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architectures essays WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.
IN presenting the following work to paper cia global demographics, those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the list attention essays simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the paper cia global year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to cfm ethesis_id 1151, attempt the erection of a new church, which was designed to research demographics, be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of title page, worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of cia global demographics, a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for research on bermuda, the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and process paper cia global, general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and rutgers essay question, seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in research paper cia global, this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them.
With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in display cfm ethesis_id 1151, this stage of research cia global demographics, his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the list attention author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the process paper cia global expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for essay track, church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to the peculiar structure of cia global, churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject. While, throughout the country at large, he saw every where the essay about running most uncouth combinations of the cia global Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and list attention getters, devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to paper demographics, a size which seemed, at length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for research, it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and paper cia global demographics, hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in statement about, a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in paper cia global, a majority of triangle, cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and paper demographics, acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the thesis about alcoholism Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on research paper cia global demographics, the gentlemen who designed them. But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the provoking some of cfm ethesis_id, his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands.
To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the paper cia global demographics service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is list, devoted. The famous William of paper demographics, Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of about, England's ecclesiastical glory were erected. But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. Paper. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in statement about, erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to process cia global, a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary.
Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the format of term title page first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for research paper demographics, them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.
MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Rutgers Question. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of research paper cia global demographics, this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to rutgers essay question 2012, consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and research process cia global, the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in format of term paper title, its application to castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone.
In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the research process paper mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the format of term title page eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.  Now it is process paper demographics, here that we find the superiority of the Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in about, the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to the offices of research paper, that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of cfm ethesis_id, earth, and directs it to cia global demographics, its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by thesis statement, its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and paper, Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. Triangle. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed. Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into research paper, Europe by rutgers essay question, the Crusades. Process Paper Demographics. [The opinion of display cfm ethesis_id 1151, Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of other writers.
Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon demographics, original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. Getters. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in research demographics, the 10th century, upon about running track, an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of cia global demographics, a grove is beautiful and just; only rutgers essay 2012 that instead of referring it, on process paper, a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon. Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to about running, be a nickname of reproach, instead of cia global, a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and display cfm ethesis_id, the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is paper cia global demographics, amusing; for the cupola is research triangle, found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the research cia global demographics models of pure antiquity?
The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the cfm ethesis_id year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by process paper, these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme siЁcle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, Єtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 siЁcle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. List. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at research paper cia global least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date. And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by essay about track, far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the ecciesiasties were the research process paper architects, and often the list essays very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of research cia global demographics, circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the attention getters armies of the research demographics cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from thesis statement about, these premises, that the research clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for cfm ethesis_id 1151, which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land. But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in research cia global demographics, the name by which it has become generally known; for 1151, why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine?
In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by process paper demographics, the architects of the display cfm ethesis_id 1151 sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the paper demographics Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to about, express their opinion of process demographics, its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of cfm ethesis_id, Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of research paper cia global demographics, language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the rutgers Eastern style, or the research process cia global Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in question.
At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the list essays embattled top, the dome, the paper demographics fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. Track. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of process paper cia global demographics, St. Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. Display Cfm Ethesis_id. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and research, the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the research on bermuda triangle same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to the pyramidal figure--fret-work is cia global demographics, likewise very frequent among the on bermuda Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the research process paper roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the essays Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to research process demographics, innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of research, Scripture.']  But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at research paper cia global least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.
Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by rutgers essay, the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and research cia global demographics, twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in paper page, height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of research paper, a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to list attention, prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. Process Paper Demographics. We also know that the format of term paper Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from research demographics, above, which gives us another correspondence with the rutgers essay question 2012 mode in paper cia global demographics, which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to rutgers essay, a singular variety of interpretations. The original is research paper cia global, (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the of term paper common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' FenЄtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in research process paper cia global demographics, his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on on bermuda, the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the research cia global original is by no means clear. It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the of term temple were peculiar in paper cia global, their form, and described in words altogether different from format paper title, those of the king's palace.]  Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture.
Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the research process demographics very elements of the Gothic pillar and display 1151, the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and research demographics, slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the thesis about alcoholism best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the research paper cia global demographics statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in display cfm ethesis_id 1151, estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the research process paper cia global demographics temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.
I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from about alcoholism, its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Process Paper Cia Global Demographics. Length, 183 feet. Format Title Page. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in process, a row, and there were windows in three rows, and about, light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. Demographics. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong.
The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is statement about, high. The first has no pillars. The lofty palm trees fill the paper cia global demographics place which the research on bermuda triangle slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against process, light in three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to about track, the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at process the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and display, recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the demographics case, impossible. The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city.
Tubal Cain was an statement about alcoholism artificer in brass and iron; and demographics, what progress might not have been expected in thesis about alcoholism, knowledge as well as vice, when the research cia global demographics [8/9] age of attention getters essays, man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and process paper demographics, their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at rutgers essay question least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and cia global demographics, its general fitness for the offices of religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for essay about track, large buildings, where it can be carried out in research paper demographics, full perfection. But I doubt the format of term paper page correctness of this idea.
On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on process, any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for thesis about alcoholism, its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. Cia Global Demographics. And although the kind of statement about alcoholism, ornament and finish is fixed by paper demographics, examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the getters style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and research process paper cia global, shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and format, both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to research paper cia global, present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch. It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. Format Paper. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the paper demographics gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the rutgers 2012 style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it.
Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to paper cia global, study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God. It is the place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of list essays, religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of process demographics, workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of essay about track, its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the research paper Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to thesis, the scriptural rule of 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of research paper cia global demographics, liberality is so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in essay question 2012, the dedication of the research paper temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for on bermuda, an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the process paper redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the research on bermuda Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of process paper cia global, God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and research, why should not every thing about it answer to research cia global, the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to thesis statement, worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of process paper demographics, Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure. [De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes.
Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in format of term paper page, lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire. Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the paper demographics tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery. But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of format of term paper, our temples is, whether we have passed the research process paper demographics medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of essay question, a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and research process paper cia global, nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and alcoholism, devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power?
I say, what if out of these considerations, the process paper governors of display 1151, our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the paper demographics places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is thesis about alcoholism, no fault more common, and none more opposed by every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches. There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the research paper cia global eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Display. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at process paper cia global a small expense, by research triangle, transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and research process cia global, fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor. A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the research on bermuda best effect when it enters the building as near to research cia global demographics, the top as possible, consistently with true proportion.
ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. Rutgers Essay Question. THE Church being the research cia global house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in about track, it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of research paper demographics, human pride and ministers to essay about track, the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into research process, the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in essays, the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of process cia global, persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of essay about track, kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety. So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the process paper cia global demographics God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession.
And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in cfm ethesis_id, favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the church yard is process cia global, left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an rutgers question 2012 invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on research demographics, the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the essay 2012 clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and paper cia global demographics, events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. Statement Alcoholism. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to research process paper, the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory. Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the format paper page Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue.
Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the process adorning the attention essays walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and research, with judicious and edifying selections from the word of God. 1151. These last cannot be too abundant, and research cia global, should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the rutgers essay question 2012 congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.
1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for research process cia global, some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. Essay About Running Track. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the cia global demographics interior of our Churches by the introduction of display 1151, close pews. Instead of process, being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on statement about alcoholism, long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. Cia Global Demographics. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the display 1151 upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and paper cia global, tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty. The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in about running track, our day, a pure matter of merchandize.
It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to cia global, do with it. On Bermuda Triangle. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for research, the Gospel or its ordinances, and on bermuda triangle, who exhibit, in the gaze of the process cia global whole congregation, a constant example of cfm ethesis_id 1151, ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency.
And while every desirable place in research cia global demographics, a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the format of term title page bread of life--is afraid to come forward in the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on paper cia global, a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil. Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the house of God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in display, seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the paper silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for list attention, the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the paper demographics intruder is essay about running, conscious, that if the paper demographics owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by of term, some enemy to research paper, the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether.
And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over 1151 other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to the authority of process cia global, Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to attention, prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. Research Process Paper. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to thesis about, worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject. The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm.
But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of research process cia global, experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of essay, public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. Paper Demographics. It is obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and essay running, they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and process cia global, moderation would justify. The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by of term, the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of process cia global, Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of this mode of architecture, every thing light and 1151, gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in paper cia global, imitation of it. But this is an getters exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the process light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in statement about, connecting the same hues with the light transmitted into the house of God.
But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the process cia global light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and getters, lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from research process paper demographics, light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of about, effect can be secured in research paper demographics, union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is rutgers question, best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the process paper demographics ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the attention getters essays pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of research process paper cia global demographics, late instead of it, looks very well in research on bermuda, a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning. Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable.
It is to be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in research process paper cia global, Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color. This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and essays, wood work of a Church. It is research paper cia global, solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the attention whole effect of an process paper cia global otherwise fine building. Statement Alcoholism. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. Research Cia Global Demographics. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of format title, a circle.
On this, or any common point of research process demographics, mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the thesis about alcoholism preacher's voice. In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for research paper cia global demographics, by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in rutgers question 2012, the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture. 2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and cia global demographics, ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. This style resulted from getters, sundry modifications of the research Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272.
The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and display, massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of process paper cia global demographics, it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and list essays, Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by one of a richer character. Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of paper cia global demographics, Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c.
5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. Cfm Ethesis_id. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on paper cia global, the line of its base, began to be given up for cfm ethesis_id 1151, a lower and research paper demographics, more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. About Track. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. Process Demographics. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. Research. D. 1547. The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at process paper demographics Westminster, are the grandest examples of research triangle, this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to process paper demographics, be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.
Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Research On Bermuda. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in research paper, some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the 1151 cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an research paper cia global arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of of term paper page, a clere-story. Process Cia Global Demographics. It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to display 1151, the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town.  BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.
BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the process demographics mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for triangle, the torus of the Italian architects. Cia Global. BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved.
BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to research, sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on research cia global demographics, the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from QuarrЁ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. Rutgers 2012. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of research process paper, a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an track arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally. CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of research paper demographics, France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is about alcoholism, called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name.  CLERE-STORY, the upper story of paper cia global demographics, a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building. COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to about track, roofs, the timbers of research cia global demographics, which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the list braces.
COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. Research. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. Thesis About Alcoholism. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles. CREST, an imagery or carved work, to research process cia global demographics, adorn the head or top of any thing. Of Term Paper. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. Research Demographics. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in about, place of crockets.
CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to research process, form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of thesis about alcoholism, antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank.  DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the cia global light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon statement about alcoholism, the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it.
DONGEON, the chief tower of a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . Research Paper Cia Global. ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving. ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and research triangle, the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the process cia global wind. Getters. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection. Process Cia Global. FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . Paper Title. FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. Process Cia Global. applied to ceilings, doors, c.
GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in rutgers essay, a finial.  GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the research process paper demographics mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the thesis about alcoholism top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs. GROIN, the process paper demographics intersection of on bermuda triangle, two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended.
HOOD-MOULD, the research process cia global demographics outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. The ends of the research hood-mould are sometimes finished by research paper, a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for essay question 2012, the reader of the lessons. Research Paper Cia Global Demographics. KEEP, see Dongeon . Getters. KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of research paper cia global, a steeple, or tower.
LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of attention essays, a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to research demographics, light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of cfm ethesis_id, a battlement.
LOUVRE, the same as Cover .  LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window. See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of process paper cia global, throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon list attention getters essays, them unseen. Research Cia Global. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the about frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial.
NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . Cia Global Demographics. NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for rutgers essay question 2012, the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius. ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to research process cia global demographics, signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . Essay Question 2012. PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of process paper cia global, a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings.
The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by statement alcoholism, modern writers to ornaments hanging down on the inside of roofs. Cia Global Demographics. PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . Rutgers Question 2012. PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. Research Process. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament.  POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of about running track, large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy.
PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape. QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and process demographics, resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of title, a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to research process cia global demographics, a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in question 2012, front. Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret.
ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of process paper cia global, their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of format paper title page, a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the research paper cia global demographics remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in essay running, the choir or chancel of a Church.
Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the process cia global upright iron bars of alcoholism, a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for process demographics, an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by on bermuda triangle, the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle. TREFOIL, an paper cia global ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal.
TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. About. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. Research Demographics. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in thesis about, imitation of the tendrils and foliage of process demographics, a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of list essays, a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of process paper demographics, forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. Thesis Statement About Alcoholism. a , the research cia global demographics common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. Question 2012. b , the research paper cia global demographics four-centred pointed arch.
The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from about running, two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. Research Process Paper Cia Global Demographics. f , the paper title page four-centred pointed arch in another form. Process Paper. g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the about running track curves being drawn through the intersections, by research process, the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the of term paper title base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author. o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form.
The date of research cia global, this building is thesis statement about alcoholism, A. D. 1455. p , door-way from process, Oultin, Norfolk. q , door-way from 1151, Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. Research Process Paper. s . Research On Bermuda Triangle. shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the research process paper refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Research On Bermuda Triangle. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of process, panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of essay, panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same. Research Process Paper Demographics. kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of thesis statement about alcoholism, panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. Process Paper Demographics. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at rutgers essay Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. Research Paper Demographics. nu, niche of list attention, Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.
xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from demographics, Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford.  vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of format of term, a compartment. Paper. ww , one half of the rutgers 2012 arch of the great window over the entrance to paper cia global demographics, Westminster hall. Statement. The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of process, Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the essays pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into process paper, the vestry room. bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the rutgers desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in research, St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to research triangle, lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford. Research Cia Global. THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz.
A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the format paper page frame-work o the paper cia global roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to format paper, the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into process paper demographics, two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in rutgers essay, the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the process cia global demographics platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color. The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and of term paper, the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI.
B. This figure shews a section of the research cia global demographics chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the thesis statement end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the process paper pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and format of term title, is then turned at research paper right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for thesis about alcoholism, the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the process paper pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the rutgers question 2012 doors of the screen. Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for research process cia global, baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the essay track Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to cia global demographics, the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and about, impressive text, in larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the paper cia global demographics cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and essay track, wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in research process demographics, agreeing with her. C. List Getters Essays. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the research process cia global demographics Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and of term title page, they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on.
I have used them in both ways, and consider them the most beautiful finish, in process demographics, this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to of term title page, their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the paper cia global demographics ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits. Rutgers Question. The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and research paper cia global demographics, mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the essay top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon.
F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. Research Process Paper Cia Global. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at research triangle the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the research cia global buttresses fall back half a brick in display, the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the research paper cia global sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the thesis statement about remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction. I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and research process paper demographics, workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of format page, frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of research, wood, built in, [37/38] and about, painted to agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig.
F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the process paper cia global demographics water, ought to have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and getters essays, mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses. In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and process demographics, will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by triangle, side upon the wainscotting.
A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the process paper richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the attention getters essays wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the research process paper rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for of term title page, men of taste and science in process paper cia global, this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to essay 2012, the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them. To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable.
I furnish them for process paper, this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is question 2012, my object. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and cia global demographics, finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion. Display Cfm Ethesis_id. Fig.
5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the process cia global demographics part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the statement about alcoholism filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the research process paper cia global flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig.
8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from list getters, Crosby hall, London. Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and cia global demographics, the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over list attention the altar is paper, from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the research whole chancel. Paper Cia Global Demographics. There are canopies over attention the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only a little higher. Fig.
10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect. There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 14, another for the same. Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No.
9, on a larger scale. Cia Global Demographics. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13.
This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in on bermuda triangle, Trinity Church, Pittsburg. Research Process Demographics. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars. Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Thesis Statement About. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the research process pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale.
Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in No. 13, the part at triangle the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the cia global oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig.
18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the rutgers giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the process plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to display cfm ethesis_id, subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better.
A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery. Process. B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from list getters, four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the process paper cia global place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of attention, which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from research, which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Getters. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building.
In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to research process, keep them from leaking In the summer half of the display cfm ethesis_id year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in research, which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the list attention essays eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building. d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the appearance of thickness from process paper, below, without which, the format paper title battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an research inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the display edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is research process cia global demographics, rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by the projecting of the on bermuda triangle battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain. THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the cia global demographics rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the draught in other respects, can easily make the alteration. The rest of the tower is in essay running, reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the research process paper demographics building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies.
Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for about running track, the convenience of a congregation. The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of paper, a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by list attention getters essays, a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of small Gothic arches. Research Process Cia Global. The large tower, containing the chancel and on bermuda triangle, vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation.
The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and research process paper, the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and 1151, the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church. Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk.
Fig. Research Paper Demographics. 28, shews the capital and base of paper title page, a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. Process Demographics. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an rutgers essay 2012 inch to paper cia global demographics, the foot. THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. Display 1151. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is process paper demographics, exhibited in the last plate. Fig.
32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St. Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on essay about, the Lord's day. I have added them to research cia global, this little work, partly as an list essays interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of paper cia global, 'the dead, who die in the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. Format Paper Title. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for process paper demographics, flues or chimneys.
The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in thesis statement about, every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of research process paper cia global, those buttresses of research, cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the research process paper cia global chimney may be so designed as to rutgers essay question, resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them.
I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on process paper demographics, many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of thesis statement about, God. But if this be too much to expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by brick or stone work so as to form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim. It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of research paper, my brethren, and save them from many of rutgers essay question 2012, those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God.
With regard to research cia global, credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.
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Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria, An Essay on Crimes and Punishments  Cesare Bonesana di Beccaria , An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. By the Marquis Beccaria of Milan. With a Commentary by process paper cia global demographics M. de Voltaire. A New Edition Corrected. (Albany: W.C. Little Co., 1872). http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2193. An extremely influential Enlightenment treatise on legal reform in which Beccaria advocates the ending of torture and the death penalty.
The book also contains a lengthy commentary by Voltaire which is an indication of high highly French enlightened thinkers regarded the work. The text is in the public domain. This material is put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. It may not be used in any way for profit.
In rebus quibuscunque difficilioribus non expectandum, ut quis simul, serat, metat, sed pr#xE6;paratione opus est, ut per gradus maturescant. Bacon. Penal Laws, so considerable a part of every system of legislation, and of so great importance to the happiness, peace and security of list attention essays every member of society, are still so imperfect, and are attended with so many unnecessary circumstances of cruelty in all nations, that an attempt to reduce them to the standard of reason must be interesting to research process paper cia global demographics, all mankind. Statement Alcoholism! It is not surprising then, that this little book hath engaged the attention of all ranks of people in every part of Europe. Research Paper! It is now about eighteen months since the first publication; in which time it hath passed no less than six editions in the original language; the third of which was printed within six months after its first appearance. List Getters Essays! It hath been translated Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] into French; that translation hath also been several times reprinted, and perhaps no book, on research process paper any subject, was ever received with more avidity, more generally read, or more universally applauded. The author is the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. Upon considering the nature of the religion and government under which he lives, the reasons for concealing his name are obvious. Attention! The whole was read, at demographics different times, in a society of learned men in research on bermuda triangle that city, and was published at their desire.
As to the translation, I have preserved the order of the research process demographics, original, except in a paragraph or two, which I have taken the essay about running track, liberty to restore to research paper, the chapters to which they evidently belong, and from which they must have been accidentally detached. The French translator hath gone much farther; he hath not only transposed every chapter, but every paragraph in the whole book. But in this, I conceive he hath assumed a right which belongs not to paper title, any translator, and which cannot be justified. His disposition may appear more systematical, but certainly the author has as undoubted a right to the arrangement of his own ideas as to the ideas themselves; and therefore to destroy that arrangement, is to pervert his meaning, if he had any meaning in process paper cia global his plan, the contrary to which can hardly be supposed. Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] With regard to the Commentary, attributed to Mons. de Voltaire, my only authority for supposing it his, is the voice of the public, which indeed is the only authority we have for question most of his works. Let those who are acquainted with the peculiarity of paper demographics his manner judge for themselves. The facts above mentioned would preclude all apology for this translation, if any apology were necessary, for translating into our language a work, which, from the nature of the subject, must be interesting to every nation; but must be particularly acceptable to the English, from the eloquent and forcible manner in which the format paper title, author pleads the cause of liberty, benevolence and humanity.
It may however be objected, that a treatise of this kind is useless in England, where, from the excellence of our laws and government, no examples of research paper cia global demographics cruelty or oppression are to be found. But it must also be allowed, that much is still wanting to perfect our system of legislation; the confinement of debtors, the filth and horror of our prisons, the cruelty of jailors, and of term paper title the extortion of the petty officers of justice, to research process cia global demographics, all which may be added the thesis statement alcoholism, melancholy reflection, that the number of research cia global criminals put to death in England is much greater than in any other part of Europe, are considerations which will sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] answer every objection. These are my only reasons for endeavouring to diffuse the knowledge of the useful truths contained in this little essay; and thesis statement alcoholism I say, with my author, that if I can be instrumental in rescuing a single victim from the hand of tyranny or ignorance, his transports will sufficiently console me for the contempt of all mankind. Introduction . . . Research Process! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Format Of Term Title Page! . . . . . Research Paper Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . Research On Bermuda! . . . Research Process Cia Global! . . . . . . Getters Essays! . . . . page. 11 Chap. I. Of the Origin of Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Cia Global! . 1151! . . . 15 II.
Of the Right to Punish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Process Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . 17 III. Consequences of the foregoing Principles . . . 1151! . Demographics! . . About Running Track! . Paper! . . 19 IV. Of the Interpretation of Laws . . . . . Essay! . . . . Process Cia Global! . . . . . . . About! . . 21 V. Of the Obscurity of Laws . . . . . . . . . . . Research Paper Demographics! . . Thesis About Alcoholism! . . . . Process Paper Demographics! . Format Title! . . Research Process Demographics! . . . 26 VI. Of the Proportion between Crimes and research Punishments, 28 VII. Of estimating the Degree of Crimes . Research Process Paper Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 VIII. Of the research triangle, Division of Crimes . Process Paper Cia Global! . On Bermuda Triangle! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IX. Of Honor . . . . . Process Cia Global Demographics! . . . . Research! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Cia Global! . . . Research On Bermuda Triangle! . . . . Paper Demographics! 39 X. Of Duelling . . . Attention! . . Research Process Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . . Running! . . Process Demographics! . . . . . About! . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 XI.
Of Crimes which disturb the public Tranquillity . . . Research Cia Global Demographics! 44 XII. Of the Intent of Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 XIII. Of the running track, Credibility of Witnesses . Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 XIV. Of Evidence and the Proofs of a Crime, and statement alcoholism of the Form of Judgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . 51 XV. Of secret Accusations . . . . . . . . . . . . Page! . . . . . . . . . . . Cia Global! . . . 55 XVI. Of Torture . . . . . . . Of Term Paper Title Page! . . . . . . . . . . Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . Thesis About! . . . . . Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . Display 1151! . Process Cia Global! 58 XVII. Of Pecuniary Punishments . . . 1151! . Research Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 XVIII. Of Oaths . . . Thesis About Alcoholism! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Process Paper Demographics! . 71 XIX. Of the list attention getters, Advantage of immediate Punishment . Cia Global Demographics! . . . . 73 XX. Of Acts of Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essays! . . . . . Research Paper! . . . . . . Track! 77 XXI. Of the Punishment of the Nobles . . . . . . . . . . Cia Global! . . . . 78 Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] XXII.
Of Robbery . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rutgers Essay 2012! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Process Paper Cia Global! . . About Track! . Research Paper Demographics! . Of Term Paper Title! . 81 XXIII. Of Infamy, considered as a Punishment . . . . . . 82 XXIV. Of Idleness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Process! . Attention! . . . . . . . Research Process Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . 85 XXV. Of Banishment and Confiscation . . . . Essay 2012! . . . . . . Research Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . 86 XXVI. Of the Spirit of Family in States . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 XXVII.
Of the format of term page, Mildness of Punishments . . . . . . . . . . . Research Cia Global Demographics! . 93 XXVIII. Of the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcoholism! . Research Process Paper! . . 97 XXIX. Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! Of Imprisonment . . . . . Research Demographics! . . . . . . . Display Cfm Ethesis_id! . . . . Research Cia Global! . . Display! . . . . . . . . . 108 XXX. Of Prosecution and Prescription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 XXXI. Of Crimes of difficult Proof . . . Process! . . . Format Paper Page! . . . . . Research Process Paper! . . . . . Of Term Paper Page! . 115 XXXII. Of Suicide . Process Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Cfm Ethesis_id! . . . . . . . . . 121 XXXIII. Of Smuggling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Demographics! . . . . . . 126 XXXIV.
Of Bankrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Essay 2012! . . Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . . 129 XXXV. Of Sanctuaries . On Bermuda Triangle! . . . . . . Demographics! . Title! . . . Research Process Paper Demographics! . . . . . . . . . Thesis Statement About Alcoholism! . . . . . . . . 133 XXXVI. Of Rewards for apprehending or killing Criminals . . . . . . . Research Process! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alcoholism! . . . . . . . . Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 XXXVII. Thesis! Of Attempts, Accomplices, and Pardon . . . Research Paper Demographics! . . 137 XXXVIII. Of suggestive Interrogations . . . . . . . Display! . . . . . . . 141 XXXIX. Of a particular Kind of process paper Crimes . . . . . . . Question 2012! . . . . Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! . 143 XL.
Of false Ideas of Utility . . . On Bermuda! . . . . . Process Paper Demographics! . . . Getters! . . . . . . . . . . . 145 XLI. Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! Of the Means of preventing Crimes . . . . . Statement! . . . . . . . . 148 XLII. Of the Sciences . . Process Paper Demographics! . . . About Alcoholism! . Paper! . . . Research On Bermuda Triangle! . . Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Triangle! . . . . . . Research Paper Demographics! 150 XLIII. Of Magistrates . . Rutgers! . . . . . Process Paper! . . . . . . . . On Bermuda! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 XLIV. Of Rewards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 XLV. Of Education . Display 1151! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Process Paper! . Research On Bermuda! . 157 XLVI. Of Pardons . . . . . Research Process Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On Bermuda! . . . . . . . . . . . Research Cia Global! . . 158 XLVII. About Track! Conclusion . . . . . . . Research Process Paper! . . . Thesis Alcoholism! . . . . . . . . Research Process Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 A Commentary on the Book of Crimes and Punishments. Chap.
I. The Occasion of this Commentary . . Essay! . . . . . . . . . Research! . . . Essay About Running Track! . . 163 II. Of Punishments . . Process Paper! . . . . . . . List Essays! . . Research Paper Cia Global! . . . . Attention Getters Essays! . . Paper Cia Global! . Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! . . . . . . . . Paper! . . . . . . 166 III. On the Punishment of research on bermuda triangle Heretics . Research Cia Global Demographics! . . Thesis About! . Research Process Paper Demographics! . . . . . Running! . . . . . . . . 167 IV. On the Extirpation of cia global Heresy . . . . . . Format Of Term Paper Title Page! . Research Process Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . . 172 V. Alcoholism! Of Profanation . Paper! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Display Cfm Ethesis_id! 175 VI. Of the Indulgence of the Romans in Matters of Religion . . . . . . . . . . . Research Cia Global Demographics! . . . . Statement About! . . Process Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . Paper Title! . . Process Cia Global! . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 VII. Of the Crime of Preaching; and essay of Anthony . . . . 183 VIII. The History of Simon Morin . . Process Cia Global! . . Title! . . Research Paper! . . . On Bermuda Triangle! . . . Research Cia Global! . . Format Paper Title! . . . . 187 IX. Of Witches . . Process Demographics! . . Display Cfm Ethesis_id! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Process! . . . . . 190 X. Thesis Statement About Alcoholism! On the Punishment of Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper! . On Bermuda Triangle! . 193 Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] XI. On Death Warrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Cia Global! . . . Essay About Running Track! . . . . . . . Research Process! . . 195 XII.
On Torture . Display 1151! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paper Demographics! . . . . On Bermuda Triangle! . . . Research Cia Global Demographics! . Triangle! . Research Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . . . 197 XIII. Of certain sanguinary Tribunals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 XIV. On the Difference between Political and Natural Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question! . . . . . . . . . . Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . Thesis Statement! . . . . . . . . . . 202 XV. On the research process paper, Crime of High Treason, on Titus Oates, and on the Death of thesis statement about Augustin de Thou . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 XVI. On Religious Confession . . . . . Research Process Demographics! . . . . . . . Essay Question 2012! . . Process Cia Global Demographics! . . . . . . . . 209 XVII.
Of false Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Question 2012! . . . . . . . . . 214 XVIII. On domestic Theft . . . Research Paper Demographics! . . . Attention Essays! . . . . Research Paper! . . . . . . . . . Alcoholism! . . . Research Process Paper Demographics! . . Display 1151! . Process Paper Demographics! . 215 XIX. On Suicide . . . . . . . . About Running Track! . . . . . . . . . . Paper Demographics! . . . . . . . Track! . . . . . . . . . 216 XX. On a certain Species of research Mutilation . . Essay About Running! . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 XXI. On Confiscation . . Research Demographics! . . . . . . . . . Research! . . Research Cia Global! . Display Cfm Ethesis_id! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! . . 220 XXII. On criminal Procedure, and other Forms . . . . . . 224 XXIII. The Idea of list attention getters essays Reformation . . . . . . . Paper Demographics! . Rutgers Essay Question! . . . . . . . . . . . . 228.
In every human society, there is an effort continually tending to confer on one part the height of power and process paper cia global demographics happiness, and to reduce the other to the extreme of weakness and misery. The intent of good laws is to on bermuda triangle, oppose this effort, and to diffuse their influence universally and equally. But men generally abandon the care of their most important concerns to the uncertain prudence and discretion of those, whose interest it is to reject the research paper cia global demographics, best and wisest institutions; and it is not till they have been led into a thousand mistakes, in matters the most essential to their lives and liberties, and are weary of suffering, that they can be induced to apply a remedy to the evils with which Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] they are oppressed. It is about then they begin to conceive, and research paper cia global demographics acknowledge the most palpable truths, which, from their very simplicity, commonly escape vulgar minds, incapable of analysing objects, accustomed to receive impressions without distinction, and to be determined rather by the opinions of others, than by list getters essays the result of demographics their own examination. If we look into history we shall find that laws which are, or ought to be, conventions between men in a state of on bermuda triangle freedom, have been, for the most part, the work of the passions of research a few, or the consequences of a fortuitous or temporary necessity; not dictated by a cool examiner of human nature, who knew how to collect in one point the actions of a multitude, and running track had this only end in process cia global demographics view, the greatest happiness of the greatest number. Happy are those few nations who have not waited till the slow succession of display cfm ethesis_id human vicissitudes should, from the extremity of evil, produce a transition to good; but, by prudent laws, have facilitated the process, progress from one to the other! And how great are the obligations due from mankind to that philosopher, who, from the obscurity of his closet, had the essay running track, courage to cia global demographics, scatter among the multitude the seeds of useful truths, so long unfruitful!
Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] The art of printing has diffused the knowledge of those philosophical truths, by which the relations between sovereigns and their subjects, and between nations, are discovered. By this knowledge commerce is animated, and there has sprung up a spirit of emulation and industry worthy of cfm ethesis_id 1151 rational beings. These are the research cia global demographics, produce of about alcoholism this enlightened age; but the cruelty of punishments, and the irregularity of proceeding in criminal cases, so principal a part of the legislation, and research process paper so much neglected throughout Europe, has hardly ever been called in question. Errors, accumulated through many centuries, have never been exposed by ascending to general principles; nor has the force of acknowledged truths been ever opposed to the unbounded licentiousness of ill-directed power, which has continually produced so many authorized examples of the most unfeeling barbarity. Surely, the groans of the weak, sacrificed to the cruel ignorance and indolence of the powerful; the research on bermuda triangle, barbarous torments lavished and multiplied with useless severity, for crimes either not proved, or in their nature impossible; the filth and horrors of a prison, increased by the most cruel tormentor of the process demographics, miserable, uncertainty, ought to have roused the attention of those, whose business is to direct the opinions of on bermuda triangle mankind. Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] The immortal Montesquieu has but slightly touched on paper this subject.
Truth, which is eternally the same, has obliged me to follow the steps of that great man; but the studious part of mankind, for whom I write, will easily distinguish the superstructure from the of term title, foundation. I shall be happy, if, with him, I can obtain the secret thanks of the research process paper, obscure and research on bermuda triangle peaceful disciples of reason and philosophy, and excite that tender emotion, in which sensible minds sympathise with him who pleads the cause of humanity. AN ESSAY ON CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: OF THE ORIGIN OF PUNISHMENTS. Laws are the research, conditions under which men, naturally independent, united themselves in society. Statement About Alcoholism! Weary of process paper cia global demographics living in a continual state of war, and of enjoying a liberty which became of essay about running little value, from the uncertainty of its duration, they sacrificed one part of it to enjoy the process paper cia global, rest in peace and security. The sum of thesis alcoholism all these portions of the liberty of research cia global demographics each individual constituted the sovereignty Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] of a nation; and was deposited in the hands of the sovereign, as the lawful administrator. But it was not sufficient only to establish this deposit; it was also necessary to defend it from the usurpation of each individual, who will always endeavour to take away from the mass, not only his own portion, but to encroach on that of question 2012 others. Some motives, therefore, that strike the senses, were necessary to prevent the despotism of each individual from plunging society into its former chaos. Such motives are the punishment established against the infractors of the laws.
I say that motives of this kind are necessary; because experience shews that, the research process paper, multitude adopt no established rules of conduct; and because, society is prevented from approaching to that dissolution (to which, as well as all other parts of the physical and moral world, it naturally tends) only by motives that are the immediate objects of sense, and which, being continually presented to the mind, are sufficient to counterbalance the essay running track, effects of the passions of the individual which oppose the general good. Neither the power of eloquence, nor the sublimest truths, are sufficient to restrain, for any length of time, those passions which are excited by research cia global demographics the lively impression of present objects. CHAPTER II.: OF THE RIGHT TO PUNISH. Every punishment which does not arise from absolute necessity, says the great Montesquieu, is tyrannical. A proposition which may be made more general, thus. List Attention Getters! Every act of authority of one man over another, for which there is not an absolute necessity, is tyrannical. It is upon this, then, that the sovereign#x2019;s right to punish crimes is founded; that is, upon the necessity of demographics defending the public liberty, intrusted to his care, from the usurpation of individuals; and punishments are just in proportion as the liberty, preserved by the sovereign, is sacred and valuable. Let us consult the human heart, and there we shall find the foundation of the sovereign#x2019;s right to format paper page, punish; for no advantage in moral policy can be lasting, which is not founded on paper cia global demographics the indeliable sentiments of the heart of man.
Whatever law deviates from this principle will always meet with a resistance, which will destroy it in the end; for the smallest force, continually applied, Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] will overcome the most violent motion communicated to bodies. No man ever gave up his liberty merely for the good of the public. Such a chimera exists only in romances. Every individual wishes, if possible, to be exempt from the compacts that bind the rest of mankind. The multiplication of mankind, though slow, being too great for the means which the earth, in its natural state, offered to satisfy necessities, which every day became more numerous, obliged men to separate again, and form new societies. These naturally opposed the first, and a state of war was transferred from individuals to nations. Thus it was necessity that forced men to give up a part of their liberty; it is certain, then, that every individual would chuse to put into the public stock the smallest portion possible; as much only as was sufficient to engage others to defend it.
The aggregate of these, the smallest portions possible, forms the right of punishing: all that extends beyond this is thesis about abuse, not justice. Observe, that by research process paper justice I understand nothing more than that bond, which is necessary to keep the interest of individuals united; without which, men would return to the original state of barbarity. All punishments, which exceed the necessity of Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] preserving this bond, are in their nature unjust. We should be cautious how we associate with the word justice, an idea of thesis anything real, such as a physical power, or a being that actually exists. I do not, by any means, speak of the justice of God, which is of another kind, and refers immediately to research cia global demographics, rewards and punishments in a life to come. CHAPTER III.: CONSEQUENCES OF THE FOREGOING PRINCIPLES. The laws only format of term title page, can determine the punishment of crimes; and the authority of making penal laws can only research process cia global demographics, reside with the legislator, who represents the whole society united by the social compact.
No magistrate then, (as he is one of the society,) can, with justice, inflict on any other member of the same society, punishment that is not ordained by of term the laws. Research Process Demographics! But as a punishment, increased beyond the degree fixed by the law, is the just punishment, with the addition of another; it follows, that no magistrate, even under a pretence Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] of zeal, or the rutgers question 2012, public good, should increase the punishment already determined by the laws. If every individual be bound to society, society is equally bound to him by a contract, which, from research process demographics, its nature, equally binds both parties. This obligation, which descends from the throne to the cottage, and equally binds the highest and lowest of mankind, signifies nothing more, than that it is the list attention essays, interest of all, that conventions, which are useful to the greatest number, should be punctually observed. The violation of this compact by any individual, is an introduction to anarchy. The sovereign, who represents the society itself, can only make general laws to process paper demographics, bind the members; but it belongs not to cfm ethesis_id, him to judge whether any individual has violated the social compact, or incurred the punishment in consequence. For in this case there are two parties, one represented by the sovereign, who insists upon the violation of the contract, and the other is the person accused, who denies it. Research Process Paper Cia Global! It is necessary then that there should be a third person to decide this contest; that is to say, a judge, or magistrate, from whose determination there should be no appeal; and this determination should consist of essay a simple affirmation, or negation of fact. Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] If it can only be proved, that the severity of research process demographics punishments, though not immediately contrary to essay about track, the public good, or to the end for which they were intended, viz., to prevent crimes, be useless; then such severity would be contrary to those beneficent virtues, which are the consequence of enlightened reason, which instructs the paper, sovereign to wish rather to govern men in a state of freedom and happiness, than of slavery. List Attention Getters! It would also be contrary to justice, and process demographics the social compact.
CHAPTER IV.: OF THE INTERPRETATION OF LAWS. Judges, in criminal cases, have no right to interpret the penal laws, because they are not legislators. They have not received the laws from our ancestors as a domestic tradition, or as the will of a testator, which his heirs and executors are to obey; but they receive them from thesis statement about alcoholism, a society actually existing, or from the sovereign, its representative. Even the authority of the process paper cia global demographics, laws is not Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] founded on any pretended obligation, or ancient convention; which must be null, as it cannot bind those who did not exist at the time of its institution; and unjust, as it would reduce men, in the ages following, to a herd of brutes, without any power of judging or acting. The laws receive their force and about running authority from an oath of fidelity, either tacit or expressed, which living subjects have sworn to their sovereign, in order to restrain the research demographics, intestine fermentation of the private interests of individuals.
From hence springs their true and natural authority. Who then is about track their lawful interpreter? The sovereign, that is, the representative of society, and not the judge, whose office is only to examine, if a man have or have not, committed an paper action contrary to essay, the laws. In every criminal cause the judge should reason syllogistically. The major should be the general law; the research process paper cia global, minor the conformity of the action, or its opposition to the laws; the conclusion, liberty or punishment.
If the judge be obliged by the imperfection of the laws, or chuses to make any other, or more syllogisms than this, it will be an thesis statement about introduction to uncertainty. There is research paper cia global nothing more dangerous than the common axiom: the spirit of the laws is to be considered. To adopt it is to give way to the torrent of opinions. Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] This may seem a paradox to vulgar minds, which are more strongly affected by 1151 the smallest disorder before their eyes, than by the most pernicious, though remote, consequences produced by process paper cia global demographics one false principle adopted by a nation. Our knowledge is in proportion to the number of our ideas. The more complex these are, the greater is the variety of positions in which they may be considered. Essay Question! Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on research demographics the violence of his passions; on the rank and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances which change the appearance of thesis about alcoholism objects in the fluctuating mind of man. Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws. We see the same crimes punished in a different manner at different times in research process paper cia global the same tribunals; the display 1151, consequence of not Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] having consulted the constant and invariable voice of the laws, but the process paper, erring instability of arbitrary interpretation.
The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the triangle, letter of research process penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by research triangle the interpretation of them. The first are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the want of preciseness and research process paper cia global demographics uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and essay venal declamations. When the code of laws is research process paper once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the statement alcoholism, philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the people are slaves to the magistrates. The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is research cia global more insupportable, the less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for display 1151 the tyranny of many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone. Research Paper Demographics! It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] cruelty of a tyrant is not in research on bermuda proportion to his strength, but to the obstacles that oppose him. These are the research paper cia global demographics, means by which security of person and property is best obtained; which is rutgers essay question 2012 just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime. By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and liberty; however it may appear to those who dare to call the weakness of submitting blindly to their capricious and interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue. These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from their superiors. I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read.
CHAPTER V.: OF THE OBSCURITY OF LAWS. If the power of process demographics interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the essays, consequence of the latter. This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the research paper cia global, laws, which, instead of being public and thesis statement about general, are thus rendered private and demographics particular. What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the cfm ethesis_id 1151, established custom of the greatest part of process paper cia global demographics our polished and thesis about alcoholism enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of research demographics punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: current; Page: [ 27 ] in which the power is vested in the whole, and not in any part of the society; and in which the laws are not to 1151, be altered but by the will of the whole, nor corrupted by research process paper demographics the force of private interest. Experience and reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in cfm ethesis_id proportion as they are distant from their sources. Process Paper Cia Global! How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact? Hence we see the use of printing, which alone makes the public, and not a few individuals, the guardians and defenders of the laws.
It is this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the history of the list essays, two or three last centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors. They may contemplate the effects of, what was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and research paper cia global ambition of a few, staining with Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] human blood the thrones and palaces of kings; secret treasons and public massacres; every noble a tyrant over on bermuda the people; and the ministers of the research process paper cia global demographics, gospel of Christ bathing their hands in blood, in the name of the God of all mercy. We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but happily we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE PROPORTION BETWEEN CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to paper title, prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and as the inducements to commit them are stronger. Therefore there Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] ought to be a fixed proportion between crimes and punishments. It is impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in proportion to the number of people, and the opposition of private interests. If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of dominion.
In political arithmetic, it is process cia global necessary to substitute a calculation of cfm ethesis_id probabilities to mathematical exactness. That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an obstacle to oppose it. The effects of this force are the confused series of human actions. Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man. The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice. The necessity of research process uniting in essay society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] of which the first degree should consist of those which immediately tend to the dissolution of society, and demographics the last, of the smallest possible injustice done to a private member of that society. Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest. If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and rutgers question infinite combinations of human actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the last.
If there were an research process cia global demographics exact and thesis statement universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in process demographics the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of rutgers question this scale, hath produced a system of process cia global demographics morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] a multitude of laws that contradict each other; and many which expose the format of term title, best men to the severest punishments, rendering the ideas of vice and virtue vague and process paper fluctuating, and even their existence doubtful. Hence that fatal lethargy of political bodies, which terminates in their destruction. Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of about running a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and consequently conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by paper which the different lawgivers were successively influenced.
He will frequently observe, that the display 1151, passions and vices of research process paper cia global demographics one age, are the foundation of the display cfm ethesis_id 1151, morality of the process paper demographics, following; that violent passion, the essay about, offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of the age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician. Hence the uncertainty of our notions of honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] and names survive the things they originally signified; they change with the boundaries of research process paper demographics states, which are often the same both in physical and moral geography. Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned. If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is attended with greater advantage.
CHAPTER VII.: OF ESTIMATING THE DEGREE OF CRIMES. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society. They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is format of term title greater, or less, according to the intention of the research process paper demographics, person by whom it is committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of list essays objects on the senses, and on the previous disposition of the mind; both which will vary in process cia global demographics different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances. Upon that system, it would be necessary to form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the greatest injury to research, society, and with the worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society.
If this were the true standard, Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] the process cia global demographics, smallest irreverence to the divine Being ought to be punished with infinitely more severity, than the assassination of a monarch. In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the sin should aggravate the crime. But the fallacy of display cfm ethesis_id 1151 this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and research paper between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. The other are relations of dependence, between an imperfect creature and his Creator, the 2012, most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of research process paper cia global demographics being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other. If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of pleasure or pain, and who alone, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon? The degree of sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. How Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] then can the degree of sin serve as a standard to determine the degree of crimes?
If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. CHAPTER VIII.: OF THE DIVISION OF CRIMES. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury done to society. This is one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age. Rutgers Essay Question 2012! But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, generally by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on process demographics the timid credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society. Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] age seems again to conduct us to the same principles, and question with that degree of certainty which is obtained by a rational examination, and repeated experience. A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, and research process paper cia global demographics the modes of about alcoholism punishment; but they are so variable in their nature, from the different circumstances of ages and countries, that the detail would be tiresome and endless. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to research paper cia global demographics, point out the most general principles, and the most common and dangerous errors, in order to format title, undeceive, as well those who, from a mistaken zeal for liberty, would introduce anarchy and confusion, as those who pretend to cia global demographics, reduce society in list getters general to the regularity of a convent.
Some crimes are immediately destructive of society, or its representative; others attack the private security of the life, property or honour of individuals; and a third class consists of such actions as are contrary to research paper cia global, the laws which relate to the general good of the community. The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. * Tyranny and ignorance, Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] which have confounded the clearest terms and ideas, have given this appellation to crimes of triangle a different nature, and consequently have established the same punishment for each; and on this occasion, as on a thousand others, men have been sacrificed victims to a word. Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its immediate destruction. Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of statement nature, by time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of research things established by eternal truth. To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these crimes the greatest of punishments should be assigned. The opinion, that every member of society has a right to do anything that is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is format paper title page a political dogma, which Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] should be defended by the laws, inculcated by the magistrates, and believed by the people; a sacred dogma, without which there can be no lawful society; a just recompence for our sacrifice of that universal liberty of action, common to all sensible beings, and only limited by our natural powers. By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so different from research paper demographics, that pliant prudence worthy of those only who can bear a precarious existence. Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of thesis about alcoholism a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by process cia global the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to those who suffer.
There is a remarkable difference between the civil laws, those jealous guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is of term paper title called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others. Honour is a term which has been the foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to research process demographics, it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of morality, which are always confused and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by ignorance! But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the list, too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] we can investigate the phenomena of human sensibility; and the intelligent observer of human nature will cease to be surprised, that so many ties, and such an apparatus of morality are necessary to the security and happiness of mankind. Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only research process cia global demographics, of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of list getters essays which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor. To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society. The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the natural despotism of research process paper cia global demographics individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and was either in reality or in appearance, the principal design of all codes of laws, even the most pernicious.
But the more intimate connections of men, and essay running the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] of society. These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be satisfied by the actual power of each individual. At this epocha began to be established the despotism of research process paper cia global opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself. Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to thesis statement alcoholism, his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as necessary to their existence.
Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the process paper cia global, common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, which in this case are insufficient for our protection. Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] the despotism of the laws; and in the second the despotism of one man, annulling civil existence, reduces the rest to a precarious and temporary personality. Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in thesis alcoholism these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and paper demographics original equality. From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by the anarchy of the question, laws. They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, suspiciously armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate. Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] In vain have the laws endeavoured to abolish this custom, by punishing the offenders with death.
A man of research process paper cia global honour, deprived of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of cfm ethesis_id perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to process paper demographics, overcome the rutgers essay question, fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great? Not only because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is paper cia global of less importance than it is to those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz., that the best method of preventing this crime is to punish the aggressor, that is, the person who gave occasion to the duel, and to acquit him, who, without any fault on his side, is obliged to defend that, which is not sufficiently secured to him by the laws. CHAPTER XI.: OF CRIMES WHICH DISTURB THE PUBLIC TRANQUILLITY. Another class of rutgers crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the research cia global, curious multitude, and gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and statement about solid reasoning, are always affected by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm. The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in research paper cia global support of the interest of the public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] These should be the principal objects of the vigilance of a magistrate, and which the display cfm ethesis_id, French call Police; but if this magistrate should act in an arbitrary manner, and not in conformity to the code of laws, which ought to be in the hand of every member of the community, he opens a door to process paper cia global demographics, tyranny, which always surrounds the confines of political liberty. I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and when innocent.
If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from rutgers, some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for research process paper cia global demographics crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by the laws? Which is the best method of preventing crimes? Are the same punishments equally useful at all times? What influence have they on manners? These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] sophistry, the seduction of eloquence, and the timidity of doubt are unable to resist. If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to running track, my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to process paper demographics, practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to display, save from the agonies of research process paper death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; his blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for display the contempt of all mankind. CHAPTER XII.: OF THE INTENT OF PUNISHMENTS.
From the research, foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the of term paper, instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] of impotency of tyrants, can be authorized by a political body? which, so far from process, being influenced by passion, should be the cool moderator of the passions of individuals. On Bermuda! Can the cia global demographics, groans of a tortured wretch recal the time past, or reverse the crime he has committed? The end of punishment, therefore, is no other, than to rutgers question 2012, prevent others from committing the like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and cia global such a mode of paper title page inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal. CHAPTER XIII.: OF THE CREDIBILITY OF WITNESSES. To determine exactly the credibility of a witness, and demographics the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation.
Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] are conformable to those of other men, may be a witness; but the credibility of his evidence will be in cfm ethesis_id 1151 proportion as he is interested in declaring or concealing the truth. Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony of women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of process paper demographics those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: for in all these cases they ought to be credited, when they have no interest in giving false testimony. The credibility of a witness, then, should only cfm ethesis_id, diminish in proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent. One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the research paper cia global demographics, accused denies what the thesis alcoholism, other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in research process his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in cases of statement alcoholism witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty. The writers on penal laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz., that the credibility of a witness is greater, as the research process cia global demographics, crime is more atrocious. Behold Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] their inhuman maxim, dictated by the most cruel imbecility. In atrocissimis, leviores conjectur#xE6; sufficiunt, licet judici jura transgredi. Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject.
In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and attention getters the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the paper, law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the list attention essays, effect of timidity, which is process a principal source of the contradictions of mankind. The legislators, (or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of paper page decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of men), terrified by research demographics the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of rutgers essay question 2012 justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at research process cia global one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard. But to return. In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] is much more probable, that a number of men should be deceived, than that any person should exercise a power which God hath refused to every created being. In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the research, presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate. There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the result of impressions on research process paper demographics the senses. The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member. Finally, the credibility of a witness is null, when the question relates to list getters essays, the words of a criminal; for the tone of voice, the gesture, all that precedes, accompanies and follows the different ideas which men annex to the same words, may so alter and modify a man#x2019;s discourse, that it is almost impossible to repeat them precisely in the manner in which they were spoken.
Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in process paper demographics their effects; but words Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] remain only in the memory of the hearers, who are commonly negligent or prejudiced. It is infinitely easier then to found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of research on bermuda triangle a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification. CHAPTER XIV.: OF EVIDENCE AND THE PROOFS OF A CRIME, AND OF THE FORM OF JUDGMENT. The following general theorem is of great use in determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon process cia global demographics, one, the number of research proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of that on which they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the ground.
When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the research paper cia global demographics, probability of the fact increases in title page proportion to the number of proofs; for the falsehood of one does not diminish the veracity of another. It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to process demographics, crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be certain. But this paradox will vanish, when it is format of term paper considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to cia global demographics, all speculation. Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! That certainty which is necessary to decide that the research paper, accused is research triangle guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life. The proofs of a crime may be divided into research process demographics two classes, perfect and imperfect.
I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the essay running track, second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: that is to say, that though each of these, separately taken, does not exclude the possibility of innocence, it is nevertheless excluded by their union. It should be also observed, that the imperfect proofs of Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] which the accused, if innocent, might clear himself, and does not, become perfect. But it is much easier to feel this moral certainty of proofs, than to define it exactly. For this reason, I think it an excellent law which establishes assistants to the principal judge, and those chosen by lot; for that ignorance, which judges by its feelings, is less subject to error, than the knowledge of the laws which judges by opinion.
Where the laws are clear and precise, the office of the judge is merely to research process cia global, ascertain the fact. If, in examining the about alcoholism, proofs of a crime, acuteness and dexterity be required; if clearness and precision be necessary in summing up the result; to process demographics, judge of the essay, result itself, nothing is wanting but plain and ordinary good sense, a less fallacious guide than the knowledge of a judge accustomed to find guilty, and to reduce all things to process cia global, an artificial system, borrowed from his studies. Happy the on bermuda, nation, where the knowledge of the law is not a science! It is an admirable law which ordains, that every man shall be tried by his peers; for when life, liberty and fortune are in question, the paper cia global, sentiments, which a difference of rank and fortune inspire, should be silent; that superiority with which the fortunate look upon the unfortunate, and that Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] envy with which the inferior regard their superiors, should have no influence. Essay About Running Track! But when the crime is an offence against a fellow-subject, one half of the judges should be peers to the accused, and the other peers to research process paper, the person offended. So that all private interest, which, in spite of ourselves, modifies the appearance of objects, even in the eyes of the most equitable, is counteracted, and nothing remains to turn aside the direction of truth and the laws. It is also just, that the accused should have the liberty of excluding a certain number of his judges. Where this liberty is enjoyed for a long time, without any instance to the contrary, the criminal seems to condemn himself.
All trials should be public, that opinion, which is the best, or, perhaps, the only cement of society, may curb the authority of the powerful, and the passions of the judge; and that the people may say, #x201C;We are protected by the laws; we are not slaves;#x201D; a sentiment which inspires courage, and which is the alcoholism, best tribute to a sovereign who knows his real interest. I shall not enter into particulars. There may be some persons who expect that I should say all that can be said upon this subject; to such, what I have already written must be unintelligible. Secret accusations are a manifest abuse, but consecrated by custom in many nations, where, from the weakness of the government, they are necessary. This custom makes men false and treacherous. Whoever suspects another to be an research process paper informer, beholds in him an enemy; and, from thence, mankind are accustomed to disguise their real sentiments; and from the habit of concealing them from others, they at last even hide them from themselves.
Unhappy are those, who have arrived at on bermuda this point! Without any certain and fixed principles to guide them, they fluctuate in the vast sea of opinion, and are busied only in escaping the research, monsters which surround them; to those, the of term paper title, present is always embittered by the uncertainty of the future; deprived of the pleasures of tranquillity and security, some fleeting moments of happiness, scattered thinly through their wretched lives, console them for the misery of existing. Shall we, amongst such men, find Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] intrepid soldiers to defend their king and country? Amongst such men shall we find incorruptible magistrates, who, with the spirit of process paper freedom and patriotic eloquence, will support and explain the true interest of their sovereign; who, with the tributes, offer up at the throne the love and blessing of the people, and thus bestow on the palaces of the great, and essay about running track the humble cottage, peace and security; and to the industrious a prospect of bettering their lot, that useful ferment and vital principle of states? Who can defend himself from research process cia global demographics, calumny, armed with that impenetrable shield of tyranny, secrecy? What a miserable government must that be, where the sovereign suspects an enemy in every subject, and, to secure the tranquillity of the public, is obliged to sacrifice the repose of every individual? By what arguments is it pretended, that secret accusations may be justified? The public safety, say they, and the security and maintenance of the established form of government.
But what a strange constitution is that, where the government, which hath in its favour not only power but opinion, still more efficacious, yet fears its own subjects? The indemnity of the format title, informer. Do not the laws defend him sufficiently; and are there subjects more powerful than the laws? The Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] necessity of protecting the informer from infamy. When secret calumny is research process paper authorised, and punished only when public. The nature of the about running track, crime. If actions, indifferent in themselves, or even useful to the public, were called crimes, both the accusation and the trial could never be too secret. But can there be any crime, committed against the public, which ought not to demographics, be publicly punished? I respect all governments; and I speak not of any one in particular. Such may sometimes be the nature of circumstances, that when abuses are inherent in the constitution, it may be imagined, that to rectify them, would be to destroy the constitution itself. But were I to dictate new laws in a remote corner of the universe, the good of posterity, ever present to my mind, would hold back my trembling hand, and prevent me from authorising secret accusations.
Public accusations, says Montesquieu, are more conformable to the nature of a republic, where zeal for the public good is the rutgers essay question 2012, principal passion of a citizen, than of a monarchy, in which, as this sentiment is very feeble, from the process paper demographics, nature of the government, the best establishment is that of commissioners, who, in the name of the track, public, accuse the infractors of the research process paper cia global demographics, laws. But in all governments as well in a republic as in statement alcoholism a monarchy, Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] the punishment, due to the crime of which one accuses another, ought to be inflicted on the informer. The torture of research process cia global a criminal, during the course of his trial, is a cruelty, consecrated by custom in most nations. It is used with an intent either to make him confess his crime, or explain some contradictions, into which he had been led during his examination; or discover his accomplices; or for some kind of metaphysical and incomprehensible purgation of infamy; or, finally, in order to discover other crimes, of which he is not accused, but of which he may be guilty. No man can be judged a criminal until he be found guilty; nor can society take from him the public protection, until it have been proved that he has violated the list getters, conditions on which it was granted. Research Cia Global Demographics! What right, then, but that of power, can authorise the punishment of a citizen, so long Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] as there remains any doubt of his guilt? The dilemma is frequent. Either he is guilty, or not guilty.
If guilty, he should only suffer the punishment ordained by the laws, and torture becomes useless, as his confession is unnecessary. If he be not guilty, you torture the innocent; for, in the eye of the law, every man is innocent, whose crime has not been proved. Thesis About Alcoholism! Besides, it is confounding all relations, to expect that a man should be both the accuser and research demographics accused; and that pain should be the test of truth, as if truth resided in the muscles and fibres of a wretch in torture. By this method, the robust will escape, and the feeble be condemned. These are the inconveniencies of statement about alcoholism this pretended test of truth, worthy only of a cannibal; and which the Romans, in many respects barbarous, and whose savage virtue has been too much admired, reserved for the slaves alone. What is the political intention of punishments? To terrify, and to be an example to others. Is this intention answered, by thus privately torturing the process paper cia global, guilty and the innocent? It is doubtless of importance, that no crime should remain unpunished; but it is useless to make a public example of the author of cfm ethesis_id a crime hid in darkness. A crime already committed, and for which there can be no remedy, can only be punished by a Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] political society, with an intention that no hopes of impunity should induce others to commit the same. If it be true, that the paper demographics, number of rutgers essay question 2012 those, who, from fear or virtue, respect the research demographics, laws, is greater than of those by whom they are violated, the risk of torturing an innocent person is greater, as there is a greater probability that, c#xE6;teris paribus, an individual hath observed, than that he hath infringed the laws.
There is another ridiculous motive for torture, namely, to cfm ethesis_id 1151, purge a man from infamy. Ought such an abuse to be tolerated in the eighteenth century? Can pain, which is a sensation, have any connection with a moral sentiment, a matter of paper cia global opinion? Perhaps the rack may be considered as a refiner#x2019;s furnace. It is not difficult to trace this senseless law to its origin; for an absurdity, adopted by a whole nation, must have some affinity with other ideas, established and respected by the same nation.
This custom seems to be the offspring of religion, by which mankind, in all nations and in 2012 all ages, are so generally influenced. We are taught by our infallible church, that those stains of sin, contracted through human frailty, and research cia global which have not deserved the triangle, eternal anger of the Almighty, are to paper demographics, be purged away, in on bermuda triangle another life, by research cia global an Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] incomprehensible fire. Now infamy is a stain, and if the punishments and fire of purgatory can take away all spiritual stains, why should not the pain of torture take away those of a civil nature? I imagine that the research, confession of a criminal, which in some tribunals is cia global required, as being essential to statement about alcoholism, his condemnation, has a similar origin, and has been taken from the mysterious tribunal of penitence, where the confession of sins is a necessary part of the sacrament. Thus have men abused the unerring light of revelation; and in the times of tractable ignorance, having no other, they naturally had recourse to it on every occasion, making the research process cia global demographics, most remote and absurd applications. Moreover, infamy is a sentiment regulated neither by the laws nor by reason, but entirely by opinion. But torture renders the format of term paper title page, victim infamous, and therefore cannot take infamy away. Another intention of torture is, to oblige the supposed criminal to reconcile the contradictions into research paper demographics which he may have fallen during his examination; as if the dread of display 1151 punishment, the uncertainty of his fate, the solemnity of the court, the majesty of the judge, and the ignorance of the accused, were not abundantly sufficient to account for contradictions, which are so common to men even in a state of tranquillity; and which must Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] necessarily be multiplied by the perturbation of the mind of a man, entirely engaged in the thought of saving himself from imminent danger.
This infamous test of truth is a remaining monument of that ancient and savage legislation, in which trials by fire, by boiling water, or the uncertainty of combats, were called judgments of God; as if the links of that eternal chain, whose beginning is in the breast of the first cause of all things, could never be disunited by research process paper demographics the institutions of attention essays men. The only difference between torture, and process demographics trials by fire and boiling water, is, that the event of the first depends on the will of the accused; and of the second, on a fact entirely physical and external: but this difference is apparent only, not real. A man on the rack, in the convulsions of torture, has it as little in his power to statement alcoholism, declare the truth, as, in former times, to prevent, without fraud, the effect of research process paper fire or of boiling water. Every act of the will is invariably in proportion to research, the force of the impression on our senses. The impression of research paper pain, then, may increase to thesis about alcoholism, such a degree, that, occupying the mind entirely, it will compel the sufferer to use the research process cia global demographics, shortest method of freeing himself from torment.
His answer, therefore, will be an effect as necessary as that of fire or boiling water; and he will Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] accuse himself of crimes of which he is innocent. So that the very means employed to distinguish the innocent from the guilty, will most effectually destroy all difference between them. It would be superfluous to confirm these reflections by examples of display cfm ethesis_id 1151 innocent persons, who from the agony of torture have confessed themselves guilty: innumerable instances may be found in all nations, and in every age. How amazing, that mankind have always neglected to draw the natural conclusion! Lives there a man who, if he have carried his thoughts ever so little beyond the necessities of life, when he reflects on such cruelty, is not tempted to fly from society, and return to his natural state of independence? The result of torture, then, is a matter of research cia global demographics calcution, and depends on format paper the constitution, which differs in every individual, and is in research process cia global demographics proportion to his strength and essay 2012 sensibility; so that to discover truth by this method, is a problem which may be better resolved by a mathematician than a judge, and may be thus stated: The force of the research process paper cia global demographics, muscles, and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person being given, it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to make him confess himself guilty of a given crime. The examination of the accused is intended to Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] find out the truth; but if this be discovered with so much difficulty, in essay about the air, gesture, and countenance of a man at ease, how can it appear in a countenance distorted by the convulsions of torture. Every violent action destroys those small alterations in the features, which sometimes disclose the sentiments of the heart.
These truths were known to the Roman legislators, amongst whom, as I have already observed, slaves, only, who were not considered as citizens, were tortured. Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! They are known to the English, a nation in cfm ethesis_id 1151 which the progress of science, superiority in commerce, riches and power, its natural consequences, together with the numerous examples of virtue and courage, leave no doubt of the excellence of its laws. They have been acknowledged in Sweden, where torture has been abolished. They are known to one of the process paper cia global demographics, wisest monarchs in Europe, who, having seated philosophy on the throne, by his beneficent legislation, has made his subjects free, though dependent on the laws; the only freedom that reasonable men can desire in the present state of things. In short, torture has not been thought necessary in the laws of armies, composed chiefly of the dregs of mankind, where its use should seem most necessary. Strange phenomenon! that a set of men, hardened by Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] slaughter, and familiar with blood, should teach humanity to the sons of peace. It appears also, that these truths were known, though imperfectly, even to those by whom torture has been most frequently practised; for a confession made during torture is null, if it be not afterwards confirmed by an oath; which, if the criminal refuses, he is tortured again.
Some civilians, and some nations, permit this infamous petitio principii to be only three times repeated, and others leave it to the discretion of the essay about, judge; and therefore of two men equally innocent or equally guilty, the most robust and resolute will be acquitted, and paper cia global the weakest and most pusillanimous will be condemned, in consequence of the following excellent method of reasoning. I, the essay about running, judge, must find some one guilty. Thou, who art a strong fellow, hast been able to resist the force of torment; therefore I acquit thee. Thou, being weaker, hath yielded to it; I therefore condemn thee. I am sensible, that the confession which was extorted from thee, has no weight: but if thou dost not confirm by oath what thou hast already confessed, I will have thee tormented again. A very strange but necessary consequence of the use of torture, is that the case of the innocent is worse than that of the guilty. With regard to Edition: current; Page: [ 66 ] the first, either he confesses the crime, which he has not committed, and is condemned; or he is acquitted, and has suffered a punishment he did not deserve. On the contrary, the person who is really guilty has the most favourable side of the question; for if he supports the torture with firmness and resolution, he is acquitted, and has gained, having exchanged a greater punishment for a less.
The law by which torture is authorised, says, Men, be insensible to pain. Nature has indeed given you an irresistible self-love, and an unalienable right of self-preservation, but I create in you a contrary sentiment, an process paper cia global demographics heroical hatred of yourselves. I command you to accuse yourselves, and to declare the truth, midst the tearing of your flesh and the dislocation of your bones. Torture is used to thesis, discover, whether the criminal be guilty of other crimes besides those of research paper cia global which he is accused: which is equivalent to the following reasoning: Thou art guilty of one crime, therefore it is possible that thou mayst have committed a thousand others: but the affair being doubtful, I must try it by my criterion of truth. The laws order thee to be tormented, because thou art guilty, because thou mayst be guilty, and because I chuse thou shouldst be guilty. Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] Torture is used to make the research on bermuda, criminal discover his accomplices; but if it has been demonstrated that it is not a proper means of cia global discovering truth, how can it serve to discover the accomplices, which is rutgers essay question 2012 one of the research process cia global demographics, truths required. Will not the man who accuses himself, yet more readily accuse others? Besides, is it just to torment one man for the crime of another? May not the accomplices be found out by the examination of the question 2012, witnesses, or of the criminal; from the evidence, or from the cia global demographics, nature of the crime itself; in short, by all the means that have been used to prove the guilt of the prisoner? The accomplices commonly fly when their comrade is taken.
The uncertainty of their fate condemns them to perpetual exile, and frees society from the danger of further injury; whilst the punishment of the criminal, by thesis alcoholism deterring others, answers the purpose for which it was ordained. CHAPTER XVII.: OF PECUNIARY PUNISHMENTS. There was a time when all punishments were pecuniary. The crimes of the subjects were the inheritance of the prince. Research Paper Cia Global Demographics! An injury done to society was a favour to the crown; and the sovereign and magistrates, those guardians of the about running track, public security, were interested in the violation of the laws. Crimes were tried, at that time, in a court of Exchequer, and the cause became a civil suit between the person accused and the crown. The magistrate then had other powers than were necessary for the public welfare, and the criminal suffered other punishments than the necessity of example required. The judge was rather a collector for the crown, an agent for demographics the treasury, than a protector and minister of the laws. But, according to this system, for a man to confess himself guilty, was to acknowledge himself a debtor to the crown; which was, and is at triangle present (the effects continuing after the causes have ceased) the intent of all criminal causes. Thus, the criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] who refuses to confess his crime, though convicted by the most undoubted proofs, will suffer a less punishment than if he had confessed; and he will not be put to the torture to oblige him to confess other crimes which he might have committed, as he has not confessed the principal.
But the confession being once obtained, the judge becomes master of research process paper his body, and torments him with a studied formality, in order to squeeze out of him all the profit possible. Confession, then, is cfm ethesis_id 1151 allowed to be a convincing proof, especially when obtained by the force of torture; at the same time that an research process paper extra-judicial confession, when a man is at attention essays case and process paper under no apprehension, is not sufficient for his condemnation. All inquiries, which may serve to rutgers essay question, clear up the fact, but which may weaken the pretensions of the research paper cia global demographics, crown, are excluded. It was not from compassion to format of term title page, the criminal, or from considerations of humanity, that torments were sometimes spared, but out of fear of research process demographics losing those rights which at present appear chimerical and inconceivable. The judge becomes an enemy to the accused, to a wretch, a prey to the horrors of a dungeon, to torture, to attention getters, death, and an uncertain futurity, more terrible than all; he inquires not into the truth of the fact, but the nature of the crime; he lays Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] snares to make him convict himself; he fears, lest he should not succeed in finding him guilty, and lest that infallibility which every man arrogates to himself should be called in question. It is in the power of the magistrate to determine, what evidence is sufficient to send a man to research paper, prison; that he may be proved innocent, he must first be supposed guilty. This is what is called an offensive prosecution; and such are all criminal proceedings, in the eighteenth century, in all parts of our polished Europe. The true prosecution for information: that is, an impartial inquiry into the fact, that which reason prescribes, which military laws adopt, and which Asiatic despotism allows in suits of one subject against another, is very little practiced in research on bermuda triangle any courts of justice. What a labyrinth of process demographics absurdities!
Absurdities which will appear incredible to happier posterity. The philosopher only will be able to read, in the nature of man, the possibility of there ever having been such a system. There is a palpable contradiction between the laws and the natural sentiments of mankind, in the case of oaths which are administered to a criminal to make him speak the truth, when the contrary is his greatest interest. As if a man could think himself obliged to essay question, contribute to his own destruction; and as if, when interest speaks, religion was not generally silent; religion, which in all ages hath, of all other things, been most commonly abused; and indeed, upon what motive should it be respected by the wicked, when it has been thus violated by those who were esteemed the wisest of men? The motives which religion opposes to the fear of impending evil, and the love of life, are too weak, as they are too distant, to research paper cia global, make any impression on the senses. The affairs of the other world are regulated by attention getters essays laws entirely different from those by which human affairs are directed; why then should we endeavour to compromise matters between them?
Why Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] should a man be reduced to the terrible alternative, either of process paper cia global offending God, or of contributing to his own immediate destruction? The laws which require an oath in such a case, leave him only the choice of becoming a bad christian or a martyr. For this reason, oaths become by degrees a mere formality, and all sentiments of religion, perhaps the only motive of honesty in rutgers 2012 the greatest part of mankind, are destroyed. Experience proves their utility: I appeal to every judge, whether he has ever known that an oath alone has brought truth from the research process paper, lips of a criminal; and reason tells us, it must be so; for all laws are useless, and, in consequence, destructive, which contradict the natural feelings of list getters mankind. Such laws are like a dyke, opposed directly to the course of a torrent; it is either immediately overwhelmed, or by a whirlpool formed by itself, it is gradually undermined and destroyed.
CHAPTER XIX.: OF THE ADVANTAGE OF IMMEDIATE PUNISHMENT. The more immediately, after the commission of paper cia global demographics a crime, a punishment is inflicted, the more just and useful it will be. It will be more just, because it spares the criminal the cruel and superfluous torment of uncertainty, which increases in proportion to essay, the strength of his imagination and the sense of his weakness; and because the privation of liberty, being a punishment, ought to be inflicted before condemnation, but for as short a time as possible. Imprisonments, I say, being only the means of securing the person of the accused, until he be tried, condemned or acquitted, ought not only to be of short duration, but attended with as little severity as possible. The time should be determined by the necessary preparation for the trial, and the right of priority in the oldest prisoners.
The confinement ought not to be closer than is requisite to prevent his flight, or his concealing the proofs of the crime; and the trial should be conducted with all possible Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] expedition. Can there be a more cruel contrast than that between the indolence of a judge, and process cia global demographics the painful anxiety of the accused; the comforts and pleasures of an insensible magistrate, and the filth and misery of the list getters, prisoner? In general, as I have before observed, The degree of the punishment, and the consequences of a crime, ought to be so contrived, as to have the paper demographics, greatest possible effect on paper page others, with the least possible pain to the delinquent. If there be any society in which this is not a fundamental principle, it is an unlawful society; for mankind, by cia global their union, originally intended to subject themselves to the least evils possible. An immediate punishment is format paper title more useful; because the smaller the interval of time between the punishment and the crime, the research paper, stronger and more lasting will be the display, association of the two ideas of Crime and Punishment: so that they may be considered, one as the cause, and cia global demographics the other as the unavoidable and necessary effect. It is demonstrated, that the association of ideas is the cement which unites the fabric of the human intellect; without which, pleasure and pain would be simple and ineffectual sensations. The vulgar, that is, all men who have no general ideas or universal principles, act in consequence of the most immediate and familiar associations; but the format, more Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] remote and complex only present themselves to demographics, the minds of about alcoholism those who are passionately attached to research paper cia global, a single object, or to those of greater understanding, who have acquired an habit of rapidly comparing together a number of objects, and of forming a conclusion; and the result, that is, the action, in consequence, by these means, becomes less dangerous and uncertain. It is, then, of the greatest importance, that the punishment should succeed the format title page, crime, as immediately as possible, if we intend, that, in process the rude minds of the paper page, multitude, the seducing picture of the advantage arising from the crime, should instantly awake the attendant idea of punishment.
Delaying the research paper cia global, punishment serves only to separate these two ideas; and thus affects the minds of the spectators rather as being a terrible sight than the necessary consequence of a crime; the essay about running, horror of which should contribute to heighten the idea of the punishment. There is another excellent method of strengthening this important connection between the ideas of crime and punishment; that is, to make the punishment as analagous as possible to the nature of the crime; in order that the punishment may lead the mind to consider the crime in a different point of view, from that in research cia global which it was Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] placed by the flattering idea of promised advantages. Crimes of less importance are commonly punished, either in the obscurity of essay track a prison, or the criminal is process demographics transported, to give, by his slavery, an example to societies which he never offended; an example absolutely useless, because distant from the place where the crime was committed. Men do not, in general, commit great crimes deliberately, but rather in a sudden gust of passion; and they commonly look on the punishment due to a great crime as remote and improbable. The public punishment, therefore, of small crimes will make a greater impression, and, by deterring men from the smaller, will effectually prevent the greater. Some crimes relate to person, others to property. The first ought to be punished corporally. The great and rich should by no means have it in their power to set a price on the security of the weak and indigent; for about running then, riches, which, under the protection of the laws, are the reward of industry, would become the aliment of tyranny. Liberty is at an end, whenever the laws permit, that, in certain cases, a man may cease to be a person, and process paper demographics become a thing. Then will the powerful employ their address to select from the various combinations of civil society, all that is in their own favour. This is that magic art which transforms subjects into beasts of essay about track burden, and which, in the hands of the strong, is the chain that binds the the weak and incautious.
Thus it is, that in some governments, where there is research process cia global demographics all the appearance of liberty, tyranny lies concealed, and rutgers essay 2012 insinuates itself into some neglected corner of the constitution, where it gathers strength insensibly. Mankind Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] generally oppose, with resolution, the process cia global, assaults of attention barefaced and process cia global open tyranny; but disregard the little insect that gnaws through the dyke, and opens a sure, though secret, passage to of term page, inundation. CHAPTER XXI.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF THE NOBLES. What punishments shall be ordained for the nobles, whose privileges make so great a part of the laws of nations? I do not mean to inquire whether the hereditary distinction between nobles and commoners be useful in any government, or necessary in research paper cia global a monarchy; or whether it be true, that they form an intermediate power, of use in moderating the excesses of both extremes; or whether they be not rather slaves to their own body, and to others, confining within a very small circle the natural effects and hopes of list attention getters industry, like those little fruitful spots scattered here and there in the sandy deserts of Arabia; or Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] whether it be true that a subordination of rank and condition is inevitable, or useful in society; and if so, whether this subordination should not rather subsist between individuals than particular bodies; whether it should not rather circulate through the whole body politic, than be confined to one part; and rather than be perpetual, should it not be incessantly produced and destroyed. Be these as they may, I assert that the punishment of a nobleman should in no wise differ from that of the research paper demographics, lowest member of society. Every lawful distinction, either in honours or riches, supposes previous equality, founded on question 2012 the laws, on which all the members of society are considered as being equally dependent. We should suppose that men, in renouncing their natural despotism, said, the wisest and most industrious among us shall obtain the greatest honours, and his dignity shall descend to his posterity. The fortunate and happy may hope for process cia global demographics greater honours, but let him not therefore be less afraid than others of violating those conditions on which he is exalted. It is triangle true, indeed, that no such decrees were ever made in a general diet of paper demographics mankind, but they exist in the invariable relations of things: nor do they destroy the advantages which are supposed to be produced by the class of thesis statement alcoholism nobles, but prevent the inconveniencies; Edition: current; Page: [ 80 ] and they make the laws respectable by destroying all hopes of impunity.
It may be objected, that the same punishment inflicted on a nobleman and a plebeian, becomes really different from the difference of their education and from the infamy it reflects on research process cia global an illustrious family; but I answer, that punishments are to be estimated, not by statement about the sensibility of the criminal, but by paper cia global the injury done to society; which injury is augmented by the high rank of the offender. The precise equality of a punishment can never be more than external, as it is in proportion to the degree of sensibility, which differs in every individual. The infamy of an innocent family may be easily obliterated by some public demonstration of favour from the sovereign; and forms have always more influence than reason on the gazing multitude. The punishment of robbery, not accompanied with violence, should be pecuniary. He who endeavours to enrich himself with the thesis statement about, property of another, should be deprived of part of research process paper cia global his own. About Running Track! But this crime, alas! is commonly the effect of misery and despair; the process paper, crime of that unhappy part of mankind, to whom the right of exclusive property, a terrible, and perhaps unnecessary right, has left but a bare existence. Display! Besides, as pecuniary punishment may increase the number of poor, and may deprive an innocent family of subsistence, the most proper punishment will be that kind of slavery, which alone can be called just; that is, which makes the society, for a time, absolute master of the person and labour of the criminal, in order to oblige him to repair, by research this dependence, the unjust despotism he usurped over the property of another, and his violation of the social compact. When robbery is attended with violence, corporal Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] punishment should be added to slavery. Many writers have shown the evident disorder which must arise from not distinguishing the punishment due to robbery with violence, and that due to theft, or robbery committed with dexterity, absurdly making a sum of money equivalent to a man#x2019;s life. But it can never be superfluous to repeat, again and again, those truths of which mankind have not profited; for political machines preserve their motion much longer than others, and receive a new impulse with more difficulty.
These crimes are in their nature absolutely different, and this axiom is display cfm ethesis_id as certain in politics as in mathematics, that between qualities of different natures there can be no similitude. CHAPTER XXIII.: OF INFAMY, CONSIDERED AS A PUNISHMENT. Those injuries, which affect the honour, that is, that just portion of esteem which every citizen has a right to expect from others, should be punished with infamy. Infamy is a mark of the Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] public disapprobation, which deprives the object of all consideration in the eyes of his fellow citizens, of the confidence of his country, and of that fraternity which exists between members of the same society. This is not always in the power of the laws. It is necessary that the infamy inflicted by the laws should be the research process cia global, same with that which results from the relations of things, from universal morality, or from that particular system, adopted by the nation and the laws, which governs the opinion of the on bermuda triangle, vulgar. If, on the contrary, one be different from the other, either the laws will no longer be respected, or the received notions of morality and probity will vanish in spite of the declamations of moralists, which are weak to resist the force of research paper demographics example. If we declare those actions infamous, which are in themselves indifferent, we lessen the infamy of those which are really infamous. The punishment of infamy should not be too frequent, for the power of opinion grows weaker by repetition; nor should it be inflicted on a number of persons at the same time, for the infamy of many resolves itself into the infamy of none. Painful and question corporal punishments should never be applied to fanaticism; for being founded on pride, it glories in persecution. Infamy and ridicule Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] only should be employed against research paper demographics fanatics; if the first, their pride will be overbalanced by statement about alcoholism the pride of the people; and we may judge of the power of the second, if we consider that even truth is process obliged to summon all her force, when attacked by error armed with ridicule.
Thus, by opposing one passion to another, and opinion to opinion, a wise legislator puts an end to essay about, the admiration of the populace, occasioned by a false principle, the original absurdity of which is veiled by some well-deduced consequences. This is the method to process, avoid confounding the immutable relations of things, or opposing nature, whose actions not being limited by time, but operating incessantly, overturn and destroy all those vain regulations which contradict her laws. It is not only in the fine arts that the imitation of nature is the fundamental principle; it is the rutgers question 2012, same in sound policy, which is research process paper demographics no other than the art of uniting, and directing to the same end, the natural and rutgers 2012 immutable sentiments of mankind. A wise government will not suffer, in the midst of labour and industry, that kind of political idleness which is confounded, by rigid declaimers, with the process demographics, leisure attending riches acquired by industry, which is of use to an increasing society, when confined within proper limits. I call those politically idle, who neither contribute to the good of society by their labour nor their riches; who continually accumulate, but never spend; and are reverenced by the vulgar with stupid admiration, and regarded by the wise with disdain; who, being victims to a monastic life, and deprived of all incitement to the activity which is necessary to preserve or increase its comforts, devote all their vigour to passions of the strongest kind, the passions of opinion. I call him not idle, who enjoys the fruits of the rutgers question 2012, virtues or vices of his ancestors, and in exchange for his pleasures supports the industrious poor. Demographics! It is not then the Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] narrow virtue of austere moralists, but the laws, that should determine what species of idleness deserves punishment.
CHAPTER XXV.: OF BANISHMENT, AND CONFISCATION. He who disturbs the public tranquillity, who does not obey the laws, who violates the conditions on which men mutually support and defend each other, ought to be excluded from society, that is, banished. It seems as if banishment should be the rutgers, punishment of those, who, being accused of an atrocious crime, are probably, but not certainly, guilty. For this purpose would be required a law, the least arbitrary, and the most precise possible; which should condemn to banishment those who have reduced the community to the fatal alternative, either of fearing or punishing them unjustly; still, however, leaving them the sacred right of proving their innocence. The Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] reasons ought to be stronger for banishing a citizen than a stranger, and for the first accusation than for one who hath been often excused. Should the person who is excluded for ever from society be deprived of his property? This question may be considered in different lights.
The confiscation of effects, added to research process, banishment, is a greater punishment than banishment alone; there ought then to be some cases, in which, according to the crime, either the whole fortune should be confiscated, or part only, or none at all. The whole should be forfeited, when the law, which ordains banishment, declares, at the same time, that all connections between the society and the criminal are annihilated. In this case, the citizen dies, the man only remains; and with respect to a political body, the death of the citizen should have the same consequences with the death of the man. It seems to follow, then, that in this case, the effects of the criminal should devolve to his lawful heirs. But it is not on account of this refinement that I disapprove of confiscations. If some have insisted that they were a restraint to vengeance, and the violence of particulars, they have not reflected, that though punishments be productive of good, they are not, on that account, more just; to be just, they must be necessary.
Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] Even an useful injustice can never be allowed by a legislator, who means to guard against watchful tyranny; which, under the flattering pretext of momentary advantages, would establish permanent principles of destruction, and, to procure the ease of a few in a high station, would draw tears from thousands of the poor. The law which ordains confiscations, sets a price on the head of the subject, with the guilty punishes the innocent, and by title page reducing them to indigence and despair, tempts them to become criminal. Can there be a more melancholy spectacle, than a whole family, overwhelmed with infamy and misery, from the crime of their chief? a crime, which if it had been possible, they were restrained from preventing, by that submission which the laws themselves have ordained. CHAPTER XXVI.: OF THE SPIRIT OF FAMILY IN STATES. It is remarkable, that many fatal acts of injustice have been authorised and approved, even by the wisest and most experienced men, in research process paper the freest republics. This has been owing to their having considered the state, rather as a society of essay 2012 families, than of men. Let us suppose a nation, composed of an hundred thousand men, divided into twenty thousand families of five persons each, including the head or master of the family, its representative. If it be an association of families, there will be twenty thousand men, and eighty thousand slaves; if of men, there will be an hundred thousand citizens, and not one slave. In the first case we behold a republic, and twenty thousand little monarchies, of which the heads are the research process, sovereigns; in the second, the spirit of liberty will not only breathe in every public place of the city, and in the assemblies of the nation, but in private houses, where men find the greatest part of their happiness or misery. As laws Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] and customs are always the effect of a republic, if the society be an association of the heads of families, the spirit of monarchy will gradually make its way into the republic itself, as its effects will only be restrained by format title the opposite cia global, interests of each; and not by an universal spirit of liberty and equality.
The private spirit of family is a spirit of minuteness, and confined to little concerns. Public spirit, on the contrary, is influenced by general principles, and format from facts deduces general rules of research process paper utility to the greatest number. In a republic of families, the children remain under the attention getters, authority of the father, as long as he lives, and are obliged to wait until death for an existence dependent on the laws alone. Cia Global Demographics! Accustomed to kneel and tremble in their tender years, when their natural sentiments were less restrained by that caution, obtained by display cfm ethesis_id 1151 experienee, which is called moderation, how should they resist those obstacles, which vice always opposes to virtue, in the languor and decline of cia global age, when the research on bermuda, despair of reaping the fruits is process paper cia global alone sufficient to damp the running track, vigour of their resolutions. In a republic, where every man is research cia global a citizen, family subordination is not the effect of compulsion, but of contract; and the sons, disengaged from the natural dependence, which the weakness Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] of infancy and the necessity of education required, become free members of society, but remain subject to the head of the family for their own advantage, as in the great society. In a republic of families, the young people, that is, the most numerous and most useful part of the nation, are at the discretion of their fathers: in a republic of question men, they are attached to their parents by no other obligation, than that sacred and inviolable one of mutual assistance, and of gratitude for the benefits they have received; a sentiment, destroyed not so much by the wickedness of the paper demographics, human heart, as by a mistaken subjection, prescribed by the laws. These contradictions between the laws of families, and the fundamental laws of a state, are the source of many others between public and private morality, which produce a perpetual conflict in research on bermuda triangle the mind. Domestic morality inspires submission and research paper demographics fear: the other, courage and liberty. Thesis About Alcoholism! That instructs a man to confine his beneficence to a small number of persons, not of his own choice; this, to paper demographics, extend it to all mankind: that commands a continual sacrifice of himself to a vain idol, called the good of the family, which is often no real good to any one of those who compose it; this teaches him to research, consider his own advanatge Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] without offending the laws, or excites him to sacrifice himself for the good of his country by research process paper rewarding him beforehand with the fanaticism it inspires.
Such contradictions are the reason, that men neglect the pursuit of virtue, which they can hardly distinguish midst the obscurity and confusion of natural and moral objects. How frequently are men, upon a retrospection of their actions, astonished to find themselves dishonest. In proportion to cfm ethesis_id 1151, the increase of process cia global society, each member becomes a smaller part of the whole; and the republican spirit diminishes in the same proportion, if neglected by the laws. Political societies, like the human body, have their limits circumscribed, which they cannot exceed without disturbing their economy. It seems as if the greatness of a state ought to be inversely as the research, sensibility and activity of the individuals; if, on the contrary, population and inactivity increase in the same proportion, the laws will with difficulty prevent the crimes arising from the cia global, good they have produced. An overgrown republic can only be saved from despotism, by subdividing it into a number of confederate republics. Triangle! But how is this practicable? By a despotic dictator, who, with the courage of Sylla, has as much genius for building up, as that Roman had for pulling down.
Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] If he be an ambitious man, his reward will be immortal glory; if a philosopher, the research demographics, blessings of his fellow citizens will sufficiently console him for the loss of authority, though he should not be insensible to their ingratitude. In proportion as the format page, sentiments, which unite us to the state, grow weaker, those which attach us to the objects which more immediately surround us grow stronger; therefore, in the most despotic government, friendships are more durable, and domestic virtues (which are always of the lowest class) are the most common, or the only virtues existing. Hence it appears how confined have been the views of the greatest number of legislators. CHAPTER XXVII.: OF THE MILDNESS OF PUNISHMENTS. The course of my ideas has carried me away from my subject, to the elucidation of which I now return. Crimes are more effectually prevented by cia global the certainty, than the severity of punishment. Edition: current; Page: [ 94 ] Hence, in a magistrate, the necessity of vigilance, and, in format paper title a judge, of implacability, which, that it may become an useful virtue, should be joined to a mild legislation. Cia Global Demographics! The certainty of title page a small punishment will make a stronger impression, than the fear of one more severe, if attended with the hopes of escaping; for it is the nature of mankind to be terrified at the approach of the smallest inevitable evil, whilst hope, the best gift of Heaven, hath the power of dispelling the research cia global, apprehension of a greater; especially if supported by examples of essay question 2012 impunity, which weakness or avarice too frequently afford. If punishments be very severe, men are naturally led to the perpetration of other crimes, to avoid the punishment due to the first.
The countries and times most notorious for severity of research process punishments, were always those in which the most bloody and inhuman actions and the most atrocious crimes were committed; for the hand of the essay question 2012, legislator and the assassin were directed by cia global demographics the same spirit of rutgers essay question ferocity: which on cia global the throne, dictated laws of of term paper iron to slaves and savages, and in private instigated the subject to sacrifice one tyrant, to make room for another. In proportion as punishments become more cruel, the minds of men, as a fluid rises to the Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] same height with that which surrounds it, grow hardened and process paper insensible; and the force of passions still continuing, in the space of an hundred years, the wheel terrifies no more than formerly the prison. Rutgers Essay! That a punishment may produce the process paper, effect required, it is sufficient that the evil it occasions should exceed the good expected from the crime; including in the calculation the certainty of the punishment, and statement about the privation of the expected advantage. All severity beyond this is superfluous, and therefore tyrannical. Men regulate their conduct by research paper the repeated impression of evils they know, and not by those with which they are unacquainted. Let us, for example, suppose two nations, in research one of which the greatest punishment is perpetual slavery, and in research demographics the other the wheel. I say, that both will inspire the statement alcoholism, same degree of terror; and that there can be no reasons for increasing the punishments of the first, which are not equally valid for research process paper cia global demographics augmenting those of the second to running, more lasting and more ingenious modes of tormenting; and so on to the most exquisite refinements of a science too well known to tyrants. There are yet two other consequences of cia global cruel punishments, which counteract the purpose of their institution, which was, to prevent crimes. Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] The first arises from the impossibility of establishing an exact proportion between the display, crime and punishment; for research process though ingenious cruelty hath greatly multiplied the variety of torments, yet the human frame can suffer only to a certain degree, beyond which it is impossible to proceed, be the on bermuda, enormity of the crime ever so great. The second consequence is impunity.
Human nature is limited no less in evil than in research paper cia global demographics good. Excessive barbarity can never be more than temporary; it being impossible that it should be supported by a permanent system of about alcoholism legislation; for if the cia global demographics, laws be too cruel, they must be altered, or anarchy and impunity will succeed. Is it possible, without shuddering with horror, to read in history of the barbarous and useless torments that were coolly invented and executed by men who were called sages? Who does not tremble at the thoughts of thousands of wretches, whom their misery, either caused or tolerated by the laws which favoured the few and research triangle outraged the many, had forced in despair to return to a state of nature; or accused of impossible crimes, the fabric of ignorance and superstition; or guilty only of having been faithful to their own principles; who, I say, can, without horror, think of their being torn to pieces with slow and studied Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] barbarity, by men endowed with the same passions and cia global demographics the same feelings? A delightful spectacle to a fanatic multitude! CHAPTER XXVIII.: OF THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. The useless profusion of punishments, which has never made men better, induces me to inquire, whether the punishment of death be really just or useful in a well-governed state? What right, I ask, have men to cut the throats of their fellow-creatures? Certainly not that on which the sovereignty and laws are founded. The laws, as I have said before, are only the sum of the smallest portions of the private liberty of each individual, and represent the general will, which is the aggregate of that of each individual. Did any one ever give to others the right of taking away his life?
Is it possible, that in the smallest portions of the liberty of each, sacrificed to the good of the public, can be obtained the greatest Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of all good, life? If it were so, how shall it be reconciled to essay, the maxim which tells us, that a man has no right to research process paper cia global, kill himself? Which he certainly must have, if he could give it away to another. But the punishment of death is not authorised by display 1151 any right; for I have demonstrated that no such right exists. It is therefore a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary or useful to the general good.
But if I can further demonstrate, that it is neither necessary nor useful, I shall have gained the cause of humanity. The death of a citizen cannot be necessary but in one case. When, though deprived of his liberty, he has such power and connections as may endanger the security of the nation; when his existence may produce a dangerous revolution in the established form of process demographics government. But even in thesis statement alcoholism this case, it can only be necessary when a nation is on the verge of recovering or losing its liberty; or in times of absolute anarchy, when the disorders themselves hold the place of laws. But in a reign of tranquillity; in a form of government approved by the united wishes of the nation; in a state fortified from enemies without, and supported by strength within, and opinion, Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] perhaps more efficacious; where all power is lodged in the hands of the true sovereign; where riches can purchase pleasures and not authority, there can be no necessity for research process paper cia global taking away the life of a subject.
If the experience of all ages be not sufficient to prove, that the punishment of death has never prevented determined men from injuring society; if the example of the Romans; if twenty years reign of Elizabeth, empress of Russia, in which she gave the fathers of their country an example more illustrious than many conquests bought with blood; if, I say, all this be not sufficient to format of term paper page, persuade mankind, who always suspect the voice of reason, and who chuse rather to be led by authority, let us consult human nature in proof of process paper demographics my assertion. It is not the intenseness of the research on bermuda triangle, pain that has the greatest effect on the mind, but its continuance; for our sensibility is more easily and more powerfully affected by weak, but by repeated impressions, than by a violent but momentary impulse. The power of habit is universal over every sensible being. As it is by research process paper demographics that we learn to speak, to walk, and to satisfy our necessities, so the ideas of thesis alcoholism morality are stamped on our minds by repeated impressions. The death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] is a terrible but momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty, condemned as a beast of burden, to repair, by research his labour, the injury he has done to on bermuda triangle, society. If I commit such a crime, says the spectator to himself, I shall be reduced to that miserable condition for research process paper cia global the rest of my life. A much more powerful preventive than the fear of death, which men always behold in distant obscurity. The terrors of death make so slight an impression, that it has not force enough to withstand the forgetfulness natural to mankind, even in the most essential things; especially when assisted by the passions. Violent impressions surprise us, but their effect is momentary; they are fit to produce those revolutions which instantly transform a common man into a Laced#xE6;monian or a Persian; but in a free and quiet government they ought to be rather frequent than strong. The execution of a criminal is, to display, the multitude, a spectacle which in some excites compassion mixed with indignation. These sentiments occupy the mind much more than that salutary terror which the laws endeavour to research process, inspire; but in the contemplation of continued suffering, terror is the only, or at least, the essay running, predominant sensation.
Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] The severity of demographics a punishment should be just sufficient to excite compassion in the spectators, as it is list attention getters essays intended more for them than for the criminal. A punishment, to be just, should have only that degree of severity which is sufficient to deter others. Now there is no man, who, upon the least reflection, would put in competition the total and perpetual loss of process his liberty, with the greatest advantages he could possibly obtain in list attention consequence of a crime. Perpetual slavery, then, has in it all that is necessary to deter the most hardened and determined, as much as the punishment of process demographics death. I say, it has more. Attention! There are many who can look upon death with intrepidity and research cia global firmness; some through fanaticism, and others through vanity, which attends us even to the grave; others from a desperate resolution, either to get rid of list getters their misery, or cease to live: but fanaticism and vanity forsake the criminal in slavery, in chains and fetters, in an iron cage; and despair seems rather the beginning than the end of their misery.
The mind, by collecting itself and research cia global demographics uniting all its force, can, for a moment, repel assailing grief; but its most vigorous efforts are insufficient to resist perpetual wretchedness. In all nations, where death is used as punishment, every example supposes a new crime committed. On Bermuda! Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] Whereas, in perpetual slavery, every criminal affords a frequent and lasting example: and if it be necessary that men should often be witnesses of the power of the laws, criminals should often be put to death; but this supposes a frequency of crimes; and from hence this punishment will cease to have its effect, so that it must be useful and useless at the same time. I shall be told, that perpetual slavery is as painful a punishment as death, and therefore as cruel. Research Process Cia Global! I answer, that if all the on bermuda, miserable moments in the life of a slave were collected into one point, it would be a more cruel punishment than any other; but these are scattered through his whole life, whilst the pain of research process death exerts all its force in a moment. There is of term title also another advantage in the punishment of cia global slavery, which is, that it is more terrible to the spectator than to the sufferer himself; for the spectator considers the sum of all his wretched moments, whilst the sufferer, by the misery of the present, is prevented from research on bermuda triangle, thinking of the future. All evils are increased by research process the imagination, and the sufferer finds resources and consolation, of which the spectators are ignoran; who judge by their own sensibility of what passes in a mind by habit grown callous to misfortune. Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] Let us, for a moment, attend to the reasoning of a robber or assassin, who is deterred from violating the laws by the gibbet or the wheel. Of Term Title! I am sensible, that to develop the sentiments of research cia global one#x2019;s own heart, is an art which education only can teach; but although a villain may not be able to give a clear account of his principles, they nevertheless influence his conduct. He reasons thus: #x201C;What are these laws that I am bound to respect, which make so great a difference between me and essay about running the rich man? He refuses me the farthing I ask of him, and excuses himself by bidding me have recourse to labour, with which he is unacquainted.
Who made these laws? The rich and demographics the great, who never deigned to format title, visit the miserable hut of the poor; who have never seen him dividing a piece of mouldy bread, amidst the cries of his famished children, and the tears of his wife. Let us break those ties, fatal to the greatest part of mankind, and research paper only useful to a few indolent tyrants. Let us attack injustice at its source. I will return to my natural state of independence.
I shall live free and happy on the fruits of my courage and industry. A day of pain and repentance may come, but it will be short; and for an hour of grief, I shall enjoy years of pleasure and liberty. King of a small number, as determined Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] as myself, I will correct the mistakes of fortune; and shall see those tyrants grow pale and tremble at display the sight of him, whom, with insulting pride, they would not suffer to rank with dogs and horses.#x201D; Religion then presents itself to the mind of this lawless villain, and promising him almost a certainty of eternal happiness upon the easy terms of repentance, contributes much to lessen the horror of the last scene of the tragedy. But he who foresees that he must pass a great number of years, even his whole life, in pain and slavery; a slave to those laws by process demographics which he was protected; in sight of his fellow citizens, with whom he lives in freedom and society; makes an useful comparison between those evils, the uncertainty of his success, and the shortness of the time in which he shall enjoy the fruits of research on bermuda triangle his transgression. The example of those wretches continually before his eyes, makes a much greater impression on research process paper him than a punishment, which, instead of correcting, makes him more obdurate. The punishment of death is pernicious to essay 2012, society, from the example of barbarity it affords. If the passions, or necessity of war, have taught men to shed the blood of their fellow creatures, the laws which are intended to moderate the ferocity of mankind, should not increase it by examples Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] of barbarity, the more horrible, as this punishment is usually attended with formal pageantry. Is it not absurd, that the laws, which detect and punish homicide, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves? What are the true and most useful laws? Those compacts and conditions which all would propose and observe, in those moments when private interest is silent, or combined with that of the public.
What are the natural sentiments of every person concerning the punishment of death? We may read them in the contempt and research process cia global indignation with which every one looks on the executioner, who is nevertheless an innocent executor of the public will; a good citizen, who contributes to the advantage of society; the instrument of the general security within, as good soldiers are without. What then is the origin of this contradiction? Why is this sentiment of mankind indelible to the scandal of reason? It is, that in a secret corner of the mind, in research on bermuda which the process paper demographics, original impressions of nature are still preserved, men discover a sentiment which tells them, that their lives are not lawfully in the power of any one, but of that necessity only, which with its iron sceptre rules the research on bermuda, universe.
What must men think, when they see wise Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] magistrates and grave ministers of justice, with indifference and tranquillity, dragging a criminal to death, and whilst a wretch trembles with agony, expecting the fatal stroke, the judge, who has condemned him, with the coldest insensibility, and perhaps with no small gratification from the exertion of his authority, quits his tribunal to research process paper cia global, enjoy the comforts and pleasures of life? They will say, #x201C;Ah! those cruel formalities of justice are a cloak to tyranny, they are a secret language, a solemn veil, intended to conceal the sword by which we are sacrificed to the insatiable idol of despotism. Murder, which they would represent to us as an horrible crime, we see practiced by them without repugnance or remorse. Let us follow their example. A violent death appeared terrible in their descriptions, but we see that it is the list essays, affair of a moment.
It will be still less terrible to him, who, not expecting it, escapes almost all the pain.#x201D; Such is the fatal, though absurd reasoning of men who are disposed to research process paper cia global, commit crimes; on whom the abuse of religion has more influence than religion itself. If it be objected, that almost all nations in all ages have punished certain crimes with death, I answer that the force of these examples vanishes, when opposed to truth, against which prescription Edition: current; Page: [ 107 ] is urged in vain. The history of mankind is an immense sea of errors, in cfm ethesis_id which a few obscure truths may here and there be found. But human sacrifices have also been common in almost all nations. That some societies only, either few in cia global number, or for essay about a very short time, abstained from the punishment of death, is rather favourable to my argument, for such is the cia global demographics, fate of attention great truths, that their duration is only as a flash of lightning in the long and dark night of error. The happy time is cia global demographics not yet arrived, when truth, as falsehood has been hitherto, shall be the portion of the greatest number.
I am sensible that the voice of one philosopher is too weak to be heard amidst the clamours of a multitude, blindly influenced by custom; but there is a small number of sages, scattered on the face of the earth, who will echo to statement about alcoholism, me from the bottom of their hearts; and if these truths should happily force their way to the thrones of princes, be it known to them, that they come attended with the secret wishes of all mankind, and tell the sovereign who deigns them a gracious reception, that his fame shall outshine the glory of conquerors, and that equitable posterity will exalt his peaceful trophies above those of a Titus, an research process paper cia global Antoninus, or a Trajan. Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] How happy were mankind, if laws were now to be first formed! now that we see on rutgers the thrones of process paper demographics Europe benevolent monarchs, friends to the virtues of peace, to the arts and sciences, fathers of cfm ethesis_id 1151 their people, though crowned yet citizens; the increase of whose authority augments the happiness of their subjects, by destroying that intermediate despotism which intercepts the prayers of the paper, people to the throne. About! If these humane princes have suffered the old laws to subsist, it is research process demographics doubtless because they are deterred by the numberless obstacles which oppose the subversion of errors established by the sanction of many ages; and format of term paper page therefore every wise citizen will wish for the increase of their authority. That a magistrate, the executor of the laws, should have a power to imprison a citizen, to deprive the man he hates of paper his liberty upon Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] frivolous pretences, and to leave his friend unpunished, notwithstanding the strongest proofs of his guilt, is an error as common as it is contrary to the end of society, which is personal security. Imprisonment is a punishment, which differs from all other in this particular, that it necessarily precedes conviction; but this difference does not destroy a circumstance, which is essential, and common to it with all other punishments, viz. that it should never be inflicted, but when ordained by the law. Rutgers Essay 2012! The law should, therefore, determine the crime, the presumption, and cia global demographics the evidence sufficient to subject the accused to imprisonment and examination. Public report, his flight, his extra-judicial confession, that of an accomplice, menaces, and his constant enmity with the person injured, the circumstances of the crime, and such other evidence, may be sufficient to justify the imprisonment of a citizen. But the nature of research on bermuda triangle this evidence should be determined by the laws, and not by the magistrates, whose decrees are always contrary to political liberty, when they are not particular applications of a general maxim of the public code.
When punishments become less severe, and prisons less horrible; when compassion and humanity shall penetrate the iron gates of dungeons, and research paper cia global direct the Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] obdurate and inexorable ministers of paper title justice, the laws may then be satisfied with weaker evidence for imprisonment. A person accused, imprisoned, tried and acquitted, ought not to be branded with any degree of infamy. Among the Romans, we see that many, accused of very great crimes, and afterwards declared innocent, were respected by the people, and honoured with employments in the state. Research Paper Cia Global! But why is the fate of an innocent person so different in this age? It is, because the present system of penal laws presents to our minds an idea of power rather than of justice. It is, because the accused and convicted are thrown indiscriminately into the same prison; because imprisonment is on bermuda rather a punishment, than a means of securing the person of the accused; and because the interior power, which defends the cia global, laws, and the exterior, which defends the throne and kingdom, are separate when they should be united. If the first were (under the common authority of the laws) combined with the right of judging, but not, however immediately dependent on the magistrate, the pomp that attends a military corps, would take off the infamy; which, like all popular opinions, is more attached to the manner and form, than to the Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] thing itself; as may be seen in military imprisonment, which, in the common opinion, is list getters not so disgraceful as the research process paper cia global, civil. But the essay, barbarity and ferocity of our ancestors, the hunters of the north, still subsist among the research demographics, people, in our customs and our laws, which are always several ages behind the actual refinements of a nation. CHAPTER XXX.: OF PROSECUTION AND PRESCRIPTION.
The proofs of the crime being obtained, and the certainty of it determined, it is necessary to allow the criminal the essay question 2012, time and means for his justification; but a time so short, as not to diminish that promptitude of punishment, which, as we have shewn, is one of the most powerful means of preventing crimes. A mistaken humanity may object to the shortness of the time, but the force of the objection will vanish, if we consider that the danger of the innocent increases with the defects of the legislation. Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] The time for inquiry and for justification should be fixed by the laws, and research process not by the judge, who, in that case, would become legislator. With regard to paper title page, atrocious crimes, which are long remembered, when they are once proved, if the criminal have fled, no time should be allowed; but in less considerable and more obscure crimes, a time should be fixed, after which the delinquent should be no longer uncertain of his fate. For in the latter case, the length of time, in which the crime is almost forgotten, prevents the example of impunity, and allows the criminal to amend, and become a better member of society.
General principles will here be sufficient, it being impossible to fix precisely the limits of research cia global time for any given legislation, or for any society in any particular circumstance. I shall only add, that in a nation willing to cfm ethesis_id 1151, prove the utility of moderate punishment, laws which, according to the nature of the crime increase or diminish the time of inquiry and justification, considering the imprisonment or the voluntary exile of the research process paper, criminal as a part of the punishment, will form an running track easy division of a small number of mild punishments for a great number of paper crimes. But, it must be observed, the on bermuda triangle, time for inquiry and process paper demographics justification, should not increase in research direct Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] proportion to the atrociousness of crimes; for process cia global demographics the probability of such crimes having been committed, is inversely as their atrociousness. Therefore the time for inquiring ought, in some cases, to be diminished, and that for justification increased, and vice versa. This may appear to contradict what I have said above, namely, that equal punishments may be decreed for unequal crimes, by considering the time allowed the criminal, or the prison, as a punishment. In order to on bermuda triangle, explain this idea, I shall divide crimes into two classes.
The first comprehends homicide, and all greater crimes; the second, crimes of an research cia global inferior degree. This distinction is research on bermuda founded in human nature. The preservation of life is a natural right; the preservation of research paper cia global property is a right of society. The motives that induce men to shake off the natural sentiment of compassion, which must be destroyed before great crimes can be committed, are much less in number than those by which, from the natural desire of being happy, they are instigated to violate a right, which is not founded in the heart of man, but is the work of society. The different degrees of probability in these two classes, require that they should be regulated on different principles. In the thesis about, greatest crimes, as they are less frequent, Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] and the probability of the innocence of the accused being greater, the research paper demographics, time allowed him for his justification should be greater, and the time of inquiry less. For by hastening the definitive sentence, the display cfm ethesis_id 1151, flattering hopes of paper cia global demographics impunity are destroyed, which are more dangerous, as the crime is more atrocious. On the contrary, in crimes of less importance, the paper, probability of the paper cia global, innocence being less, the time of inquiry should be greater, and that of justification less, as impunity is not so dangerous. But this division of crimes into two classes should not be admitted, if the consequences of impunity were in list attention essays proportion to the probability of the crime. It should be considered, that a person accused, whose guilt or innocence is research demographics not determined for want of proofs, may be again imprisoned for the same crime, and be subject to a new trial, if fresh evidence arises within the time fixed.
This is, in my opinion, the best method of providing at the same time for the security and liberty of the subject, without favouring one at the expence of the other; which may easily happen, since both these blessings, the inalienable and equal patrimony of every citizen, are liable to be invaded, the one by open or disguised despotism, and the other by tumultuous and rutgers essay 2012 popular anarchy. CHAPTER XXXI.: OF CRIMES OF DIFFICULT PROOF. With the foregoing principles in view, it will appear astonishing, that reason hardly ever presided at the formation of the laws of research process paper nations; that the weakest and most equivocal evidence, and even conjectures, have been thought sufficient proof for crimes the most atrocious, (and therefore most improbable), the most obscure and chimerical; as if it were the research on bermuda triangle, interest of the paper demographics, laws and the judge not to inquire into the truth, but to prove the crime; as if there was not a greater risk of thesis condemning an innocent person, when the probability of his guilt is less. The generality of research process paper demographics men want that vigour of mind and resolution, which are as necessary for great crimes as for great virtues, and which at the same time produce both the one and the other, in those nations which are supported by the activity of their government, and a passion for the public good. For in those which subsist by their greatness or power, or by the goodness Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of their laws, the passions being in a weaker degree, seem calculated rather to maintain than to improve the form of government. This naturally leads us to an important conclusion, viz. that great crimes do always produce the destruction of a nation. There are some crimes which, though frequent in society, are of list attention getters difficult proof, a circumstance admitted, as equal to the probability of the cia global demographics, innocence of the accused.
But as the frequency of these crimes is display cfm ethesis_id 1151 not owing to research process paper, their impunity, so much as to other causes, the danger of their passing unpunished is of less importance, and therefore the time of cfm ethesis_id 1151 examination and prescription may be equally diminished. These principles are different from those commonly received; for it is in crimes, which are proved with the greatest difficulty, such as adultery, and sodomy, that presumptions, half-proofs, etc. are admitted; as if a man could be half innocent, and half guilty; that is, half punishable and half absolvable. Research Paper Demographics! It is in these cases that torture should exercise its cruel power on the person of the accused, the witnesses, and even his whole family, as, with unfeeling indifference, some civilians have taught, who pretend to dictate laws to nations. Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] Adultery is a crime which, politically considered, owes its existence to two causes, viz. pernicious laws, and the powerful attraction between the sexes. This attraction is similar in cfm ethesis_id 1151 many circumstances to research process paper cia global demographics, gravity, the spring of motion in the universe. Like this, it is diminished by distance; one regulates the motions of the body, the other of the soul. Title! But they differ in one respect; the force of research cia global gravity decreases in proportion to the obstacles that oppose it; the other gathers strength and about vigour as the obstacles increase. If I were speaking to nations guided only by process paper cia global the laws of nature, I would tell them, that there is a considerable difference between adultery and all other crimes. Adultery proceeds from an abuse of that necessity which is constant and universal in human nature; a necessity anterior to the formation of society, and indeed the founder of society itself; whereas, all other crimes tend to research, the destruction of society, and arise from momentary passions, and research paper cia global not from a natural necessity. It is the opinion of those, who have studied history and mankind, that this necessity is constantly in the same degree in the same climate.
If this be true, useless, or rather pernicious must all laws and customs be, which tend to diminish the about alcoholism, sum total of the research process demographics, effects of Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this passion. Such laws would only research, burden one part of the society with the additional necessities of the other; but, on the contrary, wise are the laws which, following the natural course of the river, divide the stream into process cia global demographics a number of equal branches, preventing thus both sterility and attention getters inundation. Conjugal fidelity is always greater in proportion as marriages are more numerous, and less difficult. But when the research, interest or pride of families, or paternal authority, not the inclination of the parties, unite the cfm ethesis_id 1151, sexes, gallantry soon breaks the research process paper cia global demographics, slender ties, in spite of common moralists, who exclaim against essay running the effect, whilst they pardon the cause. But these reflections are useless to those, who, living in the true religion, act from sublimer motives, which correct the eternal laws of nature. The act of adultery is a crime so instantaneous, so mysterious, and so concealed by the veil which the laws themselves have woven; a veil necessary indeed, but so transparent, as to heighten rather than conceal the charms of the object; the opportunities are so frequent, and the danger of discovery so easily avoided, that it were much easier for the laws to prevent this crime, than to punish it when committed. Edition: current; Page: [ 119 ] To every crime, which from research paper demographics, its nature must frequently remain unpunished, the punishment is an incentive. Such is the nature of the human mind, that difficulties, if not insurmountable, nor too great for our natural indolence, embellish the object, and spur us on to the pursuit.
They are so many barriers that confine the imagination to the object, and oblige us to consider it in every point of rutgers essay view. In this agitation, the mind naturally inclines and process paper cia global demographics fixes itself to the most agreeable part, studiously avoiding every idea that might create disgust. The crime of about sodomy, so severely punished by the laws, and for the proof of which are employed tortures, which often triumph over innocence itself, has its source much less in the passions of man in a free and paper independent state, than in society and a slave. It is much less the thesis statement alcoholism, effect of a satiety in pleasures, than of that education, which, in order to make men useful to others, begins by making them useless to themselves. In those public seminaries, where ardent youth are carefully excluded from all commerce with the other sex, as the paper cia global, vigour of research on bermuda triangle nature blooms, it is consumed in a manner not only useless to mankind, but which accelerates the approach of old age. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] The murder of paper cia global bastard children is, in like manner, the effect of a cruel dilemma, in which a woman finds herself who has been seduced through weakness, or overcome by force. The alternative is, her own infamy, or the death of a being who is track incapable of feeling the loss of life. How can she avoid preferring the last to the inevitable misery of herself and her unhappy infant! The best method of preventing this crime, would be effectually to protect the weak woman from that tyranny which exaggerates all vices that cannot be concealed under the cloak of demographics virtue.
I do not pretend to lessen that just abhorrence which these crimes deserve, but to discover the sources from whence they spring; and rutgers essay I think I may draw the process paper cia global demographics, following conclusions: That the punishment of a crime cannot be just, ( that is, necessary ), if the essay question 2012, laws have not endeavoured to research, prevent that crime by the best means which times and about alcoholism circumstances would allow. Suicide is a crime, which seems not to admit of punishment, properly speaking; for it cannot be inflicted but on the innocent, or upon research paper demographics, an insensible dead body. About Alcoholism! In the first case, it is unjust and tyrannical, for political liberty supposes all punishments entirely personal; in the second, it has the same effect, by way of research cia global demographics example, as the scourging a statue. Mankind love life too well; the attention, objects that surround them; the seducing phantom of pleasure and hope, that sweetest error of mortals, which makes men swallow such large draughts of paper demographics evil, mingled with a very few drops of good, allure them too strongly, to apprehend that this crime will ever be common from its unavoidable impunity. The laws are obeyed through fear of punishment, but death destroys all sensibility.
What motive, then, can restrain the desperate hand of suicide? He who kills himself does a less injury to society, than he who quits his country for ever; Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] for the other leaves his property behind him, but this carries with him at least a part of his substance. Besides, as the strength of a society consists in the number of citizens, he who quits one nation to reside in another, becomes a double loss. This then is the question: whether it be advantageous to society, that its members should enjoy the unlimited privilege of migration? Every law that is not armed with force, or which, from circumstances, must be ineffectual, should not be promulgated.
Opinion, which reigns over the minds of men, obeys the slow and attention getters indirect impressions of the legislator, but resists them when violently and directly applied; and useless laws communicate their insignificance to cia global, the most salutary, which are regarded more as obstacles to be surmounted, than as safeguards of the public good. But further, our perceptions being limited, by enforcing the observance of laws which are evidently useless, we destroy the influence of the most salutary. From this principle, a wise dispenser of public happiness may draw some useful consequences, the explanation of which would carry me too far from my subject, which is to prove the inutility of making the nation a prison. Essay Question! Such a law is vain, because, unless inaccessible rocks, or impassable Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] seas, divide the country from process cia global, all others, how will it be possible to paper title page, secure every point of the circumference, or how will you guard the guards themselves? Besides, this crime, once committed, cannot be punished; and to punish it before hand, would be to punish the intention and not the action; the will, which is entirely out of the power of human laws. To punish the absent by confiscating his effects, besides the facility of collusion, which would inevitably be the case, and which, without tyranny, could not be prevented, would put a stop to all commerce with other nations. Paper Cia Global Demographics! To punish the rutgers essay question, criminal when he returns, would be to prevent him from repairing the evil he had already done to research process cia global, society, by making his absence perpetual. Besides, any prohibition would increase the desire of removing, and would infallibly prevent strangers from settling in the country.
What must we think of a government which has no means, but fear, to keep its subjects in their own country; to which, by the first impressions of their infancy, they are so strongly attached. The most certain method of keeping men at home, is, to make them happy; and it is the list getters essays, interest of research every state to turn the balance, not only of commerce, but of felicity in favour Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] of its subjects. Attention Essays! The pleasures of research process luxury are not the principal sources of this happiness; though, by preventing the too great accumulation of wealth in few hands, they become a necessary remedy against the too great inequality of individuals, which always increases with the progress of society. When the populousness of about a country does not increase in proportion to its extent, luxury favours despotism, for where men are most dispersed, there is least industry, the dependence of the poor upon the luxury of the rich is greatest, and the union of the oppressed against the oppressors is least to be feared. In such circumstances, rich and powerful men more easily command distinction, respect and service, by which they are raised to a greater height above the poor; for men are more independent the less they are observed, and are least observed when most numerous. On the contrary, when the number of people is too great in proportion to the extent of a country, luxury is research process paper cia global demographics a check to despotism; because it is a spur to industry, and because the labour of the poor affords so many pleasures to the rich, that they disregard the luxury of ostentation, which would remind the people of their dependence. Hence we see that Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] in vast and display cfm ethesis_id depopulated states, the research, luxury of ostentation prevails over that of convenience; but, in the countries more populous, the about, luxury of convenience tends constantly to diminish the luxury of ostentation.
The pleasures of luxury have this inconvenience, that though they employ a great number of hands, yet they are only enjoyed by a few, whilst the rest, who do not partake of research process them, feel the want more sensibly, on comparing their state with that of others. Security and liberty, restrained by about running track the laws, are the basis of happiness, and when attended by these, the pleasures of luxury favour population, without which they become the instrument of tyranny. As the most noble and generous animals fly to solitude and inaccessible deserts, and abandon the fertile plains to man, their greatest enemy; so men reject pleasure itself, when offered by the hand of tyranny. But to return. If it be demonstrated, that the laws which imprison men in their own country are vain and paper cia global unjust, it will be equally true of those which punish suicide, for that can only be punished after death, which is in the power of God alone; but it is no crime, with regard to man, because the punishment falls on Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] an innocent family.
If it be objected, that the consideration of such a punishment may prevent the crime; I answer, that he who can calmly renounce the pleasure of existence; who is getters so weary of life as to brave the idea of eternal misery, will never be influenced by the more distant and less powerful considerations of family and research paper cia global children. Smuggling is a real offence against the sovereign and cfm ethesis_id the nation; but the punishment should not brand the research process paper cia global, offender with infamy, because this crime is not infamous in the public opinion. By inflicting infamous punishments, for crimes that are not reputed so, we destroy that idea where it may be useful. If the same punishment be decreed for killing a pheasant as for killing a man, or for forgery, all difference between those crimes will shortly vanish. It is thus that moral sentiments are destroyed in the heart of man; Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] sentiments, the work of many ages and of much bloodshed; sentiments, that are so slowly, and with so much difficulty, produced, and for the establishment of which such sublime motives, and 1151 such an apparatus of ceremonies, were thought necessary. This crime is owing to the laws themselves; for the higher the duties, the greater is the advantage, and, consequently, the temptation; which temptation is increased by the facility of research paper demographics perpetration, when the circumference that is guarded is of great extent, and essays the merchandise prohibited is small in bulk. Research Paper Cia Global! The seizure and loss of the goods attempted to be smuggled, together with those that are found along with them, is just; but it would be better to lessen the duty, because men risk only in proportion to the advantage expected. This crime being a theft of what belongs to the prince, and consequently to thesis about alcoholism, the nation, why is it not attended with infamy? I answer, that crimes, which men consider as productive of no bad consequences to themselves, do not interest them sufficiently to excite their indignation. The generality of mankind, upon whom remote consequences make no impression, do not see the evil that may result from the practice of smuggling, Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] especially if they reap from process paper cia global demographics, it any present advantage. They only perceive the loss sustained by the prince.
They are not then interested in refusing their esteem to the smuggler, as to one who has committed a theft or a forgery, or other crimes, by which they themselves may suffer; from this evident principle, that a sensible being only interests himself in those evils with which he is acquainted. Shall this crime, then, committed by one who has nothing to lose, go unpunished? No. There are certain species of smuggling, which so particularly affect the revenue, a part of government so essential, and about running managed with so much difficulty, that they deserve imprisonment, or even slavery; but yet of such a nature as to be proportioned to the crime. For example, it would be highly unjust that a smuggler of tobacco should suffer the same punishment with a robber or assassin; but it would be most conformable to the nature of the research cia global demographics, offence, that the produce of thesis about his labour should be applied to the use of the cia global demographics, crown, which he intended to defraud. The necessity of format page good faith in contracts and the support of commerce oblige the legislature to secure, for the creditors, the research cia global demographics, persons of bankrupts. It is, however, necessary to distinguish between the fraudulent and the honest bankrupt. The fraudulent bankrupt should be punished in the same manner with him who adulterates the 1151, coin; for to falsify a piece of coin, which is a pledge of the mutual obligation between citizens, is not a greater crime than to violate the obligations themselves. But the bankrupt who, after a strict examination, has proved before proper judges, that either the fraud or losses of others, or misfortunes unavoidable by human prudence, have stript him of his substance; upon what barbarous pretence is he thrown into prison, and deprived of the only remaining good, the melancholy enjoyment of mere liberty?
Why is he ranked with criminals, and in despair compelled to repent of his honesty? Conscious of his innocence, Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] he lived easy and happy under the protection of those laws, which it is true, he violated, but not intentionally. Laws, dictated by the avarice of the rich, and accepted by process paper cia global the poor, seduced by that universal flattering hope which makes men believe, that all unlucky accidents are the lot of others, and the most fortunate only their share. Mankind, when influenced by the first impressions, love cruel laws, although being subject to them themselves, it is the interest of every person that they should be as mild as possible; but the research on bermuda, fear of being injured is always more prevalent than the intention of injuring others. But to return to the honest bankrupt. Process! Let his debt, if you will, not be considered as cancelled till the payment of the whole; let him be refused the liberty of leaving the country without leave of his creditors, or of on bermuda carrying into another nation that industry which, under a penalty, he should be obliged to employ for their benefit; but what pretences can justify the depriving an innocent, though unfortunate man of research process cia global demographics his liberty, without the least utility to his creditors? But, say they, the hardships of 2012 confinement will induce him to discover his fraudulent transactions; an event that can hardly be supposed, after a rigorous examination of his conduct and Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] affairs. But if they are not discovered, he will escape unpunished. It is, I think, a maxim of cia global demographics government, that the importance of the political inconveniences, arising from the impunity of a crime, are directly as the injury to the public, and inversely as the difficulty of proof. It will be necessary to list attention, distinguish fraud, attended with aggravating circumstances, from simple fraud, and that from perfect innocence. For the first, let there be ordained the same punishment as for forgery; for the second, a less punishment but with the loss of demographics liberty; and triangle if perfectly honest, let the research process paper cia global, bankrupt himself chuse the method of re-establishing himself, and of satisfying his creditors; or if he should appear not to have been strictly honest, let that be determined by list attention essays his creditors: but these distinctions should be fixed by the laws, which alone are impartial, and not by process the arbitrary and dangerous prudence of judges.*
Edition: current; Page: [ 132 ] With what ease might a sagacious legislator prevent the greatest part of fraudulent bankruptcies, and remedy the misfortunes that befal the essay, honest and industrious! A public register of all contracts, with the liberty of consulting it, allowed to process paper, every citizen; a public fund formed by a contribution of the opulent merchants for the timely assistance of unfortunate industry, were establishments that could produce no real inconveniences, and many advantages. But unhappily the 1151, most simple, the easiest, yet the wisest laws, that wait only for the nod of the process demographics, legislator, to diffuse through nations wealth, power and felicity; laws which would be regarded by future generations with eternal gratitude, are either unknown or rejected. A restless and trifling spirit, the getters, timid prudence of the present moment, a distrust and aversion to the most useful novelties, possess the minds of those who are empowered to regulate the actions of mankind. Are sanctuaries just? Is a convention between nations, mutually to give up their criminals, useful? In the whole extent of a political state, there should be no place independent of the laws. Their power should follow every subject, as the shadow follows the body. Sanctuaries, and impunity, differ only in degree, and as the effect of punishment depends more on their certainty, than their greatness, men are more strongly invited to crimes by research paper demographics sanctuaries, than they are deterred by punishment. To increase the number of sanctuaries, is to erect so many little sovereignties; for, when the laws have no power, new bodies will be formed in opposition to the public good, and a spirit established contrary to that of the state.
History informs us, that from the use of sanctuaries have arisen the greatest revolutions in kingdoms and in opinions. Some have pretended, that in whatever country Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] a crime, that is, an action contrary to the laws of cfm ethesis_id society, be committed, the criminal may be justly punished for it in process paper cia global any other; as if the character of subject were indelible, or synonimous with, or worse than that of slave; as if a man could live in one country, and be subject to the laws of another, or be accountable for format paper page his actions to two sovereigns, or two codes of laws, often contradictory. There are also who think, that an act of cruelty committed, for example, at Constantinople may be punished at Paris; for this abstracted reason, that he who offends humanity, should have enemies in all mankind, and be the object of universal execration; as if judges were to be the knights-errant of human nature in general, rather than guardians of research paper cia global particular conventions between men. The place of statement about alcoholism punishment can certainly be no other, than that where the research cia global, crime was committed; for the necessity of punishing an list attention getters individual for paper cia global demographics the general good subsists there, and there only. A villain, if he has not broke through the conventions of a society of which, by my supposition, he was not a member, may be feared, and by force banished and excluded from that society; but ought not to be formally punished by the laws, which were only intended to maintain the social compact, Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] and not to punish the intrinsic malignity of actions.
Whether it be useful that nations should mutually deliver up their criminals? Although the certainty of there being no part of the earth where crimes are not punished, may be a means of statement preventing them, I shall not pretend to determine this question, until, laws more conformable to the necessities and rights of humanity, and until milder punishments, and the abolition of the arbitrary power of opinion, shall afford security to virtue and innocence when oppressed; and until tyranny shall be confined to the plains of research process paper Asia, and Europe acknowledge the universal empire of reason, by which the interests of sovereigns and subjects are best united. CHAPTER XXXVI.: OF REWARDS FOR APPREHENDING, OR KILLING CRIMINALS. Let us now inquire, whether it be advantageous to society, to 2012, set a price on the head of a criminal, and so to make of every citizen an executioner. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] If the offender hath taken refuge in research process cia global another state, the sovereign encourages his subjects to commit a crime, and to expose themselves to a just punishment; he insults that nation, and authorises the subjects to commit on their neighbours similar usurpations. If the criminal still remain in statement his own country, to set a price upon his head, is the strongest proof of the weakness of the government. He who has strength to defend himself, will not purchase the assistance of another. Besides, such an process cia global demographics edict confounds all the ideas of virtue and morality, already too wavering in the mind of man. At one time treachery is punished by list attention getters the laws, at another encouraged. With one hand the research process paper, legislator strengthens the ties of kindred and friendship, and with the other rewards the violation of both.
Always in contradiction with himself, now he invites the suspecting minds of men to mutual confidence, and now he plants distrust in every heart. Essay Running Track! To prevent one crime, he gives birth to a thousand. Such are the expedients of weak nations, whose laws are like temporary repairs to a tottering fabric. On the contrary, as a nation becomes more enlightened, honesty and mutual confidence become more necessary, and are daily tending to unite with sound policy. Research Cia Global! Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] Artifice, cabal, and obscure and indirect actions are more easily discovered, and the interest of the whole is better secured against the passions of the individual. Even the times of ignorance, when private virtue was encouraged by public morality, may afford instruction and 1151 example to more enlightened ages. But laws which reward treason, excite clandestine war, and process paper demographics mutual distrust, oppose that necessary union of rutgers 2012 morality and research paper cia global demographics policy, which is the foundation of happiness and universal peace. CHAPTER XXXVII.: OF ATTEMPTS. ACCOMPLICES AND PARDON. The laws do not punish the intention; nevertheless an attempt which manifests the of term paper title page, intention of committing a crime, deserves a punishment, though less, perhaps, than if the crime were actually perpetrated. The importance of preventing even attempts to commit a crime sufficiently Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] authorises a punishment; but as there may be an interval of time between the attempt and the execution, it is proper to cia global demographics, reserve the rutgers essay 2012, greater punishment for the actual commission, that even after the attempt there may be a motive for desisting.
In like manner, with regard to the accomplices, they ought not to suffer so severe a punishment as the immediate perpetrator of the crime. Paper Cia Global Demographics! But this for a different reason. When a number of essay about track men unite, and run a common risk, the greater the danger, the more they endeavour to distribute it equally. Now, if the principals be punished more severely than the accessaries, it will prevent the danger from being equally divided, and will increase the difficulty of finding a person to execute the crime, as his danger is greater by the difference of the punishment. There can be but one exception to this rule; and that is, when the principal receives a reward from the accomplices. In that case, as the difference of the danger is compensated, the punishment should be equal.
These reflections may appear too refined to research process cia global, those who do not consider, that it is of great importance, that the getters, laws should leave the associates as few means as possible of agreeing among themselves. Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] In some tribunals, a pardon is offered to an accomplice in a great crime, if he discover his associates. This expedient has its advantages. The disadvantages are, that the law authorises treachery, which is detested even by the villains themselves; and introduces crimes of cowardice, which are much more pernicious to a nation than crimes of courage. Courage is not common, and only wants a benevolent power to direct it to the public good. Cowardice, on the contrary, is a frequent self-interested, and research process demographics contagious evil, which can never be improved into a virtue. Besides, the tribunal, which has recourse to this method, betrays its fallibility, and the laws their weakness, by imploring the assistance of research on bermuda triangle those by whom they are violated. The advantages are, that it prevents great crimes, the effects of which being public, and the perpetrators concealed, terrify the people. It also contributes to prove, that he who violates the research process cia global demographics, laws, which are public conventions, will also violate private compacts. It appears to me, that a general law, promising a reward to every accomplice who discovers his associates, would be better than a special declaration in every particular case; because it would prevent the union of about running track those villains, as it would inspire a mutual distrust, and research process paper Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] each would be afraid of exposing himself alone to cfm ethesis_id 1151, danger.
The accomplice, however, should be pardoned, on condition of transportation. * * * * * But it is in vain, that I torment myself with endeavouring to extinguish the research paper cia global demographics, remorse I feel in attempting to induce the sacred laws, the monument of public confidence, the foundation of human morality, to authorise dissimulation and perfidy. Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! But what an example does it offer to process cia global, a nation, to see the interpreters of the laws break their promise of pardon, and on on bermuda the strength of learned subtleties, and to the scandal of public faith, drag him to punishment who hath accepted of their invitation! Such examples are not uncommon, and this is the reason, that political society is regarded as a complex machine, the springs of which are moved at pleasure by the most dexterous or most powerful. CHAPTER XXXVIII.: OF SUGGESTIVE INTERROGATIONS. The laws forbid suggestive interrogations; that is, according to the civilians, questions which, with regard to the circumstances of the crime, are special when they should be general; or, in other words, those questions which, having an immediate reference to the crime, suggest to the criminal an immediate answer. Interrogations, according to the law, ought to research paper cia global demographics, lead to the fact indirectly and obliquely, but never directly or immediately. The intent of this injunction is, either that they should not suggest to the accused an immediate answer that might acquit him, or that they think it contrary to nature that a man should accuse himself. But whatever be the motive, the laws have fallen into a palpable contradiction, in condemning suggestive interrogations, whilst they authorise torture. Can there be an format title interrogation more suggestive than pain? Torture will suggest to a robust villain an obstinate silence, that he may exchange a greater punishment for a less; Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] and to a feeble man confession, to relieve him from the present pain, which affects him more than the apprehension of the future. If a special interrogation be contrary to research cia global demographics, the right of nature, as it obliges a man to accuse himself, torture will certainly do it more effectually.
But men are influenced more by the names than the nature of things. He who obstinately refuses to answer the interrogatories, deserves a punishment, which should be fixed by the laws, and that of the severest kind; that criminals should not, by their silence, evade the example which they owe the list getters essays, public. But this punishment is not necessary when the guilt of the criminal is indisputable, because in research process paper cia global that case interrogation is paper title page useless, as is likewise his confession, when there are, without it, proofs sufficient. This last case is most common, for experience shews, that in process paper demographics the greatest number of criminal prosecutions, the culprit pleads not guilty. CHAPTER XXXIX.: OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF CRIMES. The reader will perceive that I have omitted speaking of a certain class of crimes, which has covered Europe with blood, and raised up those horrid piles, from whence, midst clouds of whirling smoke, the groans of human victims, the crackling of their bones, and the frying of their still panting bowels, were a pleasing spectacle and agreeable harmony to the fanatic multitude. But men of understanding will perceive, that the age and country in which I live will not permit me to inquire into of term paper the nature of this crime. It were too tedious, and foreign to my subject, to prove the necessity of a perfect uniformity of opinions in a state, contrary to the examples of many nations; to prove that opinions, which differ from one another only in some subtile and obscure distinctions, beyond the reach of human capacity, may nevertheless disturb the public tranquillity, unless one only religion be established by authority; and that some opinions, by Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] being contrasted and opposed to each other, in their collision strike out the truth; whilst others, feeble in themselves, require the support of power and authority. It would, I say, carry me too far, were I to prove, that, how odious soever is the empire of process cia global force over on bermuda the opinions of research process demographics mankind, from whom it only obtains dissimulation followed by contempt; and although it may seem contrary to attention, the spirit of humanity and brotherly love, commanded us by reason, and authority, which we more respect, it is nevertheless necessary and research process paper indispensible.
We are to believe, that all these paradoxes are resolved beyond a doubt, and are conformable to the true interest of question mankind, if practised by a lawful authority. I write only of crimes which violate the laws of nature and process paper the social contract, and not of sins, even the temporal punishments of which must be determined from other principles than those of a limited human philosophy. CHAPTER XL.: OF FALSE IDEAS OF UTILITY. A principal source of getters errors and injustice, are false ideas of utility. Research Cia Global Demographics! For example; that legislator has false ideas of utility, who considers particular more than general conveniences; who had rather command the sentiments of mankind than excite them, and dares say to reason, #x201C;Be thou a slave;#x201D; who would sacrifice a thousand real advantages to the fear of an imaginary or trifling inconvenience; who would deprive men of the use of fire for display cfm ethesis_id fear of being burnt, and research paper of water for fear of their being drowned; and who know of no means of preventing evil, but by destroying it. The laws of this nature, are those which forbid to wear arms, disarming those only who are not disposed to commit the crime which the laws mean to prevent. Format Of Term Paper Page! Can it be supposed, that those who have the process cia global, courage to violate the rutgers essay 2012, most sacred laws of humanity, and the most important of the research process demographics, code, will respect the less considerable and arbitrary Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] injunctions, the violation of which is so easy, and of so little comparative importance? Does not the execution of this law deprive the subject of that personal liberty, so dear to mankind and to the wise legislator; and does it not subject the rutgers essay 2012, innocent to all the disagreeable circumstances that should only fall on the guilty? It certainly makes the situation of the process paper demographics, assaulted worse, and the assailants better, and rather encourages than prevents murder, as it requires less courage to attack armed than unarmed persons.
It is a false idea of utility, that would give to a multitude of sensible beings that symmetry and paper page order, which inanimate matter is alone capable of receiving; to neglect the present, which are the process cia global demographics, only motives that act with force and constancy on the multitude, for the more distant, whose impressions are weak and transitory, unless increased by that strength of imagination so very uncommon among mankind. Finally, that is track a false idea of utility, which, sacrificing things to names, separates the public good from that of individuals. There is this difference between a state of society and a state of research paper nature, that a savage does no more mischief to another than is essay about running track necessary to Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] procure some benefit to himself; but a man in cia global demographics society is sometimes tempted, from a fault in the laws, to injure another, without any prospect of advantage. The tyrant inspires his vassals with fear and servility, which rebound upon him with double force, and are the cause of his torment. Fear, the more private and domestic it is, the less dangerous is it to list attention, him who makes it the instrument of his happiness; but the more it is public, and paper demographics the greater number of people it affects, the greater is the probability that some mad, desperate or designing person will seduce others to his party, by flattering expectations; and this will be the more easily accomplished, as the danger of the enterprize will be divided amongst a great number, because the value the display, unhappy set upon their existence is research process paper cia global demographics less, as their misery is greater. CHAPTER XLI.: OF THE MEANS OF PREVENTING CRIMES. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them. This is the fundamental principle of good legislation, which is the art of conducting men to the maximum of happiness, and to the minimum of misery, if we may apply this mathematical expression to the good and about evil of life.
But the means hitherto employed for that purpose, are generally inadequate, or contrary to the end proposed. It is impossible to reduce the tumultuous activity of mankind to absolute regularity; for, midst the various and opposite attractions of pleasure and pain, human laws are not sufficient entirely to prevent disorders in research cia global society. Essay Running! Such, however, is the chimera of weak men, when invested with authority. To prohibit a number of indifferent actions, is process paper demographics not to prevent the crimes which they may produce, but to create new ones; it is to change at paper page will the ideas of research process paper cia global demographics virtue and essay about running vice, which, at other times, we are told, are eternal and immutable. To what a situation should we be Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] reduced, if every thing were to be forbidden that might possibly lead to a crime?
We must be deprived of the use of our senses. For one motive that induces a man to process demographics, commit a real crime, there are a thousand which excite him to those indifferent actions, which are called crimes by bad laws. If then, the probability that a crime will be committed be in proportion to the number of motives, to extend the sphere of crimes will be to of term paper page, increase that probability. Research Paper! The generality of laws are only exclusive privileges; the tribute of all to the advantage of a few. Would you prevent crimes? Let the title, laws be clear and cia global demographics simple; let the entire force of the nation be united in their defence; let them be intended rather to favour every individual, than any particular classes of men; let the research triangle, laws be feared, and the laws only. The fear of the laws is salutary, but the fear of men is research process demographics a fruitful and essays fatal source of crimes. Men enslaved are more voluptuous, more debauched, and more cruel than those who are in a state of freedom. These study the sciences, the interest of nations, have great objects before their eyes, and imitate them; but those, whose views are confined to the present moment, endeavour, midst the distraction of riot and debauchery, to forget their situation; accustomed Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] to the uncertainty of all events, for the laws determine none, the consequence of their crimes becomes problematical, which gives an cia global additional force to the strength of their passions. In a nation, indolent from the nature of the climate, the uncertainty of the laws confirms and increases men#x2019;s indolence and stupidity. In a voluptuous but active nation, this uncertainty occasions a multiplicity of cabals and intrigues, which spread distrust and diffidence through the hearts of all, and dissimulation and treachery are the foundation of their prudence.
In a brave and powerful nation, this uncertainty of the laws is at last destroyed, after many oscillations from liberty to slavery, and attention getters essays from slavery to research cia global demographics, liberty again. Would you prevent crimes? Let liberty be attended with knowledge. As knowledge extends, the disadvantages which attend it diminish, and Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] the advantages increase. A daring impostor, who is always a man of about running track some genius, is adored by the ignorant populace, and despised by men of understanding. Knowledge facilitates the comparison of objects, by shewing them in different points of view. Cia Global! When the clouds of ignorance are dispelled by the radiance of knowledge, authority trembles, but the force of the laws remains immoveable. Men of enlightened understanding must necessarily approve those useful conventions, which are the foundation of public safety; they compare, with the highest satisfaction, the inconsiderable portion of liberty of which they are deprived, with the sum total sacrificed by others for their security; observing that they have only given up the pernicious liberty of injuring their fellow-creatures, they bless the throne, and the laws upon which it is established.
It is false that the sciences have always been prejudicial to mankind. When they were so, the evil was inevitable. The multiplication of the human species on the face of the earth introduced war, the rudiments of arts, and the first laws, which were temporary compacts arising from necessity, and research perishing with it. This was the first philosophy, and its few elements were Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] just, as indolence and want of sagacity, in the early inhabitants of the world, preserved them from error. But necessities increasing with the number of mankind, stronger and more lasting impressions were necessary to research process, prevent their frequent relapses into triangle a state of barbarity, which became every day more fatal. The first religious errors, which peopled the cia global, earth with false divinities, and created a world of invisible beings to govern the visible creation, were of the utmost service to mankind. The greatest benefactors to humanity were those who dared to list getters essays, deceive, and process cia global led pliant ignorance to the foot of the altar. By presenting to the minds of the vulgar, things out of the reach of their senses, which fled as they pursued, and always eluded their grasp; which, as they never comprehended, they never despised, their different passions were united, and of term attached to research cia global demographics, a single object.
This was the first transition of all nations from their savage state. Such was the necessary, and perhaps the display, only bond of all societies at their first formation. I speak not of the chosen people of God, to whom the most extraordinary miracles, and the most signal favours, supplied the place of process cia global demographics human policy. But as it is the nature of error to subdivide Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] itself ad infinitum, so the attention getters, pretended knowledge which sprung from it transformed mankind into a blind fanatic multitude, jarring and destroying each other in the labyrinth in which they were inclosed; hence it is not wonderful, that some sensible and process cia global demographics philosophic minds should regret the ancient state of barbarity. This was the first epocha in which knowledge, or rather opinions, were fatal. The second may be found in the difficult and question 2012 terrible passage from error to truth, from darkness to light. Research Process Paper Cia Global! The violent shock between a mass of errors, useful to display cfm ethesis_id, the few and powerful, and the truths so important to the many and the weak, with the fermentation of passions excited on that occasion, were productive of research cia global infinite evils to unhappy mortals. In the study of history, whose principal periods, after certain intervals, much resemble each other, we frequently find, in the necessary passage from the obscurity of ignorance to the light of philosophy, and from tyranny to liberty, its natural consequence, one generation sacrificed to the happiness of the next.
But when this flame is extinguished, and the world delivered from its evils, truth, after a very slow progress, sits down with monarchs on the throne, and is worshiped in the assemblies of Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] nations. Shall we then believe, that light diffused among the research, people is research more destructive than darkness, and that the knowledge of the relations of things can never be fatal to mankind? Ignorance may indeed be less fatal than a small degree of knowledge, because this adds, to the evils of ignorance, the inevitable errors of a confined view of things on this side the bounds of truth; but a man of enlightened understanding, appointed guardian of the laws, is the greatest blessing that a sovereign can bestow on a nation. List Getters! Such a man is research cia global accustomed to behold truth, and not to fear it; unacquainted with the greatest part of those imaginary and rutgers essay 2012 insatiable necessities, which so often put virtue to the proof, and accustomed to contemplate mankind from the most elevated point of view, he considers the process cia global, nation as his family, and his fellow citizens as brothers; the distance between the format paper title page, great and process paper the vulgar appears to him the getters essays, less, as the number of research demographics mankind he has in view is greater. The philosopher has necessities and interests unknown to the vulgar, and the chief of these is not to belie in public the principles he taught in obscurity, and the habit of loving virtue for its own sake. A few such philosophers would constitute the happiness of a nation; which however Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] would be but of short duration, unless by format of term paper page good laws the number were so increased as to lessen the probability of an demographics improper choice. Another method of getters essays preventing crimes is, to make the observance of the laws, and not their violation, the interest of the magistrate. The greater the research process paper cia global demographics, number of those who constitute the tribunal, the less is the danger of corruption; because the attempt will be more difficult, and the power and temptation of each individual will be proportionably less. If the sovereign, by pomp and the austerity of edicts, and by refusing to hear the complaints of the oppressed, accustom his subjects to respect the magistrates more than the laws, the about, magistrates will gain indeed, but it will be at the expence of research process demographics public and private security.
Yet another method of preventing crimes is, to reward virtue. Upon this subject the laws of all nations are silent. Running! If the rewards, proposed by academies for the discovery of useful truths, have increased our knowledge, and multiplied good books, is it not probable that rewards, distributed by the beneficent hand of a sovereign, would also multiply virtuous actions? The coin of honour is inexhaustible, and is abundantly fruitful in the hands of a prince who distributes it wisely. Finally, the most certain method of preventing crimes, is to perfect the system of education. Cia Global! But this is an object too vast, and exceeds my plan; an cfm ethesis_id object, if I may venture to declare it, which is so intimately connected with the nature of government, that it will always remain a barren spot, cultivated only by research cia global a few wise men. A great man, who is persecuted by that world he hath enlightened, and to research on bermuda, whom we are indebted for paper cia global demographics many important truths, hath most amply detailed the principal maxims of useful education. This chiefly consists in attention essays presenting to the mind a small number of cia global select objects; in substituting the originals for the copies, both of physical and moral phenomena; in leading the pupil to virtue by getters essays the easy road of sentiment, and in withholding him from evil by the infallible power of necessary inconveniences, rather than by command, which only obtains counterfeit and momentary obedience. As punishments become more mild, clemency and pardon are less necessary. Happy the nation in which they will be considered as dangerous! Clemency, which has often been deemed a sufficient substitute for every other virtue in sovereigns, should be excluded in a perfect legislation, where punishments are mild, and the proceedings in criminal cases regular and expeditious.
This truth will seem cruel to those who live in countries, where, from the absurdity of the laws, and the severity of punishments, pardons, and the clemency of the prince, are necessary. Research Process! It is indeed one of the noblest prerogatives of the throne, but, at the same time, a tacit disapprobation of the laws. Clemency is a virtue which belongs to the legislator, and not to essays, the executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shine in process demographics the code, and not in title page private judgment. To shew mankind, that crimes are sometimes pardoned, and that punishment is not the necessary consequence, is process cia global demographics Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] to nourish the flattering hope of impunity, and is the cause of their considering every punishment inflicted as an act of injustice and oppression. The prince, in pardoning, gives up the public security in favour of an individual, and, by his ill-judged benevolence, proclaims a public act of impunity. Let, then, the essays, executors of the laws be inexorable, but let the legislator be tender, indulgent and humane.
He is process paper cia global a wise architect, who erects his edifice on the foundation of self-love, and contrives, that the interest of the public shall be the paper page, interest of each individual; who is not obliged by particular laws, and research cia global irregular proceedings, to separate the public good from that of individuals, and erect the image of public felicity on the basis of display 1151 fear and distrust; but, like a wise philosopher, he will permit his brethren to enjoy, in quiet, that small portion of happiness, which the immense system, established by the first cause, permits them to taste on this earth, which is but a point in the universe. A small crime is sometimes pardoned, if the person offended chuses to forgive the offender. This may be an act of good nature and humanity, but it is contrary to the good of the research process paper cia global, public. The right of punishing belongs not to any individual in particular, but to society in general, or the Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] sovereign. He may renounce his own portion of this right, but cannot give up that of on bermuda others. I conclude with this reflection, that the severity of punishments ought to be in proportion to the state of the nation. Among a people hardly yet emerged from barbarity, they should be most severe, as strong impressions are required; but in paper demographics proportion as the minds of men become softened by their intercourse in society, the severity of punishments should be diminished, if it be intended, that the necessary relation between the object and the sensation should be maintained.
From what I have written results the following general theorem, of considerable utility, though not conformable to custom, the common legislator of nations. That a punishment may not be an act of violence, Edition: current; Page: [ 161 ] of one or of many, against a private member of society, it should be public, immediate and necessary; the least possible in the case given; proportioned to list attention getters essays, the crime, and determined by the laws. A COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS. CHAPTER I.: THE OCCASION OF THIS COMMENTARY. Having read, with infinite satisfaction, the little book on research process paper Crimes and Punishments, which in morality, as in medicine, may be compared to one of those few remedies, capable of rutgers 2012 alleviating our sufferings; I flattered myself that it would be a means of softening the remains of barbarism in the laws of many nations; I hoped for some reformation in mankind, when I was Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] informed, that, within a few miles of my abode, they had just hanged a girl of research process eighteen, beautiful, well made, accomplished, and of a very reputable family.
She was culpable of having suffered herself to be got with child, and also, of having abandoned her infant. This unfortunate girl, flying from her father#x2019;s house, is taken in essay about running track labour, and, without assistance, is delivered of her burden by the side of a wood. Shame, which in the sex is research paper cia global a powerful passion, gave her strength to return home, and to conceal her situation. On Bermuda Triangle! She left her child exposed; it is found the next morning; the mother is discovered, condemned and executed. The first fault of this unhappy victim ought to have been concealed by paper cia global demographics the family, or rather claims the protection of the laws, because it was incumbent on her seducer to repair the format of term, injury he had done; because weakness hath a right to indulgence; because concealing her pregnancy may endanger her life; because declaring her condition destroys her reputation, and because the research demographics, difficulty of providing for her infant is statement about a great additional misfortune. Her second fault is more criminal.
She abandons the fruit of her weakness, and exposes it to perish. Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] But because a child is dead, is it absolutely necessary to kill the mother? She did not kill the child. She flattered herself, that some passenger would have compassion on the innocent babe. It is even possible that she might intend to return and provide for demographics it; a sentiment so natural in the breast of a mother, that it ought to be presumed. The law in the country of which I am speaking is, indeed, positively against her. But is it not an cfm ethesis_id unjust, inhuman, and pernicious law?
Unjust, because it makes no distinction between her who murders, and her who abandons her infant; inhuman, because it punishes with death a too great desire of concealing a weakness; pernicious, because it deprives the state of a fruitful subject, in a country that wants inhabitants. Charity hath not yet established, in that nation, houses of reception for exposed infants. Where charity is process paper cia global wanting, the law is always cruel. It were much better to prevent, than to think only of punishing these frequent misfortunes. Thesis! The proper object of jurisprudence is, to paper demographics, hinder the commission of crimes, rather than condemn to essay running track, death a weak woman, when it is evident that her transgression was unattended with malice, and that she hath already been severely punished by the pangs of research process paper her own heart. Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] Insure, as far as possible, a resource to those who shall be tempted to do evil, and you will have less to punish.
This misfortune, and this very hard law, with which I was so sensibly affected, prompted me to cast my eyes on the criminal code of nations. The humane author of the Essay on Crimes and statement Punishments, had but too much cause to complain, that the latter frequently exceed the former, and are sometimes detrimental to the state they were intended to serve. Those ingenious punishments, the ne plus ultra of the human mind, endeavouring to render death horrible, seem rather the process, inventions of tyranny than of justice. The punishment of the wheel was first introduced in Germany in the times of anarchy, when those who usurped the regal power resolved to Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] terrify, with unheard-of torments, those who should dispute their authority. In England they ripped open the belly of a man guilty of essay track high-treason, tore out his heart, dashed it in his face, and then threw it into the fire. Research Paper! And wherein did this high-treason frequently consist? In having been, during a civil war, faithful to an unfortunate king; or, in having spoken freely on the doubtful right of the conqueror. At length, their manners were softened; they continued to tear out the heart, but not till after the death of the offender. The apparatus is dreadful, but the death is mild, if death can ever be mild.
CHAPTER III.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF HERETICS. The denunciation of death to those who, in certain dogmas, differed from the established church, was peculiarly the act of tyranny. No Christian emperor, before the format title, tyrant Maximus, ever thought of condemning a man to punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] merely for points of controversy. Research Demographics! It is true, indeed, that two Spanish bishops pursued to thesis statement alcoholism, death the paper cia global demographics, Priscilianists under Maximus; but it is also true, that this tyrant was willing to gratify the reigning party with the blood of heretics. Barbarity and justice were to him indifferent. Jealous of Theodosius, a Spaniard like himself, he endeavoured to deprive him of the empire of the East, as he had already obtained that of the West.
Theodosius was hated for his cruelties; but he had found the means of gaining to his party the heads of the church. Maximus was willing to display the same zeal, and to attach the research, Spanish bishops to his faction. He flattered both the old and the new religion; he was as treacherous as inhuman, as indeed were all those who at that time either pretended to, or obtained empire. That vast part of the process, world was then governed like Algiers at present. Emperors were created and dethroned by the military power, and were often chosen from cfm ethesis_id, among nations that were reputed barbarous. Theodosius opposed to his competitor other barbarians from Scythia. Research Process Demographics! He filled the army with Goths, and surprised Alaric the conqueror of Rome. In this horrible confusion, each endeavoured to strengthen his party by every means in his power. Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] Maximus having caused the Emperor Gratian, the colleague of thesis statement about alcoholism Theodosius, to be assassinated at research paper Lyons, meditated the destruction of Valentinian the second, who, during his infancy, had been made successor to Gratian. He assembled at Treves a powerful army, composed of Gauls and Germans. He caused troops to be levied in Spain, when two Spanish bishops, Idacio and Ithacus, or Itacius, both men of credit, came and list essays demanded of research process paper him the blood of Priscilian, and all his adherents, who were of getters essays opinion, that souls were emanations from God; that the Trinity did not contain three hypostases; and moreover, they carried their sacrilege so far as to fast on Sundays.
Maximus, half Pagan, and half Christian, soon perceived the enormity of these crimes. The holy bishops, Idacio and Itacius, obtained leave to torture Priscilian and his accomplices before they were put to death. They were both present, that things might be done according to order, and they returned blessing God, and numbering Maximus, the defender of the faith, among the saints. But Maximus being afterward defeated by Theodosius, and assassinated at the feet of his conqueror, had not the research paper, good fortune to thesis, be canonized. It is proper to cia global, observe, that Saint Martin, Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] bishop of Tours, who was really a good man, solicited the pardon of Priscilian; but being himself accused of essay heresy by the bishops, he returned to Tours, for fear of the torture at Treves. As to Priscilian, he had the consolation, after he was hanged, of being honoured by his sect as a martyr. His feast was celebrated, and would be celebrated still, if there were any Priscilianists remaining. This example made the entire church tremble; but it was soon after imitated and surpassed. Priscilianists had been put to death by the sword, the paper cia global demographics, halter, and by lapidation. Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! A young lady of quality, suspected to research process paper cia global, have fasted on a Sunday, was at Bourdeaux only stoned to death.
These punishments appeared too mild; it was proved that God required that heretics should be roasted alive. The peremptory argument, in support of this opinion was, that God punishes them in that manner in the next world, and that every prince, or his representative, even down to a petty constable, is the image of God in this sublunary world. On this principle it was, that all over Europe they burnt witches and sorcerers, who were manifestly under the empire of the devil; and also heterodox Christians, which were deemed still more criminal and dangerous. Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] It is not certainly known, what was the crime of those priests who were burnt at Orleans in the presence of king Robert and his wife Constantia, in the year 1022. How indeed should it be known? there being, at that time, but a small number of clerks and monks that could write. All we certainly know is, that Robert and his wife feasted their eyes with this abominable spectacle. One of the sectaries had been confessor to on bermuda, her majesty, who thought she could not better repair the misfortune of having confessed to a heretic, than by seeing him devoured by the flames. Custom becomes law; from paper, that period to the present time, a space of more than seven hundred years, the church hath continued to burn those that are guilty, or supposed guilty, of an error in opinion. CHAPTER IV.: ON THE EXTIRPATION OF HERESY.
It seems necessary to distinguish an heresy of list attention getters opinion from process demographics, faction. From the first ages of Christianity opinions have been different. The Christians of Alexandria were, in many points, of a different opinion from those of Antioch. The Achaians differed from the Asiatics. This diversity of opinion existed from the beginning, and probably will continue for ever. Jesus Christ, who could have united all the getters essays, faithful in the same sentiments, did it not; and therefore we may conclude that it was not his design; but that he chose rather to exercise all his churches in acts of indulgence and process paper cia global demographics charity, by permitting different systems, yet all agreeing to acknowledge him their lord and master. These several sects, so long as they were tolerated by the emperors, or concealed from paper title, their sight, had it not in their power to prosecute each other, being equally subject to the Roman magistrates; they could only research process demographics, dispute.
If they were persecuted, they equally Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] claimed the essays, privilege of nature: #x201C;Suffer us,#x201D; they said, #x201C;to adore our God in peace, and do not refuse us the liberty you grant to the Jews:#x201D; Every sect may now urge the same argument to their oppressors. They may say to those who want privileges to research process paper demographics, the Jews; #x201C;Treat us as you treat the sons of Jacob; let us, like them, pray to God according to our conscience. Question! Our opinion will no more injure your state, than Judaism. You tolerate the enemies of Jesus Christ, tolerate us who adore him, and who differ from you only in theological subtleties. Do not deprive yourselves of useful subjects; useful in your manufactures, your marine, and the cultivation of your lands. Of what importance is it, that their creed be somewhat different from yours? You want their labour, and not their catechism?#x201D; Faction is research process cia global quite a different thing. It always happens, that a persecuted sect degenerates into faction.
The oppressed naturally unite and animate each other; and are generally more industrious in strengthening their party, than their persecutors in their extermination. They must either destroy or be destroyed. So it happened after the about, persecution excited in 304, by Galerius, in the two last years of Dioclesian. The Christians, having been favoured by that emperor Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] during eighteen years, were become too numerous and paper too rich to be exterminated. They joined Chlorus; they fought for about running his son Constantine, and a total revolution of the empire was the consequence. Small events may be compared with great, when they are produced by the same spirit. Revolutions of a similar kind happened in Holland, in Scotland, and in Switzerland. When Ferdinand and Isabella drove the research process cia global, Jews out of rutgers essay question Spain, where they were established not only before the cia global, reigning family, but before the Moors, the Goths, or even the Carthaginians; if the Jews had been as warlike as they were rich, they might easily, in conjunction with the Arabs, have effected a revolution.
In short, no sect ever changed the essay running track, government, unless excited by despair. Mahomed himself succeeded only because he was driven from Mecca, and a reward offered for his head. Would you prevent a sect from overturning the state, imitate the present wise conduct of England, of Germany, of Holland; use toleration. The only methods, in policy, to be taken with a new sect, are, to put to process cia global, death the chief and all his adherents, men, women, and children, without sparing one individual; or to getters essays, tolerate them, when Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] numerous. The first method is that of a monster; the second of a wise man. Chain your subjects to the state by demographics their interest. Let the display, Quaker and the Turk find their advantage in research process cia global demographics living under your laws. Religion is of God to man; the civil law is of you to your people. Lewis IX. king of France, who for his virtues was numbered among the saints, made a law against blasphemers. He condemned them to a new punishment; their tongues were pierced with a hot iron.
It was a kind of retaliation; the sinning member suffering the punishment. But it was somewhat difficult to rutgers question, determine what was blasphemy. Expressions frequently escape from a man in a passion, from joy, or even in conversation, which are merely expletives, such as the sela and the vab of the Hebrews, the pol and the Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] #xE6;depol of the Latins, as also per Deos immortales, an cia global demographics expression frequently used, without the least intention of display cfm ethesis_id 1151 swearing by research paper the immortal gods. The words which are called oaths and blasphemy, are commonly vague terms that may be variously interpreted. The law by which they are punished, seems to be founded on that of the Jews, which says: Thou shalt not take the name of the cfm ethesis_id 1151, Lord thy God in process cia global vain. Essay Question 2012! The best commentators are of opinion, that this commandment relates to perjury; and paper demographics there is the more reason to believe them right, as the word shave, which is statement about alcoholism translated in vain, properly signifies perjury. Now, what analogy can there be between perjury and Cabo de Dios, Cadedis, Sangbleu, Ventrebleu, Corpo de Dio, etc.? It was customary with the Jews to swear by the life of God, as the Lord liveth: the phrase was common; so that it was lying in the name of God that was forbidden. Philip Augustus, in research process paper cia global 1181, condemned the nobility who should pronounce the words which are softened in the terms Tetebleu, Ventrebleu, Corbleu, Sangbleu, to attention, pay a fine, and the plebeians to be drowned. The first part of this law seems puerile, the latter abominable.
It was an outrage to nature, to drown one man for a crime for which another paid a few pence of the money of those Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] times. So that this law, like many other, remained unexecuted, especially when the king was excommunicated, and his kingdom interdicted by Pope Celestine III. Saint Lewis, transported with zeal, ordered indiscriminately, that whosoever should pronounce these indecent words, should have his tongue bored, or his upper lip cut off. A citizen of Paris, having suffered this punishment, complained to Pope Innocent IV. Research Process Paper! This pontiff remonstrated to the king that the punishment was too great for the crime, which however had no effect upon his majesty. Happy had it been for mankind, if the format paper, popes had never affected any other superiority over kings. The ordinance of Lewis XIV. says, #x201C;Those who shall be convicted of having sworn by, or blasphemed the holy name of God, of his most holy mother, or of his saints, shall, for the first offence, pay a fine; for the second, third, and process cia global fourth, a double, triple, and display 1151 quadruple fine; for the fifth, shall be put in the stocks; for the sixth, shall stand in the pillory, and lose his upper lip; for the seventh, shall have his tongue cut out.#x201D; This law appears to be humane and just, as it inflicts a cruel punishment only on a seven-fold repetition, which can hardly be presumed. Edition: current; Page: [ 178 ] But with regard to research process paper demographics, more atrocious profanations, which are called Sacrilege, the criminal ordinance mentions only robbing of churches; it takes no notice of public impieties, perhaps because they were not supposed to happen, or were too difficult to format paper page, specify.
They are left therefore to the discretion of the judge; and yet nothing ought to be left to discretion. In such extraordinary cases, how is the judge to act? He should consider the age of the offender, the nature and degree of his offence, and particularly the necessity of a public example. Pro qualitate person#xE6;, quoque rei conditione et temporis et #xE6;tatis et sexus, vel clementius statuendum. If the law does not expressly say that such a crime shall be punished with death, what judge shall think himself authorised to pronounce that sentence? If the law be silent; if nevertheless a punishment be required, the judge ought certainly, without hesitation, to decree the least severe, because he is a man. Sacrilegious profanations are never committed except by research paper cia global young debauchees. Would you punish them as severely as if they had murdered a brother? Their youth pleads in their favour.
They are not suffered to dispose of their possessions, because they are supposed to want maturity Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] of judgment, sufficient to foresee the research, consequences of an imprudent transaction. Is it not therefore natural to suppose, that they are incapable of foreseeing the consequences of research process cia global demographics their impiety? Would you treat a wild young man, who, in his phrenzy, had profaned a sacred image, without stealing it, with the attention, same rigour that you punished a Brinvilliers, who poisoned his father and his whole family? There is no law against the unhappy youth, and research cia global you are determined to about track, make one that shall condemn him to the severest punishment! He deserved chastisement, but did he deserve such excruciating torture, and the most horrible death? But he had offended God! True, most grievously.
Imitate God in your proceedings against research paper cia global demographics him. If he be penitent, God forgives him. Impose a penance, and let him be pardoned. Your illustrious Montesquieu hath said: It is our duty to honour the triangle, Deity, and not to revenge him. Let us weigh these words. They do not mean, that we should neglect the maintenance of public decorum; but, as the judicious author of the preceding Essay observes, that it is absurd for an insect to pretend to revenge the process paper cia global, Supreme Being. A village magistrate, or the magistrate of a city, is neither a Moses nor a Joshua. CHAPTER VI.: OF THE INDULGENCE OF THE ROMANS IN MATTERS OF RELIGION. The amazing contrast between the Roman laws, and the barbarous institutions by which they were succeeded, hath often been the subject of essay track conversation among the speculative part of mankind.
Doubtless the research paper, Roman senate held the supreme God in as great veneration as we; and professed as much esteem for their secondary deities as we for our saints. Ab Jove principium was their common formule. Pliny, in his panegyric on the good Trajan, attests, that the Romans never omitted to begin their discourse and affairs by invoking the Deity. Cicero and format Livy tell us the same thing. Research Cia Global! No people were more religious; but they were too wise, and too great, to descend to the punishment of idle language or philosophic opinions. They were incapable of inflicting barbarous punishments on those who, with Cicero, himself an augur, had no faith in essays auguries; or Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] on those who, like C#xE6;sar, asserted in full senate, that the gods do not punish men after death.
It hath often been remarked that the senate permitted the chorus in the Troad to sing, There is nothing after death, and death itself is nothing. You ask, what becomes of the process paper cia global demographics, dead? They are where they were ere they were born. * Was ever profanation more flagrant than this? From Ennius to rutgers 2012, Ausonius all his profanation, notwithstanding the respect for divine worship. Why were these things disregarded by the senate? Because they did not, in any wise, affect the government of the research paper cia global, state; because they disturbed no institution, nor religious ceremony. The police of the research on bermuda, Romans was nevertheless excellent; they were nevertheless absolute masters of the best part of the world, till the reign of Theodosius the second.
It was a maxim of the Romans, Deorum offens#xE6;, Diis cur#xE6;, Offences against paper cia global demographics the gods concern the gods only. The senate, by the wisest institution, being at the head of religion, were under no apprehensions that a convocation of priests should force them to rutgers essay, revenge the priesthood under a pretext of revenging Heaven. They never said, let us tear the impious asunder, lest we ourselves Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] be deemed impious; let us shew the priesthood, by research process cia global demographics our cruelty, that we are no less religious than they. But our religion is more holy than that of the Romans, and consequently impiety is a greater crime. Granted. God will punish it. The part of essay running man is, to process paper cia global demographics, punish that which is criminal in the public disorder which the impiety hath occasioned.
But if in the act of impiety the delinquent hath not even stolen a handkerchief; if the ceremonies of religion have been in no wise disturbed, shall we, as I said before, punish the impiety as we would punish parricide? The Marshal d#x2019;Ancre had caused a white cock to be killed when the moon was at full: ought we therefore to burn the Marshal D#x2019;Ancre? Est modus in rebus, sunt certi denique fines; Nec scutica dignum horribili sectere flagello. CHAPTER VII.: ON THE CRIME OF PREACHING; AND OF ANTHONY. A Calvanist teacher, who, in certain provinces, preaches to his flock, if he be detected, is punished with death; and those who have given him a supper, or a bed, are sent to the gallies for life.
In other countries, if a Jesuit be caught preaching, he is attention essays hanged. Is it to avenge God that this Calvinist and this Jesuit are put to death? Have both parties built upon the following Evangelical law? If he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. But the Evangelist does not order that this heathen and this publican should be hanged. Or have they built on this passage in cia global demographics Deuteronomy:* If among you a prophet arise; and that which he hath said come to pass; and list getters essays he sayeth unto you, let us follow strange gods; and if thy brother, or thy son, or thy wife, or the friend of thy heart, say unto thee, Come, let us follow strange gods: let them Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] be straightways killed, strike thou first, and all the people after thee.
But neither this Jesuit nor the Calvanist said unto you, Come, let us follow strange gods. The counsellor Dubourg, the monk Jehan Chouvin, named Calvin, the Spanish physician Servetus, the Calabrian Gentilis, all worshipped the same God: and yet the president Minard caused counsellor Dubourg to be burnt; and research process Dubourg#x2019;s friends caused president Minard to be assassinated; Jehan Calvin caused the rutgers, physician Servetus to be roasted; and had likewise the consolation to be a principal means of bringing the Calabrian Gentilis to the block; and the successors of Jehan Calvin burnt Anthony. Was it reason, or piety, or justice, that committed these murders? This history of Anthony is one of the most singular which the annals of phrenzy hath preserved. I read the following account in research process paper cia global demographics a very curious manuscript; it is in part related by Jacob Spon. Anthony was born at research on bermuda Brieu in research paper cia global demographics Lorrain, of catholic parents, and he was educated by the Jesuits at Pont a Mousson. The preacher Feri engaged him in the protestant religion at Metz. Essay Track! Having returned to paper demographics, Nancy he was prosecuted as Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] a heretic, and, had he not been saved by a friend, would certainly have been hanged. He fled for display 1151 refuge to Sedan, where, being taken for a Papist, he narrowly escaped assassination. Seeing by what strange fatality his life was not in safety, either among Papists or Protestants, he went to Venice and turned Jew. He was positively persuaded, even to the last moments of his life, that the religion of the Jews was the only true religion; for that, if it was once true, it must always be so.
The Jews did not circumcise him, for fear of offending the state; but he was no less internally a Jew. He now went to Geneva, where, concealing his faith, he became a preacher, was president of the college, and finally what is called a minister. The perpetual combat in his breast between the religion of Calvin, which he was obliged to preach, and research paper that of Moses, which was the running, only religion he believed, produced a long illness. He became melancholy, and at last quite mad, crying aloud, that he was a Jew. The ministers of the gospel came to cia global, visit him, and endeavoured to bring him to himself; but he answered, #x201C;that he adored none but the God of Israel; that it was impossible for God to rutgers question, change; that God could never have given a law, and inscribed it with his Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] own hand, with an intention that it should be abolished.#x201D; He spoke against Christianity, and afterwards retracted all he had said, and even wrote his confession of research process cia global faith, to escape punishment; but the unhappy persuasion of his heart would not permit him to sign it. The council of the city assembled the clergy, to consult what was to be done with the unfortunate Anthony. The minority of these clergy were of opinion, that they should have compassion on him, and rather endeavour to cure his disease than punish him. The majority determined that he should be burnt, and he was burnt. This transaction is of the year 1632.* A hundred years of reason and virtue are scarce sufficient to essay, expiate such a deed.
CHAPTER VIII.: THE HISTORY OF SIMON MORIN. The tragical end of paper demographics Simon Morin is not less horrible than that of poor Anthony. It was midst the format of term paper page, feasting, pleasures, and gallantry of a brilliant court; it was even in the times of the greatest licentiousness, that this unfortunate madman was burnt at Paris, in the year 1663. Imagining that he had seen visions, he carried his folly so far, as to believe that he was sent from God, and that he was incorporated with Jesus Christ. The Parliament very wisely condemned him to be confined in a mad-house.
What was very remarkable, there happened to cia global, be confined in the same mad-house another fool, who called himself God the Father. Thesis About Alcoholism! Simon Morin was so struck with the folly of his companion, that he acknowledged his own, and appeared for process paper cia global demographics a time to have recovered his senses. He declared his repentance, and, unfortunately for himself, obtained his liberty. Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] Some time after, he relapsed into his former nonsense, and began to dogmatize. Rutgers Essay 2012! His unhappy destiny brought him acquainted with St. Sorlin Desmarets, who, for some months, was his friend, but who afterwards, from jealousy, became his most cruel persecutor.
This Desmarets was no less a visionary than Morin. His first follies indeed were innocent. He printed the Tragi-Comedies of Erigone and Mirame, with a translation of the research process paper cia global, Psalms; the Romance of Ariane, and the Poem of Clovis, with the office of the display 1151, holy Virgin turned into verse. He likewise published dithyrambic poems, enriched with invectives against Homer and Virgil. From this kind of follies he proceeded to others of a more serious nature. He attacked Port-Royal, and after confessing that he had perverted some women to process paper demographics, atheism, he commenced prophet. He pretended that God had given him, with his own hand, the key to the treasure of the of term paper title, Apocalypse, that with this key he would reform the research paper cia global, whole world, and that he should command an army of an hundred and forty thousand men against rutgers essay 2012 the Jansenists. Nothing could have been more reasonable and more just, than to have confined him in research process the same place with Simon Morin; but can it be Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] believed, that he found credit with the statement alcoholism, Jesuit Annat, the king#x2019;s confessor? whom he persuaded, that this poor Simon Morin would establish a sect almost as dangerous as the Jansenists themselves. In short, carrying his infamy so far as to research paper cia global, turn informer, he obtained an order to essay running, seize the research paper demographics, person of his rival. Shall I tell it! Simon Morin was condemned to be burnt alive?
In conducting him to the stake, there was found, in one of his stockings, a paper in which he begged forgiveness of God for all his errors. This ought to have saved him; but no: the sentence was confirmed, and he was executed without mercy. Such deeds are enough to make a man#x2019;s hair bristle with horror. Yet where is the country that hath not beheld such shocking spectacles? Mankind universally forget that they are brothers, and persecute each other even to question, death. Let us console ourselves with the hope, that such dreadful times are passed, never more to research process demographics, return. In the year 1748, in the bishopric of Wurtsburg, an old woman was convicted of attention witchcraft and burnt. This was an extraordinary phenomenon in the present century. But how incredible it seems, that a people, who boasted of their reformation, and of having trampled superstition under their feet, and who flattered themselves that they had brought their reason to perfection; is it not wonderful, I say, that such a people should have believed in witchcraft; should have burnt old women accused of paper demographics this crime, and that above a hundred years after the pretended reformation of their reason?. In the year 1652, a country woman, named Michelle Chaudron, of the little territory of Geneva, met the devil in her way from the city. The devil gave her a kiss, received her homage, and imprinted on her upper lip and on her right breast, the mark which he is list attention essays wont to bestow upon his favourites.
This seal of the research process demographics, devil is a Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] little sign upon the skin, which renders it insensible, as we are assured by all the demonographical civilians of rutgers essay those times. The devil ordered Michelle Chaudron to cia global, bewitch two young girls. She obeyed her master punctually. The parents of the two girls accused her of dealing with the devil. The girls, being confronted with the criminal, declared, that they felt a continual prickling in some parts of their bodies, and that they were possessed.
Physicians were called, at least men that passed for format of term paper physicians in those days. They visited the girls. They sought for the seal of the devil on the body of Michelle, which seal is called, in the verbal process, the Satanical mark. Into one of these marks they plunged a long needle, which was already no small torture. Blood issued from the wound, and Michelle testified by her cries that the part was not insensible. The judges not finding sufficient proof that Michelle Chaudron was a witch, ordered her to be tortured, which infallibly produced the proof they wanted. The poor wretch, overcome by torment, confessed at last every thing they desired. The physicians sought again for the Satanical mark, and found it in a little black spot on one of her thighs. Into this they plunged their Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] needle. The poor creature, exhausted and almost expiring with the research process cia global demographics, pain of the thesis statement about alcoholism, torture, was insensible to paper cia global demographics, the needle, and did not cry out.
She was instantly condemned to research, be burnt; but the world beginning at this time to be a little more civilized, she was previously strangled. At this period every tribunal in Europe resounded with such judgments, and fire and faggot were universally employed against witchcraft as well as heresy. Research Cia Global! The Turks were reproached with having amongst them neither sorcerers, witches, nor demoniacs; and the want of the latter was considered as an getters essays infallible proof of the falsity of research process paper cia global their religion. A zealous friend to the public welfare, to humanity, and to true religion, in one of his writings in favour of innocence, informs us, that there have been above a hundred thousand witches condemned to die by Christian tribunals. If, to these lawful massacres, we add the much superior number of heretics sacrificed, our part of the globe will appear one vast scaffold covered with executioners and victims, and surrounded by judges, guards, and spectators. CHAPTER X.: ON THE PUNISHMENT OF DEATH. It hath long since been observed, that a man after he is hanged is good for nothing, and that punishments invented for the good of society, ought to be useful to society. It is evident, that a score of stout robbers, condemned for life to some public work, would serve the about, state in their punishment, and that hanging them is a benefit to nobody but the executioner. Thieves, in England, are seldom punished with death, but are transported to the colonies. This is also practised in research process demographics Russia, where not one criminal was executed during the whole reign of the autocratical Elisabeth. Catherine II. who hath succeeded her, with much more genius, follows her example; yet crimes are not multiplied by this humanity; and it generally happens that the criminals sent to Siberia in time become honest people.
The same is observed in the English colonies. We are astonished at the change, and yet nothing can be more natural. Attention! The condemned are forced to Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] continual labour for a livelihood. The opportunities of vice are wanting. They marry and multiply. Oblige men to work, and you certainly make them honest.
It is process cia global well known, that atrocious crimes are not committed in the country, unless when there is too much holiday, and consequently too much idleness, and attention getters consequently too much debauchery. The Romans never condemned a citizen to research paper demographics, death, unless for crimes which concerned the safety of the format of term paper, state. These our masters, our first legislators, were careful of the blood of their fellow-citizens; but we are extravagant with the blood of research paper demographics ours. The question hath been frequently debated, whether a judge ought to have the power to punish with death, when the punishment is undetermined by the law? This question was solemnly agitated in format paper title page the presence of the Emperor Henry VII. who decreed that no judge should have such a power.* There are some criminal cases which are either so new, so complicated, and so unaccountable as to have escaped the provision of the laws, and which, therefore, in some countries are left to the discretion of the judge. But for one case in which the laws permit the death of a criminal Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] whom they have not condemned, there are a thousand wherein humanity should save whom the laws have condemned to suffer. The sword of justice is in our hands, but we ought rather to blunt than to process, sharpen its edge. Thesis Statement Alcoholism! It remains within its sheath in the presence of kings, to inform us that it ought seldom to be drawn.
There have been some judges who were passionately fond of spilling human blood; such was Jefferies in England, and such in France was the man whom they called Coupe-tete. Nature never intended such men for magistrates, but for executioners. Must we go to research process paper demographics, the end of the world, must we have recourse to the laws of China, to learn how frugal we ought to be of human blood? It is now more than four thousand years that the tribunals of that empire have existed; and it is also more than four thousand years that the rutgers, Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] meanest subject, at the extremity of the empire, hath not been executed without first transmitting his case to the emperor, who causes it to be thrice examined by one of his tribunals; after which he signs the death warrant, alters the sentence, or entirely acquits. But it is unnecessary to travel so far for examples of this nature; Europe will abundantly supply us. In England, no criminal is put to death, whose death warrant is not signed by the king. It is also practised in Germany, and in research most parts of the north. Such likewise was formerly the custom in France, and such it ought to display 1151, be in all polished nations. A sentence, at a distance from the throne, may be dictated by cabal, prejudice, or ignorance. Such little intrigues are unknown to monarchs, who are continually surrounded by process paper great objects.
The members of the supreme council are more enlightened, less liable to prejudice, and better qualified than a provincial judge, to determine whether the state require severe punishments. Statement! In short, when inferior courts have judged according to the letter of the law, which possibly may be rigorous, the research cia global demographics, council mitigates the sentence according to the true spirit of thesis about all laws, which teaches, never to sacrifice a man, but in evident necessity. All mankind being exposed to the attempts of violence or perfidy, detest the crimes of which they may possibly be the process, victims: all desire that the principal offender and his accomplices may be punished; nevertheless, there is a natural compassion in the human heart, which makes all men detest the cruelty of torturing the accused in order to extort confession. The law has not condemned them, and yet, though uncertain of their crime, you inflict a punishment more horrible than that which they are to suffer when their guilt is confirmed. #x201C;Possibly thou mayst be innocent; but I will torture thee that I may be satisfied: not that I intend to make thee any recompence for the thousand deaths which I have made thee suffer, in lieu of that which is preparing for cfm ethesis_id 1151 thee.#x201D; Who does not shudder at the idea? St. Augustin opposed such cruelty. The Romans tortured their slaves only; and Quintilian, recollecting that they Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] were men, reproved the Romans for such want of humanity. If there were but one nation in the world which had abolished the use of torture; if in process cia global demographics that nation crimes were no more frequent than in format paper title page others; and if that nation be more enlightened and more flourishing since the abolition, its example surely were sufficient for the rest of the process paper, world. England alone might instruct all other nations in this particular; but England is list getters essays not the only nation. Torture hath been abolished in other countries, and with success; the question therefore is research paper decided. Shall not a people, who pique themselves on their politeness, pride themselves also on their humanity?
Shall they obstinately persist in their inhumanity, merely because it is an ancient custom? Reserve, at least, such cruelty for the punishment of those hardened wretches, who shall have assassinated the essay track, father of a family, or the father of his country; but that a young person, who commits a fault which leaves no traces behind it, should suffer equally with a parricide; is not this an useless piece of barbarity? I am ashamed of having said any thing on this subject, after what hath been already said by the author of the Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] I ought to have been satisfied with wishing, that mankind may read with attention the work of that friend to cia global demographics, humanity. CHAPTER XIII.: OF CERTAIN SANGUINARY TRIBUNALS. Is it credible, that there formerly existed a supreme tribunal more horrible than the Inquisition, and title that this tribunal was established by Charlemagne? It was the judgment of paper Westphalia, otherwise called the Vhemic Court. The severity, or rather cruelty, of this court, went so far as to punish with death, every Saxon who broke his fast during Lent. The same law was also established in format Franche-Comte, in the beginning of the process demographics, seventeenth century. Research On Bermuda! In the archives of a little place called St. Claude, situated in a remote corner of the most mountainous part of the county of Burgundy, are preserved the particulars of the sentence and verbal process of execution of a poor gentleman named Claude Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] Guillon, who was beheaded on the 28th of July, 1629.
Being reduced to the utmost poverty, and urged by the most intolerable hunger, he eat, on a fish-day, a morsel of horse flesh, which had been killed in a neighbouring field. This was his crime. He was found guilty of sacrilege. Had he been a rich man, and process had spent two hundred crowns in a supper of sea-fish, suffering the poor to die of hunger, he would have been considered as a person fulfilling every duty. Display Cfm Ethesis_id! The following is a copy of his sentence: #x201C;Having seen all the papers of the research process cia global, process, and heard the opinions of the doctors learned in the law, we declare the said Claude Guillon to be truly attainted and convicted of having taken away part of the flesh of a horse, killed in the meadow of that town; of having caused the said flesh to be dressed, and on bermuda of eating the same on process cia global Saturday the 31st of March,#x201D; etc. What infamous doctors must these have been, who gave their opinions on this occasion? Was it among the Topinambous, or among the Hottentots, that these things happened? The Vhemic Court was yet more horrible. Delegates from this court were secretly spread over all Germany, taking informations unknown to the accused, who were condemned without being heard; and frequently, Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] in want of an executioner, the thesis about alcoholism, youngest judge performed the office himself.* It was requisite, in order to be safe from the assassination of this court, to procure letters of exemption from the emperor; and even these were sometimes ineffectual. This chamber of assassins was not entirely abolished till the demographics, reign of Maximilian I. It ought to have been dissolved in the blood of its members. The Venetian Council of Ten was, in comparison with this, a court of mercy.
What shall we think of such horrid proceedings? Is it sufficient to bewail humanity? There were some cases that cried aloud for vengeance. CHAPTER XIV.: ON THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN POLITICAL AND NATURAL LAWS. I call natural laws, those which nature dictates in all ages to all men, for the maintenance of that justice which she (say what they will of her) hath implanted in our hearts. Theft, violence, homicide, ingratitude to beneficent parents, perjury against innocence, conspiracies against one#x2019;s country, are crimes that are universally and justly punished, though with more or less severity.
I call political laws, those that are made in compliance with present necessity, whether it be to give stability to the government, or to prevent misfortune. For example; being apprehensive that the enemy may receive intelligence from the inhabitants of the attention essays, city, you shut the gates, and forbid any one to pass the ramparts on pain of research process paper cia global death. Or, fearful of a new sect of people, who publicly disclaim all obedience to their sovereign, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] and secretly consult of means to divest themselves of that obedience; who preach, that all men are equal, and that obedience is due to God alone; who, accusing the display 1151, reigning sect of superstition, mean to destroy that which is consecrated by process cia global demographics the state; you denounce death against alcoholism those who, in cia global publicly dogmatizing in favour of this sect, may instigate the people to revolt. Or, two ambitious princes contend for a crown: the strongest gains the display cfm ethesis_id, prize, and process cia global punishes with death the of term paper page, partizans of the weaker. The judges become the instruments of vengeance of the process cia global, new sovereign, and the supports of his authority. When Richard the about, Third, the murderer of his two nephews, was acknowledged king of England, the jury found Sir William Collinburn guilty of having written to a friend of the Duke of Richmond, who was at demographics that time raising an army, and who afterwards reigned by research triangle the name of Henry VII.
They found two ridiculous lines of Sir William#x2019;s writing, which were sufficient to paper demographics, condemn him to a horrible death. History abounds with such examples of justice. The right of rutgers 2012 reprisal is also a law adopted by nations. For example, your enemy has hanged one of your brave captains, for having defended an old ruined castle against a whole army. One Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] of his captains falls into your hands; he is a worthy man, and you esteem him; nevertheless you hang him by way of reprisal.
You say it is the law: that is to say, because your enemy has been guilty of an enormous crime, you must be guilty of another. These political sanguinary laws exist but for a time; they are temporary, because they are not founded in truth. They resemble the necessity which, in cases of extreme famine, obliges people to eat each other: they cease to eat men as soon as bread is to be had. CHAPTER XV.: ON THE CRIME OF HIGH-TREASON. ON TITUS OATES, AND ON THE DEATH OF AUGUSTIN DE THOU.
High-treason is an offence committed against the security of the commonwealth, or of the king its representative. It is considered as parricide, and process paper demographics therefore ought not to be extended to offences which bear no analogy to that crime. Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] In making it high-treason to commit a theft in any house belonging to the state, or even to speak seditious words, you lessen the horror which the crime of high-treason ought to inspire. In our ideas of great crimes, there should be nothing arbitrary. If a theft from, or imprecation against, a father be considered as parricide, you break the cfm ethesis_id, bond of filial piety; the son will then regard his parent as a terrible monster. Every exaggeration in a law tends to its destruction. In common crimes, the laws of England are favourable to the accused; but in cases of high-treason they are against him.
The Jesuit Titus Oates being legally interrogated in the House of Commons, and having upon his oath declared, that he had related the whole truth, yet afterwards accused the secretary of the Duke of York, and several others, of high-treason, and his information was admitted. He likewise swore before the king#x2019;s council, that he had not seen the secretary, and afterwards that he had. Notwithstanding these illegalities and contradictions, the secretary was executed. The same Titus Oates and another witness deposed, that fifty Jesuits had conspired to assassinate Charles II. and that they had seen commissions, Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] signed by father Oliva, general of the Jesuits, for the officers that were to command an army of rebels. This evidence was sufficient to authorize the tearing out the hearts of several people, and dashing them in their faces. Cia Global Demographics! But seriously, can two witnesses be thought sufficient to convict a man whom they have a mind to destroy? At least one would imagine they ought not to be notorious villains; neither ought that which they depose to format of term paper, be improbable.
Let us suppose that two of the most upright magistrates in the kingdom were to accuse a man of having conspired with the Mufti, to circumcise the whole Council of State, the Parliament, the Archbishop and the Sorbonne; in vain these two magistrates might swear, that they had seen the letters of the Mufti: it would naturally be supposed that they were wrong in their heads. It was equally ridiculous to imagine, that the general of the Jesuits should raise an army in England, as that the Mufti intended to circumcise the Court of France. Research Process Cia Global Demographics! But unhappily Titus Oates was believed; that there might remain no species of atrocious folly, which hath not entered into the heart of man. The laws of England do not consider as guilty of track conspiracy those who are privy to process cia global demographics, it, and do Edition: current; Page: [ 207 ] not inform. They suppose the informer as infamous as the conspirator is culpable. In France, if any one be privy to essays, a conspiracy, and does not reveal it, he is punished with death.
Lewis XI. against process cia global whom conspiracies were frequent, made this law; a law which a Lewis XII. or a Henry IV. could never have imagined. It not only obliges an essay running track honest man to divulge a crime, which, by research paper demographics his resolution and advice, he might possibly prevent; but it renders him liable to be punished as a calumniator, it being easy for the accused to manage their affairs in such a manner as to elude conviction. This was exactly the on bermuda, case of the truly respectable Augustin de Thou, counsellor of state, and son of the only good historian of process which France can boast; equal to Guicciardini in point of abilities, and perhaps superior in point of impartiality. This conspiracy was against Cardinal de Richelieu, rather than against Lewis XIII. The design was not to betray France to an enemy; for essay the king#x2019;s brother, who was the principal author of the plot, could never intend to betray a kingdom to which he was the research cia global, presumptive heir, there being only between him and the crown a dying brother, and display two children in the cradle. Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] De Thou was neither guilty in the sight of God nor man. One of the agents of the king#x2019;s brother, of the Duke of Bouillon, sovereign prince of Sedan, and of the process cia global demographics, grand Equerry d#x2019;Effiat St.
Mars, had communicated their intention to de Thou, who immediately went to essay about running, St. Mars, and endeavoured to dissuade him from the enterprize. Process Paper Demographics! If he had informed against him, he had no proof, and must inevitably have fallen a sacrifice to the resentment of the list attention getters essays, presumptive heir of a sovereign prince, of the demographics, king#x2019;s favourite, and to format of term title page, public execration. In short, he would have been punished as a malignant calumniator. The chancellor Seguier was convinced of this in confronting de Thou with the grand Equerry, when de Thou asked the latter the following question: #x201C;Do you not remember, Sir, that there never passed a day, in which I did not endeavour to dissuade you from the attempt?#x201D; St. Mars acknowledged it to be true. So that de Thou deserved a recompence, rather than death, from a tribunal of Equity. He certainly deserved to research demographics, have been saved by Cardinal Richelieu; but humanity was not his virtue. There is in this case something more than summum jus summa injuria. In the sentence of this worthy man we read, #x201C;for having had knowledge and participation Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of the said conspiracy.#x201D; It does not say for not having revealed.
So that his crime was, his having been informed of a crime; and he was punished for having had ears and eyes. All that we can say in extenuation of the severity is, that it was not the act of Justice herself, but of a delegated power. The letter of the law was positive; but I appeal not only to the lawyers, but to all mankind, whether the essay running track, spirit of the law was not perverted? It is a melancholy absurdity, that a small number of paper demographics people should condemn as criminal, a man judged innocent by a whole nation, and worth their esteem! CHAPTER XVI.: OF RELIGIOUS CONFESSION. Jaurigny and Balthazar Gerard, who assassinated William I. Prince of Orange; Clement the Dominican, Chatel, Ravaillac, and all the other parricides of those times, went to confession before they committed their crimes. Fanaticism, Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] in that deplorable age, was carried to such excess, that confession was an additional engagement to the perpetration of thesis about villainy; an engagement deemed sacred, because confession is a sacrament.
Strada himself says, that Jaurigny non ante facinus aggredi sustinuit quam expiatam necis animam apud Dominicanum sacerdotem c#xE6;lesti pane firmaverit. It appears in the interrogatory of Ravaillac that coming from the Feuillants, and going towards the paper, Jesuits college, he addressed himself to the Jesuit d#x2019;Aubigny; that after talking to him of several apparitions which he had seen, he shewed him a knife, on the blade of which was engraved a heart and a cross; and that he said, this heart signifies, that the heart of the king should be induced to make war against the Huguenots. If this d#x2019;Aubigny had informed the king of these words, and described the man, the best of kings might possibly have escaped assassination. On the display 1151, 20th of August, 1610, three months after the research cia global demographics, death of thesis Henry IV. whose wounds were yet bleeding in the hearts of his subjects, the advocate-general Servin, of illustrious memory, required that the Jesuits should be obliged to sign the four following articles: I. That the Council is superior to the Pope. Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] II. Process Cia Global Demographics! That the Pope cannot deprive the king of any of his rights by excommunication. III. That the ecclesiastics are, like other people, entirely subject to the king. IV. That a priest who, by essay question confession, is apprized of process demographics a conspiracy against the king or the state, should reveal it to display 1151, the magistrates.
On the 22d, the parliament published an arret, forbidding the Jesuits to instruct youth, until they had signed those four articles. But the court of Rome was at that time so powerful, and that of France so weak, that the arret was disregarded. It is worth notice, that this court of Rome, which would not suffer confession to cia global demographics, be revealed when the life of a sovereign was concerned, obliged the confessors to inform the Inquisition in case any female should accuse another priest of having seduced or attempted to seduce her. Paul IV. Pius IV. Clement VIII. and Gregory XV. ordered this revelation. It was a dangerous snare both for the confessor and the penitent. It was converting a sacrament into a register of accusations and sacrilege; for by the essay about running, ancient canons, and particularly by the Lateran council, under Innocent III. every confessor who reveals confession, of whatsoever nature it may be, shall be interdicted and imprisoned for life. Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] Thus we see four different Popes, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ordering the revelation of a sin of impurity, and forbidding it in cases of parricide. A woman confesses, or supposes in her confession to a Carmelite, that a Cordelier attempted to seduce her; the Carmelite must impeach the Cordelier.
A fanatical assassin, believing that he shall serve God by research process demographics killing his prince, consults his confessor on this case of conscience; the confessor is guilty of sacrilege if he save the life of his sovereign. This horrible absurdity is one of the unhappy consequences of the continual opposition, which hath subsisted for thesis so many ages, between the research process demographics, ecclesiastical and rutgers essay civil law. Mankind have in a thousand instances been suspended between the crimes of sacrilege and high-treason, and the distinctions of right and wrong have been buried in a chaos, from which they are not yet emerged. Confession of sins hath been authorised in all times and in all nations. The ancients accused themselves in the mysteries of Orpheus, of process paper Isis, of Ceres, of Samothrace. The Jews confessed their sins on the day of solemn expiation, and still continue the same practice. Each penitent chuses his confessor, who becomes his penitent in turn, and display cfm ethesis_id 1151 each receives from research paper cia global, his companion Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] thirty-nine lashes whilst he is repeating, three times, the formule of confession, which consists only in format of term title thirteen words, and which consequently must be general. None of these confessions were particular, and consequently could never serve for a pretence to those secret consultations, under the shadow of which fanatical penitents think to sin with impunity; a pernicious practice, by which a salutary institution is paper cia global corrupted. Confession, which was intended as a curb to iniquity, hath frequently, in times of confusion and seduction, become an incentive to of term page, wickedness. Probably it was for this reason, that so many Christian states have abolished a holy institution, which appeared to be as dangerous as useful.
The crime of coining false money is deemed high-treason in the second degree, and justly. To rob all the people is to be a traitor to the state. But it is asked whether a merchant who imports ingots of gold from America, and privately converts them into good money, be guilty of high-treason, and merit death? which is the punishment annexed to this crime in demographics almost all countries. Nevertheless, he has robbed nobody; on the contrary, he has done service to the state by thesis increasing the currency. But he hath defrauded the king of the small profit upon the coin. He hath indeed coined good money; but he hath led others into the temptation of coining bad.
Yet death is a severe punishment. I knew a lawyer who was of opinion, that such a criminal should be condemned, as a useful hand, to work in paper the royal mint, with irons to his legs. In countries where a trifling domestic theft, or breach of trust, is punished with death, is not the disproportioned punishment dangerous to society? Is it not even an encouragement to larceny? If, in this case, a master prosecutes his servant, and the unhappy wretch suffer death, the whole neighbourhood hold the master in abhorrence: they perceive that the law is paper page contrary to nature, and consequently that it is a bad law. What is the result? Masters, to avoid opprobrium, content themselves with discharging the thief, who afterwards steals from another, and gradually becomes familiar with dishonesty. The punishment being the same for a small theft as for a greater, he will naturally steal as much as he can, and at last will not scruple to turn assassin to prevent detection. If, on the contrary, the punishment be proportioned to research process paper demographics, the crime; if those who are guilty Edition: current; Page: [ 216 ] of a breach of trust be condemned to labour for the public, the master will not hesitate to bring the rutgers 2012, offender to process, justice, and the crime will be less frequent: so true it is, that rigorous laws are often productive of crimes. The celebrated Du Verger de Hauranne, Abb#xE8; de St.
Cyran, one of the founders of Port Royal, in the year 1608, wrote a treatise on suicide, which is become one of the scarcest books in Europe. #x201C;The Decalogue,#x201D; says that author, #x201C;forbids us to commit murder; in which precept self-murder seems no less to be understood, than the murder of another: if, therefore, there be cases in essay question which it is lawful to kill another, there may be cases also wherein suicide may be allowed. Paper Cia Global! But a man ought not to attempt his own life, till after having consulted his reason. Public Edition: current; Page: [ 217 ] authority, which is the representative of God, may dispose of our lives. Display Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! The reason of man may also represent that of the Deity, it being a ray of the eternal light.#x201D; St. Cyran extends his argument to process cia global, a great length, which after all is 2012 a mere sophism. But when he comes to exemplify, he is not quite so easily answered. #x201C;A man may kill himself,#x201D; says he, #x201C;for the good of his prince, for the good of his country, or for the good of research paper cia global demographics his parents.#x201D; It does not appear, that we could with justice condemn a Codrus, or a Curtius.
What prince would dare to research on bermuda, punish the family of a man who had sacrificed himself for his service? Or rather, is there any prince who would dare not to reward them. St. Thomas, before St. Cyran, said the same thing. But there was no need of either of Thomas, of Bonaventure, nor of Huranne, to inform us, that a man who dies for his country deserves our praise. St. Cyran concludes, that it is lawful to do for one#x2019;s own sake, that which is praise-worthy if done for another. The arguments of Plutarch, of Seneca, of Montaigne, and a hundred others, are well known. I do not pretend to apologise for an action which the laws have condemned; but I do not recollect, that either the Old or Edition: current; Page: [ 218 ] New Testament forbid a man to relinquish his life, when it is no longer supportable.
By the Roman laws, suicide was not forbidden; on the contrary, in a law of Mark Antony, which was never repealed, we find it thus written: #x201C;If your brother or your father, being convicted of no crime, hath put himself to death, either to avoid pain, or being weary of life, or from despair or madness, his will shall nevertheless be valid, or his heirs inherit according to research demographics, law.#x201D; Notwithstanding this humane law of our ancient masters, we ordain, that a stake shall be driven through the corps of the offender, and his memory becomes infamous. We do all in our power to dishonour his family. We punish a son for having lost a father, and rutgers question a widow because she is deprived of her husband. We even confiscate the effects of the deceased, and rob the living of paper cia global that which is justly their due. This custom, with many others, is derived from getters, our canon law, which denies Christian burial to those who are guilty of suicide, concluding thence, that it is not lawful to inherit on research paper cia global earth from one who hath himself no inheritance in heaven. The cannon law assures us, that Judas committed a greater crime in hanging himself, than in betraying Jesus Christ. CHAPTER XX.: ON A CERTAIN SPECIES OF MUTILATION. We find, in the Pandect, a law of Adrian, which denounces death to the physicians who should make an eunuch, either by castration or by bruising the testes. By the same law, the possessions of those who suffered castration were confiscated. Origen ought certainly to have been punished, who submitted to this operation, from the rigid interpretation of that passage in St.
Matthew, which says, There be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for research the kingdom of heaven#x2019;s sake. Things changed in the reigns of succeeding emperors, who adopted the luxury of Asia; especially in the lower empire of research paper cia global demographics Constantinople, where eunuchs became patriarchs and generals of armies. In these our own times, it is the custom at Rome to castrate young children, to render them worthy of being musicians to his Holiness; so that Castrato and Musico del Papa are synonimous. It is not long since you might have seen at Naples, Edition: current; Page: [ 220 ] written in great letters over the doors of certain barbers, Qui si castrano mar avigliosamente i puti: here boys are castrated in the best manner. It is essay question a maxim received at the bar, that he who forfeits his life forfeits his effects; a maxim which prevails in those countries where custom serves instead of law. So that, as we have already observed, the research cia global, children of one who puts an end to his own life, are condemned to perish with hunger, equally with those of an format of term paper assassin. Thus, in every case, a whole family is punished for the crime of an individual. Thus when the father of a family is condemned to the gallies for life, by an arbitrary sentence, whether it be for having harboured a preacher, or for hearing his sermon in a cavern or a desert, his wife and children are reduced to beg their bread.
That law which consists in research depriving an orphan Edition: current; Page: [ 221 ] of support, and in giving to one man the possessions of another, was unknown in the times of the Roman republic. Cfm Ethesis_id! It was first introduced by Sylla, in his proscriptions, whose example one would scarce have thought worthy imitation. Nor indeed was this law adopted by research process cia global demographics Cesar, by Trajan, or by Antoninus, whose name is still pronounced with respect by all nations; and under Justinian, confiscation took place only in triangle case of high-treason. It seems that, in demographics the times of feudal anarchy, princes and lords not being very rich, sought to increase their revenue by the condemnation of their subjects. Their laws being arbitrary, and the Roman jurisprudence unknown, customs either cruel or ridiculous prevailed. But now that the power of princes is founded on immense and certain revenues, there can be no need to swell their treasuries with the inconsiderable wreck of an unfortunate family. In countries where the Roman law is established, confiscation is not admitted, except within the jurisdiction of the parliament of Toulouse. It was formerly the law at Calais, but was abolished by the English, whilst that city was in their possession. It is strange, that the inhabitants of the capital should be subject to a severer law Edition: current; Page: [ 222 ] than the about, people in the country: but laws, like the cottages in a village, were generally established by research process cia global accident, and without attention to the regularity of a general plan. Who would believe that, in the year 1673, in the most brilliant period of the display cfm ethesis_id, kingdom of France, the research paper cia global, advocate-general, Omer Talon, did in full parliament express himself, on the subject of a young lady named Canillac, in essay running track the following words: #x201C;God says, in the 13th chapter of Deuteronomy, If thou comest into a city where idolatry reigneth, thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly and all that is therein. And thou shalt gather all the spoil thereof into the midst of the street, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof, for the Lord thy God; and it shall be an heap for ever; and there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to paper demographics, thine hand.#x201D; #x201C;In like manner, in the crime of high-treason, the children were deprived of their inheritance, which became forfeited to the king.
Naboth being prosecuted quia maledixerat regi, king Ahab took possession of his effects. List! David being informed that Mephibosheth had rebelled, gave all his possessions to research process paper cia global demographics, Ziba who brought him the essays, news: tua sint omnia qu#xE6; fuerunt Mephibosheth. Research Paper! #x201D; Edition: current; Page: [ 223 ] The question in dispute was, who should inherit the paternal estate of Mlle. de Canillac, which having been confiscated, was abandoned by the king to display 1151, a lord of the treasury, and afterwards bequeathed by research process paper cia global demographics him to the testatrix. In this cause concerning a girl of of term paper Auvergne it was, that an advocate-general referred to Ahab, king of a part of Palestine, who confiscated the vineyard of Naboth, after assassinating the owner with the sword of justice: an action so abominable as to have passed into a proverb, intended to inspire mankind with detestation for such acts of tyranny. There was certainly no analogy between the vineyard of demographics Naboth and the inheritance of Mlle. de Canillac; nor hath the murder and confiscation of the possessions of essay about running Mephibosheth, the grandson of Saul, and son of Jonathan, the research process paper cia global demographics, friend and protector of David, the least affinity with the will of this lady. It was with such pedantry, with such foolish quotations foreign to the subject, with such ignorance of the first principles of human nature, with such prejudices ill conceived and ill applied, that laws have been explained and about executed, by men who acquired reputation in their sphere. I leave to the reader that, which to tell him were superfluous. CHAPTER XXII.: ON CRIMINAL PROCEDURE, AND OTHER FORMS. If, in France, it should ever happen that the laws of humanity soften some of our rigorous customs, without facilitating the commission of crimes, we may hope for reformation in those legal proceedings, wherein our legislators seem to have been influenced by too much severity. Our criminal procedure appears in many instances to point only at the destruction of the accused.
It is the only law which is uniform throughout the whole kingdom; a law which ought certainly to be no less favourable to the innocent, than terrible to the guilty. In England a man may recover damages for false imprisonment. Cia Global! In France, on the contrary, an innocent person, who has had the list, misfortune to be thrown into a dungeon and tortured almost to death, has no consolation, no damages to hope for, no action against research cia global demographics any one; and to add to his misfortune, he has for ever lost his reputation. Why? Because his joints have been dislocated; Edition: current; Page: [ 225 ] a circumstance which ought rather to inspire compassion and respect. The discovery of crimes, say they, requires severity: it is a war of list attention getters human justice against iniquity. But there is generosity and compassion even in war.
The brave are ever compassionate; and shall the research paper cia global demographics, law delight in barbarity? Let us compare the criminal procedure of the Romans with ours. Format Of Term Paper Title! With them, the evidence were heard publicly in presence of the accused, who might answer or interrogate them, or employ counsel. Process Paper! This procedure was open and noble; it breathed Roman magnanimity. With us, all is statement about conducted in secret. A single judge, only attended by his clerk, hears each witness separately. This custom, established by Francis I. Process Cia Global Demographics! was confirmed by the commissioners who were employed to research on bermuda, digest the ordinance of research cia global Lewis XIV. in thesis statement 1670; which confirmation was entirely owing to a mistake. They imagined, in reading the code de Testibus, that the words testes intrare judicii secretum, signified that the research process cia global demographics, witnesses were examined in private; but secretum means here the chamber of the judge.
Intrare secretum, if intended to signify private interrogation, would be false Latin. Thesis Statement About! This part of our law therefore is founded on a solecism. Edition: current; Page: [ 226 ] The evidence in these cases are commonly the dregs of the people, whom the research process demographics, judge may, in such private examination, make say whatever he pleases. They are examined a second time, but still privately; and if, after this re-examination, they retract from their deposition, or vary in any material circumstance, they are punished as false evidence. So that if a simple honest fellow, recollecting that he has said too much, that he misunderstood the judge, or the judge him, revoke his deposition from about, a principle of justice, he is punished as a reprobate. The natural consequence of this is, that men will confirm a false testimony rather than expose themselves, for their honesty, to certain punishment. The law seems to oblige the magistrate to be the enemy of the accused, rather than his judge; it being left in the power of the cia global, magistrate to attention getters essays, confront the evidence with the accused, or not, as he shall think proper. Process! Amazing! that so necessary a part of the procedure should be left undetermined.
A man being suspected of rutgers a crime, knowing that he is denied the benefit of counsel, flies his country; a step to which he is encouraged by every maxim of the law. But he may be condemned in his absence, whether the crime be Edition: current; Page: [ 227 ] proved or not. Cia Global Demographics! Strange laws! If a man be charged with owing a sum of money, before he can be condemned to pay the demand, it is required that the list getters essays, debt be proved; but if his life be in question, he may be condemned, by default, without any proof of the crime. Is money then of more importance than life? O ye judges and legislators! Consult the pious Antoninus, and the good Trajan: they suffered not the absent to be condemned. Do your laws then allow the privilege of counsel to an extortioner, or a fraudulent bankrupt, and refuse it to one who may possibly be a very honest and honourable man?
If there ever were an instance of innocence being justified by means of counsel, the law, which deprives the accused of that benefit, is evidently unjust. The parliament of paper cia global Toulouse hath a very singular custom relative to the validity of evidence. In other places demi-proofs are admitted, which is a palpable absurdity, there being no such thing as demi-truth; but at Toulouse they admit of quarters and eighths of a proof. For instance, an hearsay may be considered as a quarter, and another hearsay, more vague than the former, as an eighth: so that eight hearsays, which in fact are no other than an echo of a groundless report, Edition: current; Page: [ 228 ] constitute a full proof. Upon this principle it was, that poor Calas was condemned to the wheel. CHAPTER XXIII.: THE IDEA OF REFORMATION. Magistrates are in themselves so respectable, that the inhabitants of the only country in which they are venal, sincerely pray to be delivered from rutgers essay question 2012, this custom: they wish that the civilian may by his merit establish that justice, which in his writings he hath so nobly defended. Research Process Paper Demographics! We may then possibly hope to see a regular and uniform system of laws.
Shall the law of the provinces be always at variance with the law in the capital? Shall a man be right in Britanny, and wrong in Languedoc? Nay, there are as many laws as there are towns; and, even in essay running track the same parliament, the cia global demographics, maxims of one chamber are not the essay about running track, maxims of demographics another. Edition: current; Page: [ 229 ] What astonishing contrariety in the laws of one kingdom! In Paris, a man who has been an question 2012 inhabitant during one year and a day, is reputed a citizen. In Franche-Comte, a freeman who, during a year and a day, inhabits a house in mortmain, becomes a slave; his collateral heirs are excluded from inheriting his foreign acquisitions, and paper even his children are deprived of thesis statement about alcoholism their inheritance, if they have been a year absent from the house in which the research process, father died. This province is essay about running called Franche, but where is their freedom? Were we to attempt to draw a line between civil authority and ecclesiastical customs, what endless disputes would ensue? In short, to what side soever we turn our eyes, we are presented with a confused scene of contradictions, uncertainty, hardships, and research cia global demographics arbitrary power.
In the present age, we seem universally aiming at on bermuda triangle perfection; let us not therefore neglect to perfect the laws, on which our lives and fortunes depend. It may be alledged, that the interest of process paper commerce and property should be secured; but commerce and property are not the end of the social compact, but the means of obtaining that end; and to oppose all the cfm ethesis_id 1151, members of society to cruel laws, to preserve them from evils, necessarily occasioned by the infinite combinations which result from the paper cia global, actual state of political societies, would be to make the end subservient to the means, a paralogism in all sciences, and particularly in politics. In the former editions of this work, I myself fell into this error, when I said that the honest bankrupt should be kept in custody, as a pledge for his debts, or employed as a slave to work for his creditors. I am ashamed of having adopted so cruel an opinion. I have been accused of impiety; I did not deserve it. I have been accused of sedition; I deserved it as little. But I insulted all the rights of humanity, and was never reproached. Post mortem nihil est, mors ipsaque nihil, etc.
Seneca. Spon, p. List! 500. Guy Vances. Boudin de Republica, lib. iii, c. 5. See the excellent abridgement of the chronological history and laws of research demographics Germany, an. 803. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.
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8 Reasons Every Book Needs a Business Plan to Achieve Success. For many years, traditional publishers have required majority of authors to produce business plans for their books. These plans are most often referred to as book proposals. Research Process Paper! However, some aspiring authors don’t feel the need for such business plans. Running Track! In fact, every book needs a business plan, which means every author needs to write one. Research Process Demographics! Nina Amir, is the author of How to Blog a Book: Write, Publish, and Promote Your Work One Post at a Time (Writer’s Digest Books). List Attention Getters! Her new book, The Author Training Manual: Develop Marketable Ideas, Craft Books That Sell, Become the Author Publishers Want, and Self-Publish Effectively (Writer’s Digest Books, March 2014), teaches aspiring authors how to create a business plan for a book and to seen themselves and their ideas through the same lens used by acquisitions editors.
Nina transforms writers into inspired, successful authors, authorpreneurs and research cia global blogpreneurs. Known as the Inspiration to Creation Coach, she moves her clients from ideas to finished books as well as to research on bermuda triangle, careers as authors by process cia global demographics, helping them combine their passion and purpose so they create products that positively and rutgers essay 2012 meaningfully impact the world. Research Paper Demographics! A sought-after author, book, blog-to-book, and results coach, some of Nina’s clients have sold 300,000+ copies of their books, landed deals with major publishing houses and created thriving businesses around their books. She writes four blogs, self-published 12 books and running founded National Nonfiction Writing Month, aka the Write Nonfiction in November Challenge. www.ninaamir.com. Although self-published authors don’t need a formal book proposal, because they alone make the cia global demographics, decision to publish their work, they do need business plans. As the publishers of list, their own books, they alone must determine if their books are viable business propositions. Traditionally published authors rely on agents, and, ultimately, acquisitions editors, to make this determination, and research process demographics these publishing professionals do so, at least initially, using the book proposal prepared by statement alcoholism, the author. That document then becomes the business plan for the book.
More and research paper cia global more often, writers in all genres, even fiction, who seek traditional publishing deals are asked to turn in format of term, a proposal akin to a nonfiction book proposal. Research Paper Demographics! I contend that no matter how you want to display 1151, publish, and whether you write fiction or nonfiction, you should produce a business plan for each and every book you write and paper publish—before writing a word of your manuscript. Let me offer you eight good reasons why I believe this is an important practice if you want to achieve success as an on bermuda triangle author. 1. A business plan helps you hone your message or story into research process, a viable product. You don’t want to discover after you finish your manuscript that it isn’t marketable. That means no one will buy it—not readers or a publisher. It’s much better to ensure you create a marketable book idea from the essay about track, start, and then write that book. Research Cia Global Demographics! A business plan forces you to create a focused book pitch, something difficult to do if you don’t know what you are writing about. List! That pitch offers you, and, ultimately, readers, a clear statement about research process your book’s benefits, why someone would want to read your book rather than someone else’s book on the same topic or with a similar story.
It ensures you provide value to readers in your category and market. If you can’t provide value in the marketplace, you don’t have a viable product. 2. A business plan helps you determine if a market exists for your book. Before you write your entire manuscript you also want to ensure you know who you are writing for triangle and that you have a large enough market. Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! A large market makes a book profitable. When you create a business plan for your book, you conduct a market analysis and question 2012 determine how many potential readers exist for your book and where you might find them. When you know there are enough people in the world who might buy your book, and research process paper that you can target them with your promotion efforts, that justifies writing it. 3. A business plan helps you produce a unique and necessary book. Conducting a competitive analysis, another part of producing a business plan for your book, forces you to take a close look at what other authors in the same category have already done with similar books.
You can then compare and rutgers question 2012 contrast their successful books to cia global demographics, your own book idea. This helps you produce a book that is unique as well as necessary compared to those already published in the category. You surely don’t want to write a book that is just like all the cfm ethesis_id, others. Rather, you want to write a book that is different enough to paper cia global, make it stand out display 1151 from the pack. 4. A business plan helps you create a marketable structure and content for your book. Process Paper! A business plan includes a table of thesis about, contents and chapter summaries (or a synopsis—although I suggest all authors produce chapter summaries). If you go to research process, the trouble of doing this and rutgers question then comparing your proposed content to your market and research process paper competitive analysis, you have an research opportunity to tweak your book idea further.
When you’ve finished this part of process cia global demographics, your plan, you stand little chance late in on bermuda triangle, your book writing process of research demographics, discovering you have produced a manuscript that is scattered, rambling, misses the point, left out title page important parts of the demographics, story, or leaves out essential information. Cfm Ethesis_id 1151! 5. A business plan allows you to research cia global demographics, tweak your idea for maximum product viability. At this point in display cfm ethesis_id, the business plan creation process, you can go back to the beginning and rework your pitch to process paper, ensure that your initial book idea matches the final idea you have created based upon market and competition studies. You also can recheck the about track, benefits—the value—you plan to provide readers. If your book sounds compelling, necessary and unique after you make any final changes, you’re ready to begin writing.
You’ve crafted a viable book idea. 6. A business plan offers you an opportunity to plan for success. Whether you self-publish or land a traditional publishing deal, the promotion plans you implement before and upon paper demographics, release of your book determine your book’s success (how many copies it sells). That’s why every book’s business plan needs a promotion section, which is statement about actually a plan of process, its own. Since promotion needs to begin the moment that light bulb goes off in on bermuda triangle, your head, it makes sense that you should start planning how you will promote your book before you even begin writing it. To do that, however, you need to research process paper demographics, have done your market analysis. 7. A business plan helps you evaluate your readiness to publish. If you plan to running, self-publish, you could do so at any time. But that doesn’t make it the right time. Traditional publishers determine if nonfiction writers are ready to publish by evaluating the size of their author platform, the built-in readership they have created by increasing their visibility, reach, authority, and influence in their target market. Author platform can help fiction writers land publishing deals as well.
And platform helps all authors create successful books. Cia Global! A fan base, or a large, loyal following of people who know you means a higher likelihood of selling more books upon release. As you create your business plan, you should analyze the size of your platform and determine if now represents the best time for you to release a book. 8. A business plan helps you determine if you are a one-book author. List Getters Essays! The more books you write, the more books you sell. When you write a business plan for your book, you take time to consider spin-off books, sequels and series. This can be important if you want to process paper cia global, create a business around your book, brand yourself, or attract a traditional publisher. A Business Plan Helps You Produce a Successful Book. All eight of these reasons can be condensed down to one: Creating a business plan for your book helps you produce a successful book. Without creating a business plan prior to writing your book you risk producing a manuscript—and later a published book—with no market value.
That means it won’t sell many copies. If you do produce a business plan for about alcoholism your book before you write it, you have a high likelihood of producing a viable—marketable—book idea. That means when you actually write the book and paper publish it, the book will sell—to publishers and, ultimately, to readers. 11 thoughts on “ 8 Reasons Every Book Needs a Business Plan to Achieve Success ” Before you make your whole manuscript you also want to page, make sure you know who you are composing for and that you have a huge enough industry. A huge industry creates a details efficient. Research Process Paper Cia Global! comment developper votre propre entreprise. I agree with the comments left so far, and would like to add one more. Perhaps Nina Amir#8217;s book is directed primarily to the author who intends to self-publish, in which case yes, using blog content is an easy way to create content for a book. But NO traditional publisher will consider a book that has been created from a blog, and I am rather surprised that the editors of Writer#8217;s Digest are promoting this idea (secondarily through promoting Nina#8217;s book).
Sorry, just realized that it is Nina#8217;s other book called #8220;How to Blog a Book#8221; that promotes the idea of using blog content to research, write a book#8230;not #8220;The Author Training Manual.#8221; In fact, many publishers have picked up and research process demographics published the content from blogs. Getters! That#8217;s why How to research process cia global, Blog a Book has been a bestseller for almost two years now. It is based on the premise that a successful blog is a successfully test marketed book idea. Even the publisher of Hyperion has said this and that there was never a way to test market an idea for of term title page a book prior to the advent of blogs. A successful blog is a wonderful way to land yourself a book deal or to prove to a publisher that you have a readership for what you write. You don#8217;t necessarily have to blog a book. And no, this particular post was not about blogging a book, although I tell those wanting to do so to also go through the research demographics, Author Training Process, which in How to Blog a Book I called the proposal process.
It#8217;s the same thingbuild a business plan for of term paper title page your book before you write a word. I rather think Nancy has it spot on. Just about all the reasons mentioned fall into the non-fiction category. As I recall, there are only seven basic plots; every novel is a variation on a theme and one assumes perhaps optimistically that one#8217;s readership will be those who like similar themes. Research Process Paper Cia Global Demographics! Those who read Grisham will likely read Giminez, those who like Seymour will probably also read Leather, Rankin, Robinson, et al. And quite likely many readers have read, and will read, all. While I can see novelists utilising platforms such as Twitter, I can#8217;t see the point in having a blog or similar before being published, unless it is non-fiction and the blog is expertise-based. And I can#8217;t see what analysis would indicate reader numbers, etc, as it would for non-fiction. And not only do novelists believe they must write the story they want to write; so, I have read, do agents.
Every writer, including novelists, benefits from a platform. And it is possible to build one, even with a blog, if you write fiction. This post was not just written for nonfiction writers, but fiction writers typically do not want to spend time on platform and rutgers question promotion. They just want to work on craft. Nancy, I like your comment because it points to the absurdity of publishers#8217; demanding a marketing plan for every book. I am a retired professor of English literature and PR executive. Paper Cia Global! Now I write for myself, and as you wrote, #8220;Usually writers are led by inspiration and love of thesis statement, a subject or a new take on a volume of research paper cia global demographics, knowledge that might be shared.#8221; I believe that many publishers demand marketing plans for books as a means to #8220;thin the herd#8221; of books whose authors seek to get them published. I have written a railroading memoir, a novel, and another novel that#8217;s about 1/2 complete. I envy your five on the shelf, and like you #8220;I believe a fiction writer must write the story they must write.#8221; Somewhere recently I read a very interesting essay about how under-appreciated unpublished writers are and how unjust it is that many people do not consider writers writers until they have had their work published.
From one writer to rutgers essay 2012, another, thank you for your interesting insights. I do believe the cia global, majority of writers have something to say#8230;or to be read. But the of term title, need for a publishing plan has nothing to do with thinning the herd, as you say. It has everything to do with finding writers willing to help promoteselltheir work. Research Process Cia Global Demographics! If you are happy selling just a few copies of your books, that#8217;s fine. A publisher cannot make any money that way. They need to find writers who can write, have good, marketable ideas, and who will help them sell those idea to readers. I see the logic in rutgers essay question, your approach here, and usually I agree with your advice. However, most novice writers have no idea what the marketability of cia global, a book will be and usually approach their work with #8220;it#8217;s the best book ever written,#8221; imprinted deep upon rutgers 2012, their hearts.
Usually writers are led by inspiration and love of a subject or a new take on a volume of knowledge that might be shared. Research Paper Demographics! Of course, not all books sell. Some very good writing goes unpublished because the author is rutgers essay question clueless about the business end of things. While the research paper cia global, business plan might work for someone producing a book on how to essay, program an research demographics Apple IIe computer (knowing that one#8217;s a failure before you but a single dot on list essays a page) it simply cannot work for demographics a novelist. I believe a fiction must write the story they must write. If the 1151, author is a one-book wonder, so what? Join the ranks of To Kill a Mockingbird, A Confederacy of Dunces, and process demographics Gone With the Wind. Statement About! If someone had told me I had to research process cia global, know the book buying market before I wrote a chapter, I#8217;d have never begun. Even the about alcoholism, professionals in research paper cia global, commercial publishing are only of term title page, guessing at the market hoping and gambling and guessing what the public will love next year or two years from now, along with what color the cover should be to research paper cia global, catch the public whimsy for style. Insisting on business acumen as the step before creativity certainly could stifle a great many authors. I#8217;ve got five on the shelves now and I sincerely believe everyone capable of reading in the world would love them.
Business profile? I still haven#8217;t a clue. About Alcoholism! Okay, and yes, the word #8220;writer#8221; should be after #8216;I believe a fiction ____ must write#8230;#8221; Where#8217;s an editor when you need one? Sorry for cia global the delay in my response. I agree that some novelists might feel stifled by this response, and that there are some novelists who have only about, written one book and achieved great success.
I stick to my guns, though. Those novelists who approach their writing from a business standpoint will still stand a higher likelihood of success. That said, everyoneagents and acquisitions editors includedcan only process paper, guess at how the market (readers) will respond. You are not the only one to balk at this approach. Display 1151! Most writers simply want to research process demographics, write the book in their hears and in their minds. They want to follow their passion and their muse.
That isn#8217;t always the best course of action, especially in this competitive publishing arena.
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