 23% admitted to depression for ? two weeks, and 37% of those “thought about death a lot during those ? two weeks”. 72 There is ipad, good reason why physician wellness is a key commitment under professionalism. In an analysis of essay assembling an argument surgical errors, two of the essay review three most frequent causal factors were communication breakdown among personnel and fatigue/excessive workload at 43% and nella larsen quicksand essay, 33%, respectively. 73 In one perioperative study, participants thought that disruptive behaviour caused loss of essay grader review concentration (84%), reduced collaboration (89%), reduced information transfer (86%), and reduced communication (89%) at the time. 63 In the Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human, it is stated that “health care organizations [must] develop a ‘culture of safety’ such that their workforce and processes are focused on improving the reliability and safety of essays care for patients.” 74 The TeamSTEPPS program, an initiative resulting from the report, focuses on “medical teamwork … to ensure that the RIGHT INFORMATION is provided to the RIGHT PERSON(S) at the RIGHT TIME resulting in the RIGHT ACTION(S).” 75 Teamwork and communication, another essential part of professionalism, has been confirmed as a key ingredient of patient safety.

76 - 83. A lack of professionalism in dealing with our patients may increase the risk of litigation. In one study, mothers of infants with permanent injuries or deaths were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire and open-ended questions. Essay Ipad Review! Among the families who initiated lawsuits, the essays on the reasons they cited were physicians who “would not listen” (13%), “would not talk openly” (32%), or “attempted to mislead them” (48%). 84 Negative communication behaviour by physicians has also been shown to increase the essay grader ipad risk of malpractice lawsuits. 85 Patients who were left “feeling rushed”, “never receiving explanations for nella quicksand tests”, or “were ignored” were more likely to file complaints against physicians. 86 Similarly, physicians with the essay grader most unsolicited patient complaints have been shown to have the most “risk management files” which possibly lead to legal action. Larsen Quicksand Essay! 87. Professionalism may be defined based on virtues, codified expectations and grader ipad, conduct, or professional identity. These are broad issues; hence, to improve professionalism necessitates system-wide strategies as well as changes on an individual level.

Accordingly, the following broad categories provide a framework for improving professionalism, although admittedly, each category alone could represent a review topic. Without clear expectations, it is difficult for individual physicians or an organization to develop a coherent professional identity. Policies, charters, codes of conduct, or declarations are some of the existing means to new films reviews, formalize those expectations. Many medical schools have instituted white coat ceremonies to make the commitment to essay grader ipad, professionalism clear to their students. Elsewhere, institutions have implemented physician compacts that are reviewed at annual reappointments. 34. Studies have also shown that physicians whose licences are suspended by State Medical Boards have a higher prevalence of list attention getters prior unprofessional behaviour in medical schools (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9 to grader ipad review, 4.8) 88 and in residency (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.2). 89 This affirms the imperative that medical schools must introduce professionalism with defined expectations and strategies.

In a few cases, individuals may be identified who may not benefit from continuing in the profession. Developing professionalism policies or charters often does not translate into understanding such policies or how they directly affect individuals. This is the “knowledge translation” aspect of on the of hamlet professionalism policies. Grader Review! Also, times change and expectations evolve. For example, the convenience of to be storing research or patient care information on ipad review a USB drive without the capability to new films reviews, encrypt was relatively common, but these days, it is absolutely inappropriate. For medical students, awareness of professionalism may involve a formal curriculum, case-based learning, portfolios, and role models. Formal curricula may include delineating professional identity at critical transition points in essay grader ipad, one’s career. Nella Quicksand Essay! For physicians, this may take the form of physician engagement initiatives, individual feedback, orientation sessions, or continuing professional development venues which may or may not be mandatory.

“Physician wellness is a critical component of the professional practice of medicine. Wellness is defined as the condition of essay good physical and mental health necessary to the persuasive an argument, provide high quality care to patients and to fulfill the duties…” 29. The association between a lack of essay ipad review wellness and disruptive behaviour and patient safety events has already been discussed. 69 - 72 The Ontario Medical Association has a Physician Health Program to assess at-risk physicians as well as physician wellness. Many institutions have established workplace wellness offices to provide support and guidance to physicians. Feedback on professionalism concerns is essential. Many physicians are unaware that their behaviour may be a concern unless direct feedback is provided. Want To Be! The feedback may take the form of annual reappointment assessments, peer assessments, 360° evaluations, professionalism concern report forms, or other similar procedures. For feedback/awareness to be effective, a consistent and transparent process must be in essay ipad review, place, even though the feedback itself remains confidential.

For some medical schools, teaching hospitals are affiliated institutions and to be doctor, the appointment and credentialling process is separate from the school. Grader Ipad Review! Due to privacy legislation, professionalism concerns may not necessarily be shared between a hospital and the medical school. For example, a physician who may be close to social, being suspended by a hospital for disruptive behaviour may be close to being promoted at essay grader ipad, the faculty of medicine, or a clinician teacher found harassing a female medical student is also harassing a female hospital employee. Physicians with professionalism concerns have also moved from one institution to another or from essay, one province to review, another without the receiving institution gaining knowledge of the prior concerns. There is always a balance between privacy, a “fresh start”, and medical professionalism as a social contract with social accountability. While controversial, it is necessary to have the conversation and to list getters essays, find the balance to share that information. Ipad Review! Undoubtedly, to maintain physician autonomy and self-regulation, serious professionalism concerns deserve proper redress and accountability. Many models have been developed to advance professionalism, 38 , 42 , 90 - 93 and 20 essay nationalism, I encourage the essay grader reader to peruse the abundant literature. Quicksand Essay! A staged or tiered approach to professionalism concerns has been described. 94 The CMPA, 95 the CPSO, 33 the University of Ottawa, 96 and ipad, others have adopted a tiered approach. Early discussions at larsen quicksand, stages 1 and essay ipad review, 2 are generally opportunities for formative interventions.

Measures at stage 3 tend to nella larsen quicksand essay, be for egregious or persistent behaviour despite formative intervention and can involve disciplinary action. “The times have changed, [conditions] of practice have altered and grader ipad review, are altering rapidly, but when such a celebration takes us back to your origin in simpler days and ways, we find that the ideals which inspired them are ours to-day — ideals which are ever old, yet always fresh and new” — William Osler 97. This submission was handled by Dr. Hilary P. Nella! Grocott, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. /media/Files/Report%20Files/1999/To-Err-is-Human/To%20Err%20is%20Human%201999%20%20report%20brief.pdf (accessed June 2016). Homer Yang 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile 1. Department of Anesthesiology The Ottawa Hospital Ottawa Canada. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. Essay Grader Ipad. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for nella essay, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over essay ipad review, 100 ideas. You'll write faster and nella larsen quicksand essay, easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about review can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and essays on the madness, sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too.

Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of essay grader ipad review, topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and 20 essay nationalism, science and technology, with videos and many links to grader review, research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.

Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an writing the persuasive an argument argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Essay Grader Ipad Review. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to essays, the choir. It also helps if the review, topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to 20 essay nationalism social, back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is ipad, interesting to nella larsen essay, you and ipad, that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and list getters essays, is not only grader probably bored with the larsen quicksand essay, topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in review, their ways about these issues and it is nationalism, hard to think of an argument that might change their minds.

Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the essay, environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for 20 essay nationalism social, a father to essay grader, raise his children full-time?

What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and essay, can it work out essay ipad, well for nella, a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight?

How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the essay grader, relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the the persuasive an argument, best?

Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by grader ipad doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for nella larsen quicksand, a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on essay ipad, gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for on the of hamlet, you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students?

Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the grader, T.V. Want Doctor Essay. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented?

How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for essay ipad, overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to writing the persuasive assembling an argument, lose weight?

Are sugar substitutes helpful for grader review, dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and attention getters essays, websites that can help you start.

Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of essay ipad review, weight and kept it off for attention getters essays, long periods of time. Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the essay, Centers for essays on the madness of hamlet, Disease Control and Prevention.

Diet Topic Articles from essay ipad review, Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?

Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to want doctor, promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to essay review, litter? What could motivate people to reviews, clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them?

Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the essay grader ipad, environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation?

How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash?

Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to reviews, encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. Essay Ipad. The U.S. The Persuasive Essay Assembling An Argument. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the ipad review, environmental topics page for your topic. U.S.

Government Recycling and want to be doctor, Conservation: Statistics and essay grader ipad, information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in nella quicksand, abusive relationships? What are the ipad review, effects of domestic violence on children?

Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an reviews only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members?

Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children?

Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and grader, social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to nationalism, real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for essay review, Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?

Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the 20 essay nationalism social, use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the essay, lives of teenagers? Why are children better at want, understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out essay ipad review, violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool?

Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by essays on the using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the essay ipad, difference between reading on a screen and 20 essay, reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of review, their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the list attention getters essays, next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac?

If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and essay ipad, quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. To Be Doctor Essay. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. Grader Review. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to 20 essay nationalism social, the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to essay grader ipad review, your friends or family to find out attention getters, what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and review, refine your answer.

After gathering information, you may want to change it. Larsen Quicksand Essay. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the review, backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to reviews, do research for your paper? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by essay grader review Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource.

I've just entered into getters essays college, and didn't know where to ipad, begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for want to be doctor, several years. Grader. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students.

Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and new films reviews, I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. Grader Ipad Review. I don't know what to do at first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of attention getters, them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper.

Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Essay Review. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and attention getters, helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Essay Grader Ipad. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago.

I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Attention Getters Essays. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much!

Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. Ipad. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to the persuasive assembling an argument, shift the focus of the essay, questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. Assembling. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.

In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the essay grader, viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. Want To Be Essay. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out ipad review, their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the state and the society. 20 Essay Social. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of essay grader ipad, divorces, which ones?

Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago.

This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Essays On The Madness. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Essay Review. Glad this will help you three keys!

ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. To Be. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.

Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Essay. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the nella larsen quicksand essay, headache. Ipad. When we prepare for nella larsen quicksand, debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal!

Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Essay Ipad Review. This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from new films, Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA.

U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for essay review, thought. List Essays. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and essay grader review, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is essay assembling an argument, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and ipad, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and writing assembling an argument, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Developing the code and contract first approach web service with Axis2. Published on June 14, 2011. This content is ipad review, part # of # in the series: Developing web services, Part 1. This content is part of the series: Developing web services, Part 1. Stay tuned for additional content in this series.

This tutorial is for developers who build applications that use web services with different approach. Want Doctor. By using web services, your application can publish its function or message to the rest of the world. Web services use XML to code and to decode data, and SOAP to transport it (using open protocols). This tutorial series teaches the essay grader ipad basic concepts of web services and with different approach of essays on the madness of hamlet, developing web service using different SOAP engines like Apache AXIS2, Apache CXF and JAX-WS. This tutorial series also provides a solution for sending large attachment with SOAP messages by using MTOM (SOAP Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism) which encodes binary data in base64Binary and sends the data as binary attachment rather than keeping it with actual SOAP message. Essay Ipad. This series also shows that by simply making method calls using the SAAJ API, you can read and write SOAP-based XML messages, and nella larsen essay, you can optionally send and receive such messages over the Internet. Part 1 starts simply, explaining the essay review basic concepts behind web services and list getters essays, showing you how to essay review, develop web service with Axis2 using Different Approach (Code First and list getters essays, Contract First). Part 2 starts simply by developing a Hello User web Service with JAX-WS and then takes things a step further by showing an example of File Download web service(where client can download file from web service and essay grader, store in its location)using MTOM with JAX-WS. Larsen Quicksand. It also shows how to invoke web service from SAAJ Client. Part 3 simply shows how to develop a File uploading web service(where client can Upload file/attachment to essay grader ipad, Web service) using Apache CXF supports for MTOM with XOP implementation.

This Tutorial series will describes the way of developing web service with different Web Service Engine like (Axis2,JAX-WS and CXF). Web services can be implemented using different application protocols like SOAP, XML, JSON, RESTful HTTP, and support various transport protocols like HTTP or JMS (Java Message Service). In order to create a Web service, you will need some tools. Doctor Essay. At a minimum, you will need some type of essay grader, SOAP processing engine to parse the messages that are received and to call the functions or methods that the message indicates. Many products are on the market that provides this processing. The goal of every Web services development tool is to build a bridge between the SOAP processor and the business logic that is running on the server. Normally, this business logic is kept separate from the SOAP processing logic. In this Part 1 of the tutorial series you will learn how to develop a Credit Card Validation web service with Code first (Bottom up) approach and doctor essay, followed by Product Catalog web service development with Contract First(Top Down) Approach using Axis2.

In this tutorial, you will learn how to: Download and install the web servers (Tomcat), if it is not already installed, and make minor additions to grader review, it to essays, successfully implement the given examples. Ipad. Download and install Axis2 engine to generate the Stubs as well as Service skeleton. List Attention Getters Essays. Download and install Axis2 runtime environment into Tomcat for developing and deploying web service (Credit Card Validation and Product Catalog). Essay Grader Review. Developing POJO Client for the persuasive essay the web service (Credit Card Validation) using Eclipse IDE. This tutorial assumes familiarity with some basic concepts of the Eclipse IDE, and basic understanding of web service architecture.

A web service is a network accessible interface to application functionality, built using standard Internet technologies. The web services that we see deployed on the Internet today are HTML web sites. Essay Grader Review. In these, the application services—the mechanisms for publishing, managing, searching, and retrieving content—are accessed through the nella larsen quicksand essay use of grader ipad, standard protocols and data formats: HTTP and doctor essay, HTML. Client applications (web browsers) that understand these standards can interact with the application services to perform tasks like ordering books, sending greeting cards, or reading news. Because of the abstraction provided by the standards-based interfaces, it does not matter whether the application services are written in Java and the browser written in C++, or the application services deployed on a Unix box while the essay grader ipad review browser is deployed on Windows. Web services allow for cross-platform interoperability in larsen quicksand a way that makes the grader ipad platform irrelevant. Interoperability is one of the key benefits gained from implementing web services. Java and Microsoft Windows-based solutions have typically been difficult to reviews, integrate, but a web services layer between application and client can greatly remove friction.

The web service, a very well known open technology standard provides a number of benefits as listed below: Increase competition among vendors, resulting in review lower product costs. Ease transition from one product to another, resulting in lower training costs. Increase the ability for parties to interoperate, resulting in lower maintenance costs. Ensure a greater degree of adoption and longevity for a standard.

A large degree of usage from the vendors and the users leads to a higher degree of list essays, acceptance. How do organizations move into web service. There are three main ways in which an essay, organization can move into Web Services. These are as follows: Creating a new web service from list attention getters, scratch (Contract First): The developer creates the grader ipad review functionalities of the services as well as preparing a document to describe those services.

Exposing an existing functionality through a web service (Code First): Here, the functionalities of the service already exist. Nationalism. Only the service description needs to essay ipad review, be implemented. Integrating web services from other vendors or business partners (Meet in the Middle): There are instances where using a service implemented by another is more feasible than building from scratch. On these occasions, the organization will be required to integrate others' or even business partners' Web Services. The real utility of the Web Service concept is present in the second and the third methods, which leads to other Web Services and applications that can be used in existing applications. Code first approach versus contract first approach. Code first (Bottom Up) approach allows you to reuse your investment by exposing your existing application. Credit Card System is an existing Application with Proven business value. 20 Essay Social. Competitive pressure is moving Credit Card System to expose some of grader ipad review, this business functionality Like (Credit Card Number Validation) as web service. The implementation class already exists, all that is needed is to create a WSDL and expose the class as web service. Contract First (Top Down) often termed as “Pure Approach” is the correct way to build new web service from scratch.

This Approach starts with the WSDL (the contract) by defining operation message and so forth. Then you build the endpoint interface and finally the implementation class. Axis2 is built upon a modular architecture that consists of core modules and non-core modules. The core engine is said to be a pure SOAP processing engine (there is not any JAX-PRC concept burnt into the core). Every message coming into the system has to be transformed into a SOAP message before it is handed over to the core engine. An incoming message can either be a SOAP message or a non-SOAP message (REST JSON or JMX). But at want to be doctor essay, the transport level, it will be converted into a SOAP message. When Axis2 was designed, the following key rules were incorporated into essay ipad the architecture to achieve a highly flexible and nationalism social, extensible SOAP processing engine: Separation of essay grader ipad review, logic and state to provide a stateless processing mechanism. (This is because web services are stateless.) A single information model in social order to enable the system to suspend and resume. Ability to extend support to newer web service specifications with minimal changes made to essay grader review, the core architecture.

The Apache Axis2 architecture is built on the foundation of a SOAP engine. This engine accepts SOAP messages, parses them, and want to be doctor essay, calls the appropriate methods and functions in the web service. At this level of essay grader, detail, Axis is just like every other web services engine. The uniqueness of on the of hamlet, this product, and every other product, lies in essay grader ipad how a developer would go about want to be essay, organizing the essay grader ipad review processing so that the message can be responded to properly. Example I – Credit card validation web service using AXIS2. This is a simple Credit Card Validation web service with Code First Approach, where user will input the quicksand 16 digit credit card number to validate it and grader ipad review, also to find out the nella quicksand credit card vendor. To setup and run this example one need to know few things given below: Eclipse IDE: An integrated development environment (IDE) is an all-in-one tool for ipad writing, editing, compiling, and running computer programs.

And Eclipse provides an excellent integrated development environment. You can find the latest release of eclipse in Tomcat web server 5.5 or above: The Tomcat servlet engine is an open-source package developed as part of the Apache Software Foundation's Jakarta project. It is the official reference implementation for both the servlet and JSP specifications. Tomcat can act as a stand-alone Web server and also as a servlet/JSP engine.

You can download the nella latest release of Tomcat from (Binary Distribution): An Axis2 binary distribution consists of all the relevant third-party libraries, a set of samples, and the Axis2 runtime. Installing a binary distribution involves extracting ZIP archive files into a desired location. Once we download and extract the binary distribution, then we will be able to see a set of subdirectories inside it (bin, lib, samples, repository, webapp). (War distribution): The Axis2 WAR distribution is useful for deploying Axis2 in application servers such as Tomcat, Jboss, Weblogic, and so on. We can deploy the ipad review Axis2 WAR file into an application server, and check whether it works by typing the server address in a browser. For an example, if you deploy the Axis2 WAR file in Apache Tomcat, by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2, we can figure out whether Axis2 is writing the persuasive essay, up and running. We can download the latest Axis2 release from ipad,

Each Axis2 release consists of four main release artifacts or distributions: Binary distribution WAR distribution Source distribution JAR distribution. Install JDK 1.5 or above in your system. After downloading Axis2 file (war version) extract the zip file to any local directory. After extracting you will find axis2.war file. Copy the file and essays on the madness of hamlet, paste it to the TOMCAT_HOMEwebapp| directory, then start Tomcat. As shown in Figure 1. Tomcat startup console.

After this go the TOMCAT_HOMEwebapps| directory, inside this you will find a new directory named axis2, which indicates that the grader axis2.war file is deployed successfully. Download and extract Axis2 binary Distribution to a directory, which will be referred as AXIS2_HOME. Developing a CreditCardservice and Deploying in Tomcat. Create a directory structure Axis2Example for our Credit Card Validation Web Service as shown below in nella larsen quicksand Figure 1. Figure 1. Grader. Axis2Example Project Directory Structure. Create a interface with within the package as shown below.

Create a class inside package as shown in Listing 2. Now create a services.xml file inside META-INF directory as shown in Listing 3. Now open the command prompt by typing cmd in reviews START Run. See figure 2. Move to the directory ccheck and type javac *.java as shown below (in order to run javac command from the project directory (Axis2Example, you need to set JAVA_HOMEbin| to the Path of the user variable). Figure 3. Compile the CreditCard interface and class.

Now move to Code First Service directory and type jar cvf CreditCardService.aar * as shown below to generate the aar file. Essay Grader Ipad Review. (See Figure 4) Figure 4. Generate CreditCardService.aar file. Start tomcat and nella larsen, open browser by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2 and click on essay review Administration. You need to provide the reviews default username: admin and password: axis2 to login as shown below in Figure 6. Figure 6. Login in Axis2 Administrator.

After sucessfully logging, click on Upload web service and the browse the CreditCardService.aar file in the Axis2Example|Code First Service directory and finally click on essay grader ipad Upload (to sucessfully deploy the 20 essay nationalism social web service) as shown below in Figure 7. Figure 7. CreditCardService Uploading. Now click on Available Service or paste this link http://localhost:8080/axis2/axis2-admin/listService in the browser to find out the deployed CreditCard web service as shown below in Figure 8. Figure 8. CreditCard Service Deployment. Clink on the service to check the WSDL of the CreditCardService at http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/CheckCardService?wsdl. Open command prompt and move to the AXIS2_HOMEbin| directory and type the following command as shown in Figure 9. wsdl2java.bat -uri http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/CheckCardService?wsdl -o client. Figure 9. Stub generation for credit Card Service.

(You will find the stubs name :, and are generated inside AXIS2_HOME|bin|src|com|ibm|axis2|ccheck| directory). Developing POJO Client for the CreditCardService. Create File New Java Project name Axis2Client in grader ipad Eclipse as shown in 20 essay Figure 10. Figure 10. Axis2Client Java project in Eclipse. Create a package inside Axis2Client|src folder as shown in Figure 11. Figure 11. Create a Package for essay grader Axis2Client. Now Select the to be doctor Axis2Client Project and Configure the build path as shown below in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Configure Build Path for Axis2Client. Click on Add External JARs and select all the jars from AXIS2_HOMElib| and then click OK. Now copy the Generated Stubs and paste it in the package of the Axis2Client project as shown in ipad review Figure 13. Figure 13. Copy and Paste the generated Stubs. Now create a class inside the package as shown below. Select and Run As Java Application (Make sure Tomcat is running). After running the want to be TestClient, you will be prompted to enter your Credit card Number in essay grader the console as shown below: Figure 14. Enter Valid input and vendor in Console.

(Type your Number for example 5111111111111111 and want essay, then Press ENTER to get invalid input and valid vendor). Figure 15. Enter invalid input and valid vendor. (Type your Number which is not a credit card number, for example 51470965 and essay grader ipad, then Press ENTER to get invalid input). Example II - Developing Product Catalog Service with Contract First Approach using Axis2. This is a very simple Product Catalog web service with Contract First Approach, where user will input the ProductId Number to find out the desired Product Name in the Catalog. To setup and essay assembling, run this example one need to know few things given below: Ant: Apache Ant is a Java library and ipad, command-line tool who's mission is to drive processes described in build files as targets and extension points dependent upon each other. The main known usage of Ant is the build of Java applications.

Ant supplies a number of built-in tasks allowing to compile, assemble, test and run Java applications. Ant can also be used effectively to build non Java applications, for instance C or C++ applications. Nella Quicksand. More generally, Ant can be used to ipad review, pilot any type of process which can be described in terms of targets and doctor essay, tasks. We can download the Latest relase of ANT from grader, Set ANT_HOMEbin| to the path of the user variable. (All other Environment setup is similar to Example-I). Create a file name product.wsdl inside AXIS_HOMEbin|wsdl| directory as shown below. Using the tool AXIS2_HOME|bin|wsdl2java.bat , we will create the Skeleton and other supported files for this service. Open command Prompt and move to attention, AXIS2_HOME|bin| and essay review, execute the following command. wsdl2java.bat –uri AXIS2_HOMEbinwsdlproduct.wsdl -d adb -s -ss -sd -ssi -o buildservice This will create an output named service inside AXIS2_HOME|bin|build| directory as shown below in Figure 17. Figure 17.

Service skeleton directory structure for doctor essay Product catalog. The contents of target_directory_name are: In the above list, the Java file named src|com|ibm|axis2|contract| is the one which is used to place our custom Business logic code. AutoGenerated ProductSkeleton java code. Listing 6. Autogenerated Let us add our Business logic in the above class to implement our functionality. Listing 7. Ipad. Business Logic added in the Now, its time to build and getters essays, test our web service implementation. Open command promt and move to essay ipad review, AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service| and type the following command as shown below. Figure 18. Build and Test with ANT.

The Above ANT build will create Product.aar file inside AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service|build|lib| as shown below. Figure 19. ANT build directory structure and Product.aar file. Deploying the web service to larsen quicksand, Tomcat. The Steps for Deploying the Product.aar file is similar to CreditCardService deployment on tomcat. Start tomcat and open browser by typing http://localhost:8080/axis2 and click on ipad review Administration. (You need to provide the default username: admin and getters essays, password: axis2 to login). After sucessfully logging, click on Upload web service and the browse the essay grader review Product.aar file in the AXIS2_HOMEbin|build|service|build|lib| directory and finally click on Upload(to sucessfully deploy the web service). Now click on Available Service or paste this link http://localhost:8080/axis2/axis2-admin/listService in the browser to new films reviews, find out the deployed Product Service as shown below. Figure 20.

Product Service Deployment. You can check the WSDL of this Product web service at essay grader, http://localhost:8080/axis2/services/Product?wsdl. In this tutorial you just learn to develope Code First and Contract First Approach web service with Axis2 in very short interval of 20 essay nationalism, time. In the Part2 of this Tutorial series,you will learn to develope File Download web service with JAX-WS and consuming it with SAAJ client. The Apache Axis2 User's Guide provides a starting place for users who are new to Apache Axis2 as well as some advance topic such as how to use Axis2 to create and deploy Web services. Review. View the Eclipse WTP Tutorials, demonstrating a Bottom Up Web Service via Apache Axis2.

Service-Oriented Architecture and Web Services: Concepts, Technologies, and the persuasive essay assembling, Tools, on the Sun Developer Network describes some tools and technologies for Web services and SOA. Sign in essay grader ipad or register to add and subscribe to the persuasive an argument, comments.

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Possible Impact of Federal Hiring Freeze on the Internship Match. Dear fellow students, As many of you already know, President Trump issued an executive order on January 23 rd to ipad, freeze the hiring of Federal civilian employees across the 20 essay social, executive branch with the exception of military personnel. The President’s memorandum can be found here. At present, this freeze includes all hiring at the Department of grader, Veterans Affairs (VA), the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BoP), and to be doctor the Indian Health Service (IHS). Taken together, these three Federal departments are host to more than 700 APA-accredited internship slots, the grader ipad, vast majority of which are accredited through the VA. Important notice to users of MyPsychTrack. APAGS recently heard about nella essay, a change to the MyPsychTrack (MPT) system that could create confusion and ipad lost data.

MPT is changing to a new and improved portal ( on March 4th, 2016. If you are a student tracking clinical training hours on MPT, unless you logged in 20 essay social, recently to record hours, you may be unaware of this change. Review! To maintain all your data, you have to upload your data to attention, the new portal by ipad review March 4th . Data logged on the old portal may not be available on or after March 4th. There is a link on the MPT homepage that provides assistance on transferring hours into the new system. Essays Madness! Contact MPT support if you have any questions or concerns and they will walk you through the process. APPIC believes this will affect about 200 people who haven’t updated their MPT account since March 2015. Please share this widely with your peers, and of course, it’s always a good practice to back up your data regardless of the system you use! A Few Good Reasons Why the Internship Crisis Might Get (Slightly) Better.

Internship is stressful, so let us bask in some good news for essay grader ipad review a moment. For the an argument, past 18 years, APPIC has produced forward-looking best-case scenarios about the grader, internship match for doctoral students in clinical, counseling, and school psychology using a point-in-time profile of getters essays, applicants, doctoral internship sites, and open spots on New Year’s Eve. APPIC predicts that the imbalance between the number of applicants and positions — what APAGS and others call a crisis — will continue to improve, as it has in 2015 and grader ipad review 2014. Here is what APPIC shared recently* with the psychology education and training community: There are currently only 148 more registered applicants than available positions (compared to a difference of 498 last year and 1,148 only four years ago) Approximately 200 students withdraw from the Match each year after registering (for a variety of reasons, such as not having received any interview offers, deciding to essay, delay their internship another year, seeking or obtaining a position outside the APPIC Match, etc). This suggests that the number of positions in the 2016 Match could equal, or even slightly exceed, the number of students who submit a Rank Order List. “Please note, however, that this does not mean that all applicants will get placed, nor will all positions get filled.” As a result, the 2016 APPIC Match will likely show the grader ipad review, closest balance between applicants and positions of new films reviews, any APPIC Match to date. The number of essay grader review, accredited positions, while significantly improved this year, is far lower than the number of registered applicants. (APAGS reported on match rates using just data from the writing the persuasive essay, APA Commission on essay ipad review, Accreditation on match day 2015). APPIC reminds us that it has provided a snapshot as of December 31, 2015, and that numbers change each day.** APPIC’s optimism is corroborated by Robert Hatcher’s new article in APPIC’s academic journal. Hatcher predicts that “even if the internship growth rate slowed to less than 1%, match rates would be in the mid-90% range by 2018” (2015).

The article does paint some complications that we’ll be paying attention to. Crave even more good news this week? APA just announced that “psychology graduate students now have access to 55 new APA-accredited internship slots , thanks to the accreditation of 11 internship programs that received funds from APA’s internship stimulus package. The new slots were created after APA’s Commission on Accreditation was able to accredit 17 internship programs in October. Eleven of those programs were internship stimulus grantees and the additional six programs will also provide a number of internship slots, but those numbers are not yet available.” APAGS is well aware that while we have some optimistic news before us, not all qualified doctoral students who desire an want essay, internship will receive one, and essay grader ipad not all doctoral programs and on the madness types are matching their students to accredited programs at comparable rates. Essay Ipad Review! APAGS has committed substantial resources to address these concerns, and want to be essay we’ll continue to see that other groups do the same, until the essay ipad review, crisis is effectively ended.

If you want to help address the internship crisis as an advocate, go to to learn how. *All APPIC information presented here, and much of the verbiage, was provided by APPIC in listserv announcements in January 2016. **For numbers wonks: As of December 31, 2015, the total numbers of applicants and internship sites registered to participate in the 2016 APPIC Match were: 3,940 registered applicants, 3,792 positions offered by 786 registered internship sites (744 of nella larsen quicksand, these registered sites are APPIC members). Compared to last year at essay review, this time, these numbers reflect a decrease of 223 applicants, an increase of 127 positions, and an increase of the persuasive assembling, 14 internship sites. Furthermore, the number of APA- and CPA-accredited positions has increased by 231. Compared to four years ago at this time, which was the year of the essay review, worst imbalance between applicants and writing assembling an argument positions: The number of registered applicants has decreased by 418 (4,358 to 3,940); The number of registered positions has increased by review 582 (3,210 to 3,792); The difference between the numbers of registered positions and applicants has decreased by 1,000 (1,148 to 148); The number of registered APA- or CPA-accredited positions has increased by 590 (2,366 to 2,956); The number of registered internship sites has increased by essay 74 (712 to 786); The number of registered APPIC-member internship sites has increased by 77 (667 to 744). Tackling the Internship Crisis Through Legislative Advocacy.

The Texas State Capitol Building. (Source: StuSeeger on Flickr. Grader Ipad Review! Some rights reserved.) They say everything is bigger in Texas, but there is at least one exception: The window for getting new legislation introduced and passed is tiny! Despite the fact that the legislature only meets for 140 days every two years, the Texas Psychological Association (TPA)–with the help of its Student Division–was able to find legislative sponsors for the “Intern Bill” and mobilize TPA members and their representatives to support it. This bill authorizes licensed psychologists to to be doctor, delegate services to a pre-doctoral psychology intern under their supervision. Essay Grader Ipad! Allowing licensed psychologists to delegate services to their interns is the first in a series of steps toward making internships more sustainable. As the want to be, Director of the TPA’s Student Division, I was given the opportunity to play a key role in advocating for this legislation.

Climbing the legislative ladder. At my first TPA Board of Trustees meeting as the review, Director of the Student Division, I learned they were planning to find legislators to sponsor the Intern Bill. After having seen the video created by APAGS about the writing essay an argument, internship crisis, I was well aware that the lack of internships for qualified doctoral students had reached alarming proportions, with up to 29 percent of applicants not matching during the last five years. Essay Grader Ipad! I coordinated with TPA’s Grassroots committee to mobilize students to support this bill and ended up becoming personally involved in advocating for writing the persuasive essay this legislation. My efforts began by mobilizing the Student Division’s Board of Directors and Campus Representatives to begin spreading the word to colleges and universities across Texas about this bill and what it could do for psychology students. One of the difficult things about advocacy is that you rarely get feedback about how your message is being received and ipad whether it inspires others to the persuasive essay assembling, take up the challenge. I learned that our message was effective after TPA invited its members to ipad review, spend a day together at the capital with legislators, speaking with them about bills we are sponsoring. Students turned out in record-breaking numbers for this event, ready to take on the challenge of advocating for this much needed legislation. I headed back to the capital a few weeks later, along with other key TPA members, to testify before the Texas Public Health committee about the importance of 20 essay social, passing the Intern Bill. This was an exciting opportunity. I prepared my testimony by doing a little research and essay getting feedback from students who had not previously matched to an internship program.

After all this work, the amount of time I was allowed to testify was reduced from larsen quicksand essay, 10 minutes to about 2 minutes! I had to essay ipad review, be very concise, but I was able to speak about my most important points during this time (To watch, find the testimony from 04/07/2015 under Public Health, starting at 14:25). Representative Garnet Coleman and new films Senator Kevin Eltife have been very supportive of the profession of psychology. Their sponsorship of House and Senate versions of this bill, combined with the persistence of students and TPA members, led to a majority vote with almost no opposition by the House and Senate. The bill became law in June 2015. The power of student advocacy.

My advice to those involved with other organizations interested in essay, promoting similar legislation falls into three categories: awareness, student involvement, and focus. Awareness: Even in writing the persuasive assembling an argument, academic settings, people are largely unaware of the severity of the internship crisis. Laying out the numbers gives people a clear view of the problem. Once they have been armed with the essay, facts, people are more likely to become involved in want to be, changing the situation. For me, presenting the percentage of students who did not match to accredited internship programs had the greatest impact. These statistics can be found on the APPIC website. Student involvement: Students are willing to get involved in legislative advocacy. When reaching out to them, it is important that you to essay review, provide several avenues to express their support.

Those who have the resources to travel to their state’s Capital (or live nearby) should be encouraged to make their position known in person before legislative committees, or set up appointments with their representatives individually. New Films Reviews! Providing links to online petitions and to the contact information for the state’s representatives can help others get involved. Also, encourage your peers to address these issues with their professors and advisors. Focus: When giving testimony before legislators keep the focus narrow enough so that you don’t become bogged down in unfamiliar jargon. Present a brief overview of the statistics and then turn your attention to essay review, the impact the internship crisis has on individual students and their constituents. Once they understand that billing for interns will lead to increased access to mental health care for their state’s residents, supporting the legislation becomes that much easier. If you are a student, it is new films, important to be involved in grader ipad, both a national organization, such as APAGS, and want your state psychological organization. It was through APAGS that I discovered that the grader, internship crisis existed, which prompted me to get more involved with TPA in trying to do something about getters essays, it. All I had to do was ask TPA to essay grader ipad review, help with the Intern Bill–they were ecstatic that a student was willing to nella essay, get involved. The bottom line is: Don’t be afraid to ask. Ask your state psychology organization to introduce an review, Intern Bill; ask other students and psychologists to list attention, support it; ask your state government to pass it.

It is my hope that the success we have experienced in Texas will make it easier for other state governments to say yes to an Intern Bill. Editor’s Note: Amanda S. Phillips is a doctoral student in clinical health psychology at the University of North Texas. She is essay, also the 2014-2015 Director of the Student Division of the Texas Psychological Association. Standardized Reference Form: What Students Need to Know. The Fall 2015 round of applicants for internship will be greeted with a new feature that levels the playing field for everyone entering the pool: the Standardized Reference Form (SRF) . Over the course of two years, a working group from the Council of Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC) collaborated to improve the process of evaluating applicants in a way that was meaningful to reviewers and equitable for students. Instead of the sometimes vague letters students may have received in the past, this form asks for writers to speak to specific competencies that are relevant to training in want essay, a narrative format. This includes student strengths and areas for grader growth. We all have both, and now there won’t be a penalty for honest assessments of where students are in their skills and abilities before internship. It even allows for recommenders to indicate the social, years they trained you, so that the reviewers can see your developmental progression. We don’t expect this letter to influence the match statistics, but the ipad review, intention is that it results in a better fit for the intern and nella larsen essay the site.

CCTC will continue to essay grader review, work with The Association of new films, Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) to evaluate the letter in the next year, allowing the form to evolve and improve over time. Students are welcomed to share feedback about it as well. Most change requires adjustment and a little anxiety, but here are some “To Dos” to essay grader review, assist students with making this a smooth transition: Go to the AAPI and madness download the essay review, SRF for yourself to see how you will be evaluated. Write a letter on yourself to self-assess on the competencies being addressed. Tell all your cohort members to do the to be, same. Spread the word. Give anyone who may be writing a letter for you a copy of the SRF well in advance, especially if they’ve written letters before.

This allows them to have a heads up on the new format, in case they have not yet been introduced. Share the FAQs with them, to answer any questions. Talk with your recommenders about the SRF and how you see your strengths and areas for growth related to each competency. Make the essay grader ipad review, process collaborative, especially if they have not seen the progression of your skills. APAGS continues to work on the internship crisis and standardizing the way interns are evaluated is one piece of the larger puzzle.

Check back here for any updates about the SRF along the way.