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asa essay on racism Racism is race prejudice + power. Origin unknown (ca. 1970) Used by several groups doing antiracism education and training. rac#8226;ism n (1936) 1 : a belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race 2 : racial prejudice or discrimination. Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. [On finding that many white Americans were not prejudiced, and did not harbor hostility or faulty generalizations about other racial groups, but nonetheless resisted change in the nation's racial structure, one sociologist finds?] that racism extends considerably beyond prejudiced beliefs. The essential feature of write racism is not hostility or misperception, but rather the defense of a system from which advantage is thesis theme wordpress derived on write artist the basis of race. The manner in which the defense is articulated - either with hostility or subtlety - is general anesthesis not nearly as important as the artist fact that it insures the continuation of a privileged relationship. Thus it is necessary to broaden the definition of racism beyond prejudice to include sentiments that in their consequence, if not in their intent, support the racial status quo. David T. For The. Wellman. Portraits of White Racism, Second Edition. Write. Racism is a global system of material and symbolic resource distribution management more comprehensively defined, in accordance with each of the following principles: Principle I. Racism is an ideological, structural and historic stratification process by which the population of European descent, through its individual and buy a paper to get school institutional distress patterns, intentionally has been able to sustain, to its own best advantage, the dynamic mechanics of upward or downward mobility (of fluid status assignment) to artist the general disadvantage of the population designated as non-white (on a global scale), using skin color, gender, class, ethnicity or nonwestern nationality as the main indexical criteria used for enforcing differential resource allocation decisions that contribute to decisive changes in relative racial standing in ways most favoring the to get into graduate school populations designated as 'white.'
Principle II. The aim of write artist this peculiar post-1492 stratification process has been to aggregate an upwardly mobile and putatively 'white' racial group that is stratified internally and customize thesis theme that strives to validate its own ascendancy using a shifting last coupon coderange of 'white' cultural practices which are defined as 'white' not on any presumed biological basis, but on the basis of ideological whiteness--a field of racial discourse and representation. How To Write Artist. Principle III. The conceptual content of this historic and politically-charged discursive field is sustained by racial agents who in many ways articulate and justify the suppression of ideological blackness (and every form of non-whiteness this may entail) which may be accomplished by many formal and informal means of institutional domination, routinized interpersonal interactions, cultural imperialism, or by any other racialized means of information control. Principle IV. On Symbolism In Young Goodman Brown. As a generative principle of racism, ideological whiteness refers to a dual behavioral process entailing enactments of identify formation and resource access legitimation, both of which were practices once overtly recognized as aspects of white supremacy, but which now may be more subtly and covertly reproduced as an observable and routine set of implicitly prescriptive, but explicitly disavowed white supremacist beliefs and practices to artist which all who identify as 'white' (or who behave as 'whitened') are expected to adhere--especially white males--if they wish to maintain their own racial standing as members of these two privileged 'white' groups and assert their negotiable right to essay in young privileged resource access. Princple V. Collectively, the how to write 'white' and/or 'whitened' members of this racially privileged global population tend to bolster their shared political intent to general impose patterns of restricted resource access on racially subordinant populations, and aim to preserve their presumably non-negotiable right to prescribe, and how to even dictate, lessor resource 6PM Coupon Code access rights for certain upwardly mobile members of the 'non-white' population whose internalized racism, reliable complicity, and carefully scrutinized willingness to general anesthesis cooperate with racial dominates is always required and rewarded. Dr. Helan Enoch Page. Associate Professor, Anthropology Department. University of Massachusetts-Amherst.
Distributed at the American Anthropological Association, 1993. Updated and extended, 1999. A situation in which one race maintains supremacy over another race through a set of attitudes, behaviors, social structures and ideologies. How To Write. It involves four essential and interconnected elements: Power: the essay on symbolism capacity to make and enforce decisions is disproportionately or unfairly distributed. Resources: unequal access to such resources as money, education, information, etc. Standards: standards for write artist appropriate behavior are ethnocentric, reflecting and privileging the norms and values of the dominant race/society. Problem: involves defining reality by naming the problem incorrectly, and thus misplacing it.
Women's Theological Center, Boston, MA, 1994. Racism - Racism involves physical, psychological, spiritual, and social control, exploitation and subjection of one race by another race. It is the social institutionalization of the psychological concept of structure of traditional White/white supremacy (a man-made ideology of white/White superiority and how to black/Black inferiority). This means that racial discrimination and injustice are established, perpetuated and promoted throughout every institution of society - economics, education, entertainment, family, labor, law, politics, religion, science and war. Racism is personal statement paper also used as an abuse excuse to rationalize violent behavior and inhumane policies toward Melanites.
Melanite/Melanites - Alternative term for the words people of how to write artist color, minorities, and non-whites. Test Essay Questions. Recognizing and Resolving Racism: A Resource and Guide for Humane Beings. an how to artist underlying belief in the superiority of one race over another and its right to dominate. generalizing one group of into people by believing in how to, simplistic stereotypes of that group. affects every aspect of the college for the lives of communities of colour: social, economic, political, health, etc. may take three main forms (though all work together to maintain a system of how to write artist oppression): Individual Racism-individual acts that overtly reflect racist attitudes/beliefs. Theme. This is the easiest one to identify. ie. racial slurs, jokes, etc. Systemic Racism and Institutional Racism-organizational policies and practices at the structural level that indirectly target communities of colour and maintain white privilege. How To Write Artist. Ie. racism in the criminal justice system (police profiling); racism in the educational system (all white authors on for the common app a course reading list.) Cultural Racism-value system that supports and artist allows discriminatory actions against racially and ethnoculturally marginalized communities. Ie. white privilege. Anti-Racism Media Education (ARMEd) Accessed December 20, 2002. Racism - Racial prejudice and discrimination that are supported by institutional power and authority.
The critical element that differentiates racism from prejudice and discrimination is the use of institutional power and authority to support prejudices and enforce discriminatory behaviors in systematic ways with far-reaching outcomes and effects. In the United States, racism is based on the ideology of White (European) supremacy and is used to the advantage of White people and the disadvantage of people of color. Enid Lee, Deborah Menkart and ap psych Margo Okazawa-Rey (eds.) Beyond Heroes and Holidays: A Practical Guide to K-12 Anti-Racist, Multicultural Education and Staff Development. Copyright 2001, 2009. Center for the Study of White American Culture, Inc.
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monopoly essay Published July 12, 2016. Economists overwhelmingly agree that the actual costs of how to write, monopoly are small, even trivial. Essays For The Common App. This consensus is based on a theory that assumes monopolies are well-run businesses that limit their output in order to drive up prices and maximize profit. And because empirical studies have found that monopolists do not restrict output or raise prices by very much, most economists have concluded that monopolies inflict relatively little harm on the economy. In this essay, I review recent research that upends both the theoretical and empirical elements of this consensus view. 2 This research shows that monopolies are not well-run businesses, but instead are deeply inefficient. Monopolies do drive up prices, as conventional theory suggests, but because they also reduce productivity, they often ultimately destroy most of an industry’s profits. These productivity losses are a dead weight loss for how to, the economy, and far from trivial. The new research also shows that monopolists typically increase prices by using political machinery to limit the output of competing productsusually by blocking low-cost substitutes. By limiting supply of these competing products, the structure of traditional essay monopolist drives up demand for write, its own.
Thus, in contrast to buy a personal to get into conventional theory, the monopolist actually produces more of its own product than it would in a competitive market, not less. But because production of the substitutes is restricted, total output falls. The reduction in productivity exacts a toll on all of society. But the how to write blocking of low-cost substitutes particularly harms the poor, who might not be able to afford the monopolist’s product. Thus, monopolies drive the poor out of many markets. In this essay, I first review the standard theory of monopoly that contends it inflicts little harm, and then I introduce a new theory that refutes that view. In this new theory, groups within monopolies act as both adversaries that reduce productivity and allies that eliminate substitutes. The new theory thus demonstrates that monopolies in fact cause substantial economic harm, and that harm falls disproportionately on people with fewer financial resources.
I then provide several historical examples of college essays for the, monopolies from how to write artist my own research and customize thesis wordpress, that of others. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups in their role as adversaries in how to artist, the sugar, cement and construction industries. I’ll discuss monopoly subgroups acting as allies in the dental and structure essay, legal industries. But I want to emphasize that in all monopolies, subgroups engage in both roles. I’ll also take a fresh look at a familiar example of a monopoly, U.S. Steel, showing how subgroups acted as both adversaries and allies. These few examples are illustrative only and provide a narrow glimpse of how to write artist, a far broader economic phenomenon: Monopolies are prevalent in of traditional, the U.S. (and international) economy. The conclusion summarizes this analysis and write artist, provides historical perspective for future efforts.
In the standard theory of monopoly found in general, textbooks, the monopolist is a single seller of a good who increases his or her price above competitive levels, leading to how to artist reduced output. The key cost of monopoly is the restriction of industry production. Structure Essay. Two basic assumptions, or tenets, underlie this theory. One assumption is that monopolists produce efficiently and maximize profits. This tenet is based on logic, not evidence. Artist. Nobel Laureate George Stigler 3 provides one rendition of this logic: “The goal of efficiency is pervasive in economic life, where efficiency means producing and selling goods at buy a statement paper graduate school the lowest possible cost (and therefore the largest possible profit).
This goal is sought as vigorously by monopolists as by competitors” (1988, pp. 162-63). Another assumption is that monopolists have close substitutes. Artist. This tenet is primarily based on logic, not evidence. Again, Stigler makes the case, arguing that “it is virtually impossible to eliminate competition from economic life. If a firm buys up all of its rivals, new rivals will appear. Statement To Get Graduate. If the state gives away monopoly privileges there will emerge a strong competition in how to, the political area for these plums” (1988, p.164). The consensus view that monopolies inflict little actual damage on customize thesis theme, society has dominated the economics literature since the seminal work by University of write artist, Chicago economist Arnold Harberger (1954).
Applying the standard model to historical data, he calculated that monopolies do not restrict output or drive up prices by very much, so that their actual costs are small. This quickly became the accepted view. But the primary source of support from economists comes not from the empirical results, but from the theory’s compelling logic. In the following sections, the logic and ap psych test essay questions, empirical results are challenged by a new view. There is a key implicit assumption buried in the standard theory of monopoly. Not only are monopolists single sellers, but they also produce the artist goods by themselves . That is, the monopolist (and perhaps clones or mindless automatons) staffs all of the structure essay machines, all of the phones, all of the processes involved in producing the good.
Stated differently, in this abstraction, there are no heterogeneous groups comprising various individuals or interests and, hence, no frictions that might lead to low productivity. Monopolists have every incentive to be productive (as do their clones or automatons). This implicit abstraction of monopolies being one-person operations has led the economics profession to miss very significant problems with monopoly. Close study reveals that monopolies are in fact composed of many subgroups, and it is the interplay among these groups that leads to low productivity and the elimination of substitutes. Sometimes these subgroups have interests that do not align, and they act as adversaries . Sometimes their interests align well, and they act as allies . When a monopoly forms, it stops competition from the outside. But this naturally leads to significant competition inside the monopoly, as subgroups fight among themselves over new opportunities afforded by the monopoly. That is, subgroups act as adversaries , and this often reduces productivity. This competition among subgroups within the monopolyfor better pay, working conditions or decision-making poweroften threatens to write tear the monopoly apart.
To survive, the subgroups agree to find ways to limit internal competition. Mechanisms are introducedcall them competition-reducing mechanismsthat enable subgroups to credibly commit to not compete. General Anesthesis. An example might include a worker subgroup demanding a work rule that forbids other workers from performing “their” particular task. But these mechanisms come at a high cost: reduced productivity. How To Write Artist. The standard assumption that monopolies are efficient producers is college common app, undermined. But the new view of monopoly contains another key element: monopolist subgroups acting as allies to write eliminate substitutes from competitors external to the monopoly.
Consider the logic of close substitutes. Politically adept monopolies (as they are de facto since the large majority of monopolies result from special privileges granted by the government) often use their political influence to weaken or destroy existing substitutes for thesis theme, their product. Entrepreneurs may be well aware of the monopolist’s political power and thereby be discouraged from how to developing substitutes. General Anesthesis. Lastly, imagine what types of substitutes a monopoly might try to weaken or eliminate. Write Artist. It would not go after those with broad political support. Rather, it would target those with little support, those purchased by politically disadvantaged low-income segments of the anesthesis population.
A few examples of how to write, monopolies that reduce productivity and kill substitutes. As just mentioned, subgroups within monopolies act as adversaries and allies. Adversarial relationships often reduce a monopoly’s productivity substantially. When subgroups act as allies, their joint goal is often to buy a graduate school eliminate products that might otherwise compete with theirs. While subgroups in any monopoly engage in both adversarial and cooperative actions, I’ll discuss separate examples of how to artist, each in this section. Adversaries: Reducing productivity. I’ll start by looking at some adversarial relationships. In the United States, the common sugar cartel, cement industry and construction business provide excellent examples of subgroups within monopolies acting as adversaries and reducing productivity. During the Great Depression, the how to write sugar manufacturing industry was one of many industries permitted to form a cartel as part of New Deal economic policy (see Bridgman, Qi and Schmitz 2015). In exchange for this permission, the industry agreed to general sell sugar at write artist a “fair” price. General. In addition, members of the industry, including factory owners and how to artist, incumbent farmers, drafted a joint plan (subject to essay on symbolism in young goodman brown government approval) for artist, how the customize thesis theme wordpress cartel would meet price targets and write, share cartel profits.
The cartel allocated sales quotas to factories each year so as to hit the agreed-upon price target, a price in line with the agreement with the federal government. This cartel operated from 1934 to 1974. There were many adversarial relationships within the sugar industry that led to cartel rules beyond the personal statement paper to get into factory sales quotas. These additional rules greatly lowered productivity, as well as productivity growth. One such example: conflict between farmers and factory owners. Just as factory owners wanted and how to, received sales quotas, farmers demanded and got quotas on the number of acres used to grow sugar crops. The acre quotas were not a mechanism to control sugar prices; the factory sales quotas served this purpose.
Rather, they were a mechanism to ensure that incumbent farmers received a share of the monopoly profits. Without the of traditional acre quotas, for example, firms could have moved their factories beyond the geographic range of incumbent farmers. How To Write. It was this adversarial relationship between factories and farmers that led to acre quotas. Sugar-producing states were also locked in adversarial relationships, most notably by “stealing” manufacturing industries from each other, a common practice that goes back to buy a personal statement paper to get graduate the late 1800s. How To Write. So some cartel subgroups, in particular, local and state authorities, had the general anesthesis incentive to push for limits on the renting of quotas, whereby acre quotas could be traded only within counties. Ultimately, they succeeded in including such rules in the cartel agreement. These cartel rules led to how to write large productivity losses.
When the cartel was started in 1934, California and customize theme, Colorado were the biggest beet-sugar-producing states, while Minnesota and North Dakota were very small producers. Write Artist. After World War II, the opportunity cost of land and (irrigated) water in Colorado and California grew much faster than in, say, Minnesota and North Dakota. Because cartel rules prohibited farmers from buy a statement graduate renting their quotas beyond the local area, however, quota rights could not flow from, say, California to North Dakota, where additional acres would have been more profitable. How To Write. The result was tremendous inefficiency, as the opportunity cost of inputs used to produce a given quantity of sugar in California was much greater than that in North Dakota. The same thing happened where sugar cane was grown.
When the sugar cartel started, Louisiana was a large cane producer, but Florida had barely begun its cane crop, and so received a very small quota. After WWII, the profit of the marginal farmer in thesis, Florida began growing much faster than that of his or her counterpart in Louisiana but, again, quotas could not move to write Florida, where production would have been more profitable. Quotas also led to slower productivity growth by eliminating the incentive to find ways to increase output by, for example, increasing the period during which factories can operate during the year. Indeed, the sugar industry’s factory-operating days have increased dramatically in the United States since the cartel ended. The U.S. cement industry provides another good case study of adversaries within a monopoly. 4. During the 1950s, a powerful union, the United Cement, Lime and Gypsum Workers International Union (CLGW, for short) had a near-monopoly on the supply of labor to the industry. Again, there were many adversarial relationships among subgroups. One was between different groups of ap psych essay, workers. Because the workers were earning very high wages, there was potentially severe competition for jobs.
Hence, groups of workers fought for rules that would secure their jobs from how to write artist competition from other workers. Anesthesis. For example, union contracts had rules such as: “When the Finish Grind Department is artist, completely down for buy a personal statement paper to get, repairs, the write artist Company will not use Repairmen assigned to the Clinker Handling Department on repairs in the Finish Grind Department.” 5 No detailed knowledge of buy a personal paper to get school, cement plants is needed to understand that this rule was meant to protect the repair jobs in the Finish Grind Department. This rule enabled workers to credibly commit to not compete with each other. This rule, and many others like it, not only protected jobs, but led to underutilization of capital. 6 Such rules led to write artist a waste of resources, like energy. 7 Such mechanisms, sometimes called restrictive work practices, led to significant reductions in industry productivity. Other restrictive work practices resulted from adversarial relationships between workers and managers. After the CLGW negotiated a big wage increase in the early 1960s, managers invested in on symbolism in young, larger, labor-saving machines that led to write significant job losses.
Unions reacted by demanding a 1965 rule that prohibited managers from firing workers made redundant as a result of new investment, new ways of organizing production and so on. Managers agreed to buy a statement to get school the union demand, but this restrictive work practice significantly reduced productivity. Write Artist. One would expect this rule to have dulled investment incentives and, indeed, there is evidence of theme, a dip in write, investment in the late 1960s. But the energy crisis of the 1970s hit the cement industry hard, and the industry responded by making big investments in new, energy-efficient machinery. The new machines were also more labor-efficient, but managers abided by ap psych questions, their earlier commitment not to how to artist reduce employment. Hence, large productivity gains were repeatedly sacrificed to preserve peace between adversaries.
When foreign competition rocked the industry in the 1980s, the landscape changed. Cement factory managers were no longer committed to the rules they had agreed to with the CLGW. The industry was able to expand its output and reduce its workforce; labor productivity soared. The gains that were missed in the 1970s were enjoyed in goodman, the 1980s. Construction: Size is artist, not the issue. Discussion of monopoly typically conjures up images of giant corporations and giant manufacturing establishments, like U.S. Steel and its massive factories. But, in fact, the structure essay size of the monopolist’s operation does not correlate with its destructive impact.
Monopolies consisting of small units, operating on a small scale, also do great damage. 8. Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis found this to how to artist be true 90 years ago in dealing with the Chicago construction industry. He described an industry in turmoil: “It is the violation of no confidence to say that building construction has gotten into bad repute in this community. There was a general disposition to keep away from it as a thing diseased. Capital avoided it. The wise dollar preferred almost any other form of activity or no activity” (Montgomery 1926, p. 273). To address these serious problems in Chicago construction, Landis was appointed to arbitrate wage disputes (Montgomery 1926). Ap Psych Essay. But Landis felt that if he was to do his job well, he needed to how to write also analyze the work rules in the industry. This surprised and scared most of the parties involved.
Landis also knew that the work rules contained in the contracts were the tip of the iceberg, so he spent a considerable amount of time going out to jobs, talking with the workers and investigating the situation firsthand (p. 270). He concluded that while high wages were an issue, “The real malady lurked in a maze of conditions artificially created to give parties a monopoly, and in rules designed to produce waste for the mere sake of waste; all combined to general anesthesis bring about an insufferable situation, not the least burdensome element of which was the jurisdictional dispute between trade-union members of the same parent organization” (p. 273). The waste he reported is how to write artist, with us still (Schmitz 2016). I can also apply these ideas to nonindustrial markets not usually thought of as pervaded by monopoly, such as the markets for professional services. Buy A Statement Into Graduate. Although these markets are made up of thousands of independent professionals, these professionals band together to act as a cartel, a monopoly composed of many separate business entities. I will show that the write artist problems of in young goodman brown, monopolylow productivity and the elimination of low-cost substituteshave permeated these markets as well. Indeed, the problems created by these monopolies are particularly pernicious because they limit the supply of low-cost substitutes for how to, high-priced professional services.
For example, lawyers limit the provision of inexpensive legal advice by paralegals, and dentists limit the provision of low-cost fillings by dental therapists. These limitations are not too harmful to the rich. But for those with low income, such restrictions make legal advice and dental care unavailable. They are priced out of the market. Again, the costs of monopoly are inflicted disproportionately on the poor. Subgroups in a monopoly are not necessarily adversaries. Indeed, they may act as allies when they try to eliminate competition from substitute products. Of Traditional. Consider, for example, the dental industry. There are many thousands of dentists, but they coordinate their actions through state dental associations.
While these associations may have some public benefit, such as continuing professional education, they also act like a cartel, finding ways to increase the price of their members’ services. They do so in how to artist, a way that also increases the demand for on symbolism goodman, their services. One service dentists provide is write, filling cavities. In many countries, dental nurses or dental therapists, as they are called, are trained to provide these services, most often in school-based programs for children. 9 In the United States, dental therapists have been vigorously opposed by dentists, with a few exceptions, including the native villages of Alaska and the state of Minnesota.
The impact of these cartel restrictions is profound. Dental therapists require less training than dentists and so are able to college essays for the common provide basic services at a lower cost. Blocking these mid-level providers significantly increases the price of filling cavities, and low-income people may be forced to go without basic dental care. The debate over dental therapists in the United States is not over. Since Minnesota authorized the licensure of write, dental therapists in 2009, Maine and Vermont have passed similar laws. A number of states are considering similar measures, despite stiff opposition from state dental associations.
The laws often require that dental therapists work under the direct supervision of dentists, ostensibly for the protection of patients, but the arrangement also protects dentists from competing directly with dental therapists operating independently. In most health markets, monopolies restrict or kill low-cost substitutes. For example, in general anesthesis, the hearing aid industry, audiologists, who have Ph.D.s, often put tremendous entry restrictions on hearing aid fitters. The fitters are less skilled, but are perfectly capable of most work. Again, the poor are hurt by this. This same analysis applies to how to write many other types of services.
Lawyers introduce statutes to prevent the “unlawful practice of law.” Essentially, lawyers don’t allow anyone who is not a member of the bar to provide legal advice, so paralegals are not allowed to operate independently. On Symbolism. Again, low-income people suffer the most from how to lack of access to lower-cost alternatives. In the construction industry, unions block the use of structure essay, preassembled parts on construction sites. This eliminates a close substitute: factory assembly. Again, this hurts the poor the artist most, as they buy houses that use such materials. Schmitz (2016) provides many more industries and of traditional essay, much more analysis. Adversaries and allies: Low productivity, few substitutes. U.S. Steel is often cited as a classic example of a monopoly.
The company controlled a large share of the steel business and used this control to drive up prices. But it is also a good example of the new theory, illustrating the bigger picture of the costs its monopoly imposes on the economy. The monopoly’s subgroups act both as adversaries that reduce productivity and as allies that eliminate competition from substitute products. The U.S. Steel monopoly was composed of many subgroups, including shareholders, managers and hourly employees, as well as the United Steel Workers of America, the union that organized the entire steel workforce. I’ll sometimes refer to the monopoly as the write USS-USW monopoly. In some settings, these groups were fierce adversaries. In others, they were strong allies.
Consider their adversarial roles. Given that the monopoly was generating significant profits, at least at first, subgroups had an incentive to ap psych test increase their share of the pie and how to write artist, certainly to of traditional essay protect their share from artist other subgroups. The subgroups developed mechanisms to protect their share of profits, mechanisms that essentially committed the ap psych groups to artist not compete with each other. Theme Wordpress. Unions and management agreed on restrictive work rules that helped to protect jobs, but led to how to artist inefficient production. Executives ignored technological innovations, such as continuous casting of steel, that could have produced steel at much lower cost, but would have disrupted the bargain between the firm and its workers. All of these compromises between adversaries harmed the college common company’s productivityand because the company so dominated the steel industry, the entire industry was less productive as a result. Next consider the subgroups in their roles as allies.
The competitive vacuum that allowed the USS-USW monopoly to survive while being unproductive was no accident. Indeed, it was a situation that USS-USW worked hard to create and maintain. The issue is not merely that U.S. Steel bought up and maintained control of competing steel companies within the United States, as monopolists always do, or that the USW successfully organized the entire steel workforce. If subgroups USS and USW had done only those two things, they still would have faced significant competition from foreign firmscompetition that would have forced them to how to raise productivity and college essays, take on new, better technology. But USS-USW used its political clout to lobby for tariffs that protected it from foreign competition.
That is, U.S. Steel worked to restrict the output of foreign steel, a close substitute for steel made domestically. These restrictions meant that the demand for domestic steel was higher than it would have been otherwise, allowing U.S. Write Artist. Steel to increase its output, even as it increased prices. These artificially inflated prices injured any U.S. buyer of steelbe it a car manufacturer or an oil drillerand ultimately hurt the structure consumer. For decades, the theoretical understanding and empirical analysis of monopoly have themselves been monopolized by a dominant paradigmthat the how to artist costs of monopoly are trivial. This blindness to common new theory and analysis has impeded economists’ understanding of the how to actual harm caused by monopoly. Rather than inflicting little actual damage, adversarial relationships within monopolies have significantly reduced productivity and economic welfare. Structure Of Traditional. And in write artist, many industries, subgroups within monopolies collaborate to eliminate competition from anesthesis low-cost substitutes. This lack of competition in write artist, the marketplace has a disproportionate impact on poor citizens who might otherwise find low-cost services that would meet their needs.
I’ve described this as a “new” theory, but in truth its roots go back decades, to the ideas of Thurman Arnold. Arnold ran the customize thesis wordpress Antitrust Division at how to write artist the Department of structure, Justice from how to write artist 1938 to 1943, taking aim at a broad range of in young goodman brown, targets, from how to automakers to Hollywood movie producers to essay the American Medical Association. 10 He argued that lack of write artist, competition reduced productivity and that monopolies crushed low-cost substitutes, hurting the poor. Arnold supported his arguments through intensive real-world research. He and his staff undertook detailed investigations of monopolies, examining the on-site operations of many industries and documenting the productivity losses and destruction of substitutes caused by monopoly. Arnold began his work at a pivotal timein the midst of the anesthesis Great Depression, just after the how to write artist United States had experimented with the cartelization of its economy. Faith in competitive markets had reached such a low that cartels and monopolies were thought to be, perhaps, better alternatives. His work and into, ideas played a big role in reinvigorating confidence in competitive markets. He mounted an aggressive campaign to how to artist protect society from monopoly.
The campaign had two parts: forceful prosecution of monopoly through the courts, accompanied by an array of speeches and articles to educate the general public about anesthesis its costs. Economists gradually forgot Arnold and artist, his ideas, convinced by Harberger’s empirical work and the introspection of economists, leading to, for example, the logic provided by Stigler and others. Scholars and regulators who studied monopolies focused on prices alone and found little to worry about. But as shown by paper graduate, the research reviewed in this essayand an expanding body of empirical workthe problems caused by monopoly are significant, and still pervasive. My hope is that this paper will open a new era of discussion about monopoly and its costs, and ultimately lead policymakers to encourage greater competition for the benefit of all. 1 The author thanks Ann Harrington for her valuable suggestions on the content and organization of this essay. The views expressed here are those of the author, not necessarily those of others in the Federal Reserve System. 2 Schmitz (2016) contains more detailed discussion and references to the material in this article. 3 Stigler (1988) presents the how to familiar logic behind this assumption. 4 The history of this industry, and the rise and fall of monopoly in for the, it, is beautifully described in Northrup (1990).
A quantitative analysis, on which the how to write artist following discussion is based, can be found in Dunne, Klimek and Schmitz (2016) 5 Quoted from the test essay Voice (Oct. 1978, p. 86), a monthly publication of the CLGW union. 6 Machinery in the Finish Grind department was idle (broken) for longer than was necessary. Machines in other departments also may have had to be slowed. 7 Kiln fuel was being burned even if the plant was not able to how to write artist produce cement.
8 For Thurman Arnold, who directed the ap psych essay questions Antitrust operations of the write artist Justice Department from ap psych test essay 1938 to 1943, size was not the decisive factor in how to, determining a monopoly, but whether the monopoly reduced efficiency. Bridgman, Ben, Shi Qi, James A. Schmitz Jr. 2015. “Cartels Destroy Productivity: Evidence from the New Deal Sugar Manufacturing Cartel, 1934-74.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report 519. Dunne, Tim, Shawn Klimek, James A. Schmitz Jr. 2016. “Monopoly Stifles Productivity, Competition Spurs It: Evidence From Post WWII U.S. General. Cement Manufacturing.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Harberger, Arnold C. 1954. “Monopoly and Resource Allocation.” American Economic Review 44 (2): 77-87. Kolasky, William. 2013. “Thurman Arnold: An American Original.” Antitrust 27 (3): 91-92. Montgomery, Royal E. 1926. “The Landis Arbitration and Award.” University Journal of Business (University of Chicago Press) 4 (3): 260-93.
Northrup, Herbert R. 1990. “From Union Hegemony to Union Disintegration: Collective Bargaining in how to artist, Cement and Related Industries.” Journal of Labor Research 11 (3): 360. Schmitz, James A. Jr. 2016. “The Costs of Monopoly are Large and Inflicted Disproportionately on the Poor.” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Staff Report, forthcoming. Stigler, George J. For The App. 1988. How To Write Artist. Memoirs of an of traditional essay, Unregulated Economist . University of Chicago Press.
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essays go college Each summer, Putney students push themselves out of their comfort zones and into how to artist new environments all around the world. These experiences have a profound impact on test essay questions, students’ development and direction after high school, and write many students choose to write about an aspect of their Putney experience when composing their essays for college admission. We are proud of the following selection of essays by Putney travelers, all of which demonstrate that a Putney experience resonates well beyond the struggle to put together a strong college application. Essay Questions. Happy reading, and best of luck to all of how to write artist, our graduating seniors! Greta’s College Essay: Leaving the Nest. Greta W., a senior at Chadron High School in Chadron, Nebraska, has a true passion for expanding her travel horizons. In one of her college admission essays she explains the genesis of this impulse and talks about the ap psych, challenges and kindnesses she experienced during. Ellis’ College Essay: Connecting Vermont and write Rural India.
Ellis L, a high school senior from the U-32 school in Montpelier, VT, traveled on general anesthesis, our Community Service Tanzania program last summer and how to artist our Global Action India trip in 2015. Here he shares his eloquent college essay about general connections he made with students at the. Nhi’s College Essay: Writing in Ireland. Nhi P. participated in Putney's Writing in Ireland program last summer and, in the words of one of her leaders, is write . a great writer, a creative thinker, and a true all-star. Buy A School. unassuming at first, but she packs a wallop! We enjoyed reading about how Nhi's time in. Quynh’s College Essay: Lessons From Paris. Quynh T., a senior at how to write artist the Preuss School in buy a personal to get graduate, San Diego, CA, joined Putney's City in how to write, Focus: Paris program last summer. Her leaders describe her as a bright light, and a very talented artist [who]. Structure. comports herself with poise and how to maturity beyond her years.
As you can. Luke’s College Essay: Returning to Vietnam. For Luke K. his Community Service in college for the common, Vietnam program wasn't the write, first time he was back to his birth country, but working alongside Vietnamese families to build compassion houses in Duc Lan Village gave him a new perspective on in young goodman brown, his heritage and a live connection to. Isabel’s College Essay: Re-Examining The Purpose of Religion. Isabel M., a senior at Rhinebeck High School in New York, was recently accepted to the University of Michigan.
She shared her college admission essay with us, reflecting on her time spent on write artist, Putney's Community Service in Tanzania program. In Young Goodman Brown. Isabel says: One of my. Paloma’s College Essay: Cultural Exploration Cuba. Paloma S., a Hewitt School senior, traveled with Putney on our Cultural Exploration Cuba program last summer. She recently shared her college essay with us about her experience. We were impressed by Paloma’s insightful words as she describes her connection with the. Becca’s College Essay: Cultural Exploration Cuba. Becca T., a high school senior at San Francisco Waldorf High School, traveled with us on our Cultural Exploration Cuba program last summer. Check out Becca’s college essay on her connection with the artist, people and culture of in young goodman, Cuba. Thank you for sharing your work with us. As part of how to artist, his college application, Daniel D. wrote an essay about his experience on general, our program in Rwanda.
We loved reading Daniel’s piece, where he explores finding a sense of artist, identity through his travels. A senior at Yorktown High School, Daniel will be taking a. We loved reading this college essay from Calder M., a current senior at structure of traditional Springside Chestnut Hill Academy. Calder traveled with us to Vietnam in 2014 and to how to write Dominica in 2013. Calder wrote her essay about art and finding inspiration in Vietnam. Although Calder hasn't. Kate’s College Essay: Community Service Ecuador. Kate K., a senior at structure essay Holy Innocents' Episcopal School, traveled with us on our Community Service Ecuador the Galapagos program last summer. Artist. Kate recently shared this essay with us about the strong friendships she formed with her Putney group, and the climb up. Richard’s College Essay: Community Service Peru.
Richard L. Thesis. recently shared his college admission essay inspired by his experience last summer on our high school community service program in Peru. We loved reading Richard’s piece, where he reflects on how to write artist, the strong friendships he formed in Peru. Richard is a senior at. Jenni’s College Essay: Community Service India. Congratulations to Jenni P., an alumna from our high school community service program in India, on her acceptance to structure essay Sarah Lawrence College! Jenni is a senior this year at Fiorello H. LaGuardia High School. One component of how to write artist, Jenni’s college application was this essay.
Matthew’s Essay: Community Service Tanzania. We wanted to structure essay share this essay by Community Service Tanzania alumnus and Heathwood Hall Episcopal School student Matthew Q. A junior this year, Matt used this essay based on his experience in Tanzania for his application to a summer program at the University of. Kate’s College Essay: Community Service Costa Rica. Kate Fahy traveled with us on our summer community service program in artist, Costa Rica. A graduating senior at Massapequa High School this year, Kate wrote this essay on her time in her Costa Rica community service village. Statement Graduate. We enjoyed her reflections on cross-cultural. Emily’s College Essay: Community Service Costa Rica. Emily I. traveled with us on our Community Service Costa Rica program last summer and will be attending the University of Wisconsin-Madison this fall. A senior at write Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, Emily’s college essay focuses on her bond with her fellow Putney. Congratulations to Dzenan C., Maine East High School senior and an alumnus of our summer program in Ladakh and the Indian Himalaya, on his acceptance to Colgate University in Hamilton, New York!
Dzenan wrote one of his college admissions essays on his powerful. Arielle’s College Essay: Language Learning Spain. Arielle F., a Wayland High School senior, traveled with Putney on theme, our Language Learning Spain program in how to write, partnership with the Wayland School last spring. She recently shared her college essay with us about her experience. We were impressed by Arielle’s insightful.
Gracie’s College Essay: Community Service Rwanda. Gracie Callaghan of Norwich, Vermont, traveled with Putney on our high school summer community service program to structure of traditional Rwanda in 2013. She recently shared her college essay with us about her experience. In Gracie's words, I was really inspired by my trip to Rwanda in. Congratulations to Madison Welker, an alumna of our summer community service program in Rwanda, on her acceptance to how to write artist Lehigh University, Elon University, Tulane University, Colby College, Loyala University Maryland, University of Maryland College Park, University of. Claudia’s College Essay: Pre-College Spain. Claudia, a high school senior from Massachusetts, traveled with us on our Pre-College Madrid and thesis wordpress Pre-College Barcelona programs in 2013. Congratulations Claudia on her acceptance to how to the University of Michigan, New York University, Boston University, University of. Kate’s College Essay: Community Service Ecuador. Kate Green, of in young goodman, Stonington, Connecticut, traveled with us on our summer community service program in Ecuador.
A graduating senior at the Marine Science Magnet High School, Kate wrote this essay on her time in Ecuador and the Galapagos. We enjoyed her reflections on. Grace’s College Essay: Community Service Costa Rica. We loved this college essay on the strong group bonds formed on our high school community service program from St. Anne’s Belfield School senior Grace Culver. How To. Grace traveled with us on our summer program in Costa Rica, and was accepted to the University of structure essay, Virginia. Zoe’s College Essay: Community Service India. Congratulations to Zoe Nelson, an alumna from our high school community service program in India, on her acceptance to Georgetown University! Zoe, from write artist Montclair, New Jersey, is buy a to get graduate school finishing up her senior year at Stratton Mountain School.
One component of Zoe’s stellar. Olivia’s College Essay: Language Learning Ecuador. Olivia Landau, of Memphis, Tennessee, recently shared her college admission essay inspired by her experience last summer on our high school language and community service program in write, Ecuador and the Galapagos. We loved reading Olivia’s piece, where she reflects on the. Zorica’s Essay: Community Service Ghana. Zorica Radanovic, a senior at brown Maine East High School in how to write artist, Park Ridge, Illinois, traveled with us on our Community Service Ghana program last summer. Zorica recently shared this essay with us about the strong friendships she formed with the students at ap psych test the Trinity Yard. William’s College Essay: Community Service Fiji. We loved reading this college essay from William Fox, a current senior at Riverwood High School in Atlanta, Georgia.
William traveled with us on our Community Service Fiji program last summer, and wrote this essay about his experience and the strong friendships he. Emma’s College Essay: Community Service Costa Rica. As part of her college application, Emma Link wrote an how to, essay about her experience on our Community Service Costa Rica program. We loved reading Emma’s piece, where she explores women’s roles in Costa Rica. A senior at Miss Porter’s School, Emma will be studying in. Karla’s College Essay: Language Learning China. Karla Rondon, of customize theme, Littleton, Colorado, recently shared this college essay with us on her experience navigating culinary delicacies as a student on our high school summer language program in China. We loved reading this essay, which includes the valiant consumption of. Lucy’s College Essay: Community Service Peru.
Lucy Caine recently shared with us this college essay on kinship and how to write artist service. A senior at St. Ignatius College Preparatory in San Francisco, California, Lucy spent last summer with us on our high school community service program in essay, Peru. Congratulations to Lucy, and. Emily’s College Essay: Community Service Dominica. Emily Perlman of Sands Point, NY, wrote one of her college essays on her experience on our summer community service program in Dominica.
Her essay describes stepping outside of her comfort zone, adjusting her perspective, and write artist making connections with the community. Congratulations to Jake Beeber! As part of his application, Jake wrote this essay on his experience on our Community Service Rwanda program. For The. A senior at Morristown-Beard School in New Jersey, Jake will be headed to Tulane University in the fall! The exotic tastes and.
Manon’s College Essay: Pre-College Amherst. Manon C. came to artist the United States last summer as a participant on our summer Pre-College program at Amherst College. A French high school student from Beaulieu Sur Mer, Manon speaks English as a second language, and broadened her language ability as well as her. Olivia’s College Essay: Global Action India. We loved reading this college essay from Olivia Mason, a current senior at The Master's School in Dobbs Ferry, New York. Olivia traveled with us on our high school summer program in India in 2013, and wrote this essay about her experience there. She'll be headed to. Michael’s College Essay: India #038; Rwanda. Michael Leonard, a senior at the Hackley School in Tarrytown, New York, is a two-time Putney Student Travel Global Awareness in essay on symbolism in young goodman, Action alum.
In 2012, he traveled with us on how to write, our summer public health program in Rwanda. Just his past summer, he spent a month focusing on. Congratulations to Rachel Jones, an alumna of our high school summer program in Spain, on her acceptance to Smith College, Wellesley College, Williams College and Swarthmore College! Rachel is customize theme a current senior at Hamden High School in Hamden, CT. One component of.
We loved this college essay on forgiveness and peace in Cambodia from West Mendham High School Senior Patrick Sprouls. Patrick traveled with us on our high school summer program in Cambodia, and will be headed to write Ithaca College in the fall. We hope you're as inspired. Seth’s College Essay: Community Service Tanzania. Seth Sholk, of Stevenson, Maryland, traveled with us on our summer community service program in Tanzania. A current junior at Beth Tfiloh Dahan Community School, Seth wrote this essay on his time in Tanzania as a practice college essay for college for the his applications next year. Congratulations to Madeline Hopper on her recent acceptance into Colgate University! Madeline, a senior at Riverdale Country School in New York City, traveled with us on our public health and development program in how to write, Rwanda in 2012. Her leaders described her as a gem. Congratulations to Madison Bailey, an alumna of our summer community service program in Tanzania, on her acceptance to Colgate University!
Madison is a current senior at ap psych test questions the Shipley School in Pennsylvania, and she wrote one of write artist, her college admissions essays on a. Alex’s College Essay: Farm to Table in Italy. Congratulations to anesthesis Alex Meade of Boca Raton Florida on his acceptance to Dartmouth College! Alex, who traveled with us on how to write, our 2013 Farm-to-Table program in common, Italy, wrote one of his admissions essays on his experience on artist, the farm, in the kitchen, and at the butcher's in. Ming’s College Essay: Community Service Ecuador. Read this terrific college essay by Ming Congdon, an alumni of our summer community service program in Ecuador. Ming is a senior at Champlain Valley Union High School in Charlotte, VT, and ap psych test essay this essay on how to, tradition and cultural connections in Ecuador was part of her. Liza’s College Essay: Community Service Ecuador.
Liza David, a current senior at anesthesis Indian Hill High School in Cincinnati, Ohio, recently shared this college essay she wrote on her experience in Chilcapamba, Ecuador. Liza traveled with us on our Ecuador community service program, and made a lasting connection with her. Emily’s College Essay: Pre-College at how to Amherst College. Emily, a current junior at Edward R. Essays For The. Murrow High School in Brooklyn, New York, participated in our pre-college enrichment program at Amherst College last summer. She recently shared this new writing project of hers, inspired by her wonderful friends and memories from. Gabby’s College Essay: Teaching Pants in Ghana. Gabby, a senior at Fox Lane High School in Pound Ridge, New York, traveled with us on two different summer community service programs abroad. She spent the how to write, summer of ap psych questions, 2011 on our summer community service program in Vietnam and 2012 on our volunteer trip to how to Ghana.
This. Aliya’s College Essay: Community Service in Costa Rica. Aliya, a senior at Weber High School in Atlanta, Georgia, traveled on our high school community service program in Costa Rica this past summer. She submitted a collection of customize, excerpts from her summer journal as one of her essays for college admission. The prompt: Write. Roderick’s College Essay: Volunteering in Senegal. Roderick traveled with us on our high school summer community service program in Senegal in 2011. A current senior at Camden High School in Camden, South Carolina, he will be attending Wofford College in the fall. The essay below, about building bricks during his. Katherine’s College Essay: Communicating in India. Katherine, from how to write Durango, Colorado, traveled on our high school summer volunteer program in India last summer.
A senior at The Hotchkiss School, she wrote the following essay on cross-cultural communication and language as part of her college application. She'll be. Daniel’s College Essay: Assumptions. Daniel, a sophomore at Trevor Day School in New York City, traveled with us on our high school language program in France in 2012. College Essays For The Common App. He recently shared this essay with us about his experience with his French homestay family.
By the write artist, end of my stay in Colmar, France. Hailey’s College Essay: Gender in Cambodia. Hailey traveled with us on buy a personal statement paper to get into graduate, our high school summer program in Cambodia in how to write artist, 2012, focusing on gender and the arts in a country recovering from the devastating effects of essay, genocide. How To Write. She recently shared this college essay she wrote about her high school summer program. Lea’s College Essay: Volunteering in Costa Rica. Lea, a senior at Chase Collegiate School in West Hartford, Connecticut, traveled on customize theme wordpress, two of our summer programs abroad. She spent the summer of how to artist, 2008 on our program in customize theme wordpress, Costa Rica for middle school students and 2012 on our summer theatre program in write, Britain. Below is an.
Sarah’s College Essay: The Language Barrier. Sarah Kaufman is a three time alumna of Putney Student Travel's summer programs abroad for high school students. Personal Into Graduate School. She began in 2009 with a summer of community service in Tanzania. She continued with our summer Community Service program in Vietnam in 2010 and finished. Ben Shapiro has spent two summers on high school programs with Putney Student Travel. He was a member of our Pre-College enrichment Excel at how to artist Amherst College program in 2010, and he traveled to Southeast Asia with Putney in 2011 as a member of our summer community.
Julia’s College Essay: How to anesthesis Travel. Julia Gordon is write artist a high school senior at The Archer School for Girls in test questions, Santa Monica, California, and an alumna of both our summer community service program in Ghana and our summer community service program in Vietnam. Like most high school seniors, Julia recently. Shea’s Colelge Essay: Global Citizens. Shea Clark-Tieche has participated in high school summer community service programs in both Vietnam and how to write artist Ghana. During his senior year at Windward School in Los Angeles, California, he wrote his college essay on his quest to become a 'global citizen.' Shea's essay.
Annie Ristuccia is a four time alumna of Putney high school community service programs abroad. She has participated in Community Service programs in structure of traditional essay, Tanzania, Ecuador, Ghana, and write Vietnam. Annie has worked on a variety of customize, volunteer projects and made connections with. Tori’s College Essay: Finding Strength. Tori Callahan traveled to Rwanda this past summer as a member of our Global Awareness in Action program in Africa for high school students focusing on how to, Community Health Care.
She spent her summer meeting with NGOs in Rwanda, learning about the country's tumultuous. Rachel’s College Essay: Making an Impact. Rachel Heimann, a junior at San Francisco University High School, traveled on structure of traditional, our Global Awareness in Action Cambodia summer program for high school students in 2011. Focused on the telling of a people's story, Rachel explored the history of genocide in Cambodia and. Stephanie’s College Essay: A Trip to the Market. Stephanie Kestelman spent this past summer in West Africa on our summer Community Service Senegal program for high school students. Currently a senior in high school at Colegio Bandeirantes in Sao Paolo, Brazil, she is applying to attend university in the United. 345 Hickory Ridge Rd. Putney, VT 05346.
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